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Alina Mihaela Leustean, Manuela Ciocoiu, Anca Sava, Claudia Florida Costea, Mariana Floria, Claudia Cristina Tarniceriu, Daniela Maria Tanase
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Robert A Koeth, Betzabe Rachel Lam-Galvez, Jennifer Kirsop, Zeneng Wang, Bruce S Levison, Xiaodong Gu, Matthew F Copeland, David Bartlett, David B Cody, Hong J Dai, Miranda K Culley, Xinmin S Li, Xiaoming Fu, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Joseph A DiDonato, W H Wilson Tang, Jose Carlos Garcia-Garcia, Stanley L Hazen
BACKGROUND: l-Carnitine, an abundant nutrient in red meat, accelerates atherosclerosis in mice via gut microbiota-dependent formation of trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) via a multistep pathway involving an atherogenic intermediate, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB). The contribution of γBB in gut microbiota-dependent l-carnitine metabolism in humans is unknown. METHODS: Omnivores and vegans/vegetarians ingested deuterium-labeled l-carnitine (d3-l-carnitine) or γBB (d9-γBB), and both plasma metabolites and fecal polymicrobial transformations were examined at baseline, following oral antibiotics, or following chronic (≥2 months) l-carnitine supplementation...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Alexandra Schumann-Gillett, Megan L O'Mara
The endogenous lipids N-arachidonylglycine and oleoyl-L-carnitine, are potential therapeutic leads in the treatment of chronic pain through their inhibition of the glycine transporter GlyT2. However, their mechanism of action is unknown. It has been hypothesised that these "bioactive" lipids either inhibit GlyT2 indirectly, by significantly perturbing the biophysical properties of the membrane; or directly, by binding directly to the transporter (either from a membrane-exposed or solvent-exposed binding site)...
December 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Francesco Ciribé, Riccardo Panzarella, Maria Carmela Pisu, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Gianandrea Guidetti, Sergio Canello
Male dog infertility may represent a serious concern in the canine breeding market. The aim of this clinical evaluation was to test the efficacy of a commercially available nutraceutical diet, enriched with Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, L-carnitine, zinc, omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids, beta-carotene, vitamin E, and folic acid, in 28 male dogs suffering from infertility associated with hypospermia. All dogs received the diet over a period of 100 days. At the end of the evaluation period, no adverse effects, including head and tail anomalies percentage onset, were reported...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Piotr Tomasz Protas, Alina Kępka, Agnieszka Rybi-Szuminska, Justyna Storonowicz, Mark Klukowski, Anna Wasilewska
AIM: The plasma homeostasis of both free and esterified carnitines is mostly regulated by renal tubular reabsorption, which may be disturbed in low birth weight children. The aim of study was to check whether disturbances in excretion of L-carnitine (LC) and its main ester, acetyl-carnitine (ALC), may be the result of renal dysfunction in low birth weight children (LBW). METHODS: This study included 59 LBW children (2165 g [1490-2440]) and 22 children with normal birth weight as a reference group (3500 g [3275-3650])...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Emily T Karlin, John E Rush, Lisa M Freeman
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiologic mechanisms for the development and progression of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) remain elusive. Increased concentrations of circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors choline and l-carnitine are associated with the presence and severity of heart disease in people. OBJECTIVES: To determine if differences exist in plasma concentrations of TMAO, choline, or l-carnitine among dogs with DMVD and congestive heart failure (CHF), dogs with asymptomatic DMVD, and healthy control dogs...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Namhyeon Park, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Gang-Hee Lee, Shi-Na Jin, So-Hyung Kwak, Tae-Kyung Lee, Yeong-Hwan Choi, Seong-Bo Kim, Atsuo Kimura, Doman Kim
Makgeolli is a traditional Korean alcoholic rice beverage. It is brewed of ingredients containing starch, Nuruk, and water. In order to improve the quality and functionality of Makgeolli, the Rhizopus oligosporus fermented buckwheat containing 18.7 mg/kg of l-carnitine were utilized to brew l-carnitine fortified Makgeolli with rice. Makgeolli was prepared in two-stage fermentation method and total rutin and quercetin in each fermented buckwheat Makgeolli were increased 1.8-fold greater than buckwheat Makgeolli...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Zuzana Cieslarova, Mariana Magaldi, Lucélia Alcantara Barros, Claudimir Lucio do Lago, Daniel Rossado Oliveira, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein Fonseca, Maria Cristina Izar, Aline Soriano Lopes, Marina Franco Maggi Tavares, Aline Klassen
A capillary electrophoresis with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection (CE-UV-MS/MS) method has been developed for the targeted assessment of cardiovascular biomarkers candidates, trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and l-carnitine, and creatinine in human urine samples. The dual detection was applied due to the high concentration of creatinine (monitored by UV detection at 200 nm) in relation to TMAO and l-carnitine (quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry), in human urine...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ufuk Düzenli, Zekiye Altun, Yüksel Olgun, Safiye Aktaş, Ayça Pamukoğlu, Hasan Oğuz Çetinayak, Asuman Feda Bayrak, Levent Olgun
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cytotoxicity and change in DNA damage-related genes in House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells. METHODS: HEI-OC1 cells were irradiated with 5 Gy radiation and treated by eight combinations of NAC and/or ALC: control, NAC, ALC, IR, NAC + IR, ALC + NAC, ALC + IR, and ALC + NAC + IR...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Joanna J Samulak, Angelika K Sawicka, Dace Hartmane, Solveiga Grinberga, Osvalds Pugovics, Wieslawa Lysiak-Szydlowska, Robert A Olek
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine can be metabolized to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a molecule that promotes atherogenesis through its interaction with macrophages and lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether L-carnitine supplementation may promote changes in selected serum biomarkers of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Before the start, in the mid-point and after completing the 24-weeks supplementation protocol, fasting blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein...
