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Abbas Yousefinejad, Fereydoon Siassi, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Hamed Mohammadi, Ehsan Ghaedi, Mahnaz Zarei, Ehsan Djalali, Mahmoud Djalali
Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a disorder caused by kidney damage that results in severe leakage of protein from blood into urine. Hyperlipidemia is one complication of nephrotic syndrome. L-carnitine and genistein can control cardiovascular diseases by causing changes in lipid metabolism and cytokine production. This study was designed to examine the effects of genistein and L-carnitine on serum lipid and cytokine profiles in experimental nephrotic syndrome. Methods: In this study, 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each with similar mean body weights (300±50 g)...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Yingfeng Wang, Wenting Sun, Jilin Zheng, Can Xu, Xia Wang, Tianyi Li, Yida Tang, Zhongfeng Li
This urinary metabonomic study aimed to identify the potential metabolic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) was used to analyze the urine samples from ACS patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to characterizing the endogenous metabolites and potential biomarker, respectively. Among twenty biomarkers that functioned in nine metabolic pathways, nine biomarkers were found up-regulated significantly, including of isobutyryl‑l‑carnitine, 3‑methylglutarylcarnitine, cinnavalininate, l‑tryptophan, 3‑methyldioxyindole, palmitic acid, N4‑acetylaminobutanal, 3‑sulfino‑l‑alanine and S‑adenosyl‑l‑homocysteine...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Raheleh Farahzadi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Seyed Alireza Mesbah-Namin, Nosratollah Zarghami
The identification of factors that reduce the senescent tendency of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) upon expansion has great potential for cellular therapies in regenerative medicine. Previous studies have shown the aging protective effect of L-carnitine (LC). On the other hand, reduction in proliferation potential and age-dependent decline in number and functions of MSCs were accompanied by telomere shortening, reduction in telomerase activity and epigenetic changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LC on aging of MSCs through telomerase activity assessment and the investigation of methylation status of the hTERT gene promoter...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Hui-Yan Xu, Shuang-Shuang Geng, Ting-Ting Li, Qiang Fu, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Xing-Wei Liang, Yang-Qing Lu, Ming Zhang, Xiao-Gan Yang, Ke-Huan Lu
The effects of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) supplementation during IVM on subsequently vitrified buffalo oocytes were evaluated, followed by determination of the mitochondrial DNA copy number, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and identification of the lipid profile of oocyte membranes as markers of oocyte quality after vitrification. Supplementation with ALC during IVM significantly improved the rates of oocyte cleavage and morula and blastocyst formation, and increased MMP after vitrification compared with unsupplemented vitrified oocytes (P < 0...
August 21, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Wanise M Souza Cruz, Sheila M S Guimarães, Gabrielle C Maciel, Ana Beatriz A Huguenin, Monicque E M DE Carvalho, Bárbara O Costa, Geisiane A DA Silva, Alexandre S Colafranceschi, Fernanda B Scalco, Marcia Ribeiro
Coronary artery bypass grafting reduces plasma L-carnitine and may impair the production of myocardial energy. L-carnitine supplementation may elevate plasma L-carnitine and increase cardiac mechanical efficiency. The