November 28, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Li-Fang Feng, Xiao-Hong Chen, Dong-Xiao Li, Xi-Yuan Li, Jin-Qing Song, Ying Jin, Yan-Ling Yang
A boy aged 6 years and 3 months developed upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia 2 months ago and was given oral administration of nimesulide by his parents according to directions. Half an hour later, the boy experienced convulsions and cardiopulmonary arrest, and emergency examination found hypoketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, significant increases in serum aminotransferases and creatine kinase, and renal damage. Recovery of consciousness and vital signs was achieved after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but severe mental and movement regression was observed...
November 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
B Wei, Q Meng, S He, Z Qu, S Nie, B Shi, A Shan
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation because DDGS contain about 10% crude fat, which is largely composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids. l-carnitine serves an important function in fatty acids β-oxidation, and also has antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of l-carnitine in the DDGS diet of gestating and lactating sows on reproductive performance, milk composition and antioxidant status of sows and their offspring. One hundred and twenty sows (Landrace×Large white, mean parity 4...
November 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Wei Wang, Mengru Bai, Ting Jiang, Cui Li, Ping Li, Hui Zhou, Zemin Wang, Liping Li, Huidi Jiang
Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is widely utilized for the treatment of schizophrenia; however, clozapine-induced metabolic disorders, such as fatty liver and weight gain, warrant increased attention. Considering the crucial role of l-carnitine (L-Car) in fatty acid oxidation and carnitine/organic cation transporter (OCTN) 2 in renal reabsorption of L-Car, we aimed to study whether clozapine-induced liver lipid metabolic disorder is associated with L-Car dysregulation via inhibition/down-regulation of renal OCTN2...
November 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Letizia Bresciani, Margherita Dall'Asta, Claudia Favari, Luca Calani, Daniele Del Rio, Furio Brighenti
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been described as a new biomarker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), derived from gut microbial biotransformation of dietary choline and l-carnitine into trimethylamine (TMA) and subsequent hepatic oxidation. (Poly)phenols are among the dietary factors able to interfere with microbial enzymatic activity, possibly modulating TMA biotransformation at the gut level. The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro biotransformation of choline and carnitine using faecal starters obtained from omnivorous and vegetarian subjects and the effect of (poly)phenol-rich foods on TMA production...
November 22, 2018: Food & Function
Guillermo Escalante, Patrick Bryan, Juan Rodriguez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Topical aminophylline, caffeine, yohimbe, l-carnitine, and gotu kola (Centella asiatica) may aid in reducing body fat. Lipoxyderm™ contains these ingredients and was used to test if fat loss of the thigh, in conjunction with a low intensity exercise program and restricted calorie intake, was enhanced via the topical application of this lotion. METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-group study that investigated the effects of Lipoxyderm™ on thigh fat mass, circumference, and skinfold thickness...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Kazuhira Endo, Takayoshi Ueno, Kazuya Ishikawa, Yosuke Nakanishi, Satoru Kondo, Naohiro Wakisaka, Tomokazu Yoshizaki
OBJECTIVES: Cancer-related fatigue impairs daily functioning and negatively impacts health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our previous study revealed that cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) impairs the carnitine system and carnitine deficiency leads to poor physical functioning. This open label, randomized, controlled prospective study investigated the effects of l-carnitine administration on plasma carnitine concentration, CRT-induced fatigue, and decline in HRQoL in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)...
November 12, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Xiaoping Tan, Yang Yang, Shasha Luo, Zhong Zhang, Wenjie Zeng, Tingying Zhang, Fawu Su, Linzong Zhou
Supramolecular host-guest interaction and sensing between cationic pillar[5]arenes (CP5) and L-carnitine were developed by the competitive host-guest recognition for the first time. The fluorescence sensing platform was constructed by CP5 functionalized Au nanoparticles (CP5@Au-NPs) as receptor and probe (rhodamine 123, R123), which shown high sensitivity and selectivity for L-carnitine detection. Due to the negative charge and molecular size properties of L-carnitine, it can be highly captured by the CP5 via electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions...
November 14, 2018: Sensors
Rui Wang, Liuxin Wang, Caishun Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yuan Liu, Limin Song, Ruixia Ma, Jing Dong
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the common complications in diabetes, affecting more than half of patients with diabetes. L‑carnitine (LC) was recently demonstrated to serve a positive role in ameliorating DPN. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of LC in ameliorating DPN. Male Kunming mice were randomly assigned into five groups, including the control group, diabetes mellitus group, pre‑treatment group, treatment group and post‑treatment group...
November 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Alaleh Gheissari, Nahid Aslani, Azadeh Eshraghi, Masoud Moslehi, Alireza Merikhi, Mojtaba Keikhah, Shaghayegh Haghjoo Javanmard, Golnaz Vaseghi
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis are clinical problems that frequently occur in children. Several factors are responsible for renal tissue injury, morbidity, and renal scarring after pyelonephritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of L-carnitine on renal scarring in acute pyelonephritis. METHODS: A randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 65 children aged 6 months to 10 years. Patients were randomized into 2 groups to receive 7-day treatment with only antibiotics without L-carnitine (control group; n = 32) and 7-day treatment with L-carnitine (case group; n = 33) during the acute phase of infection...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
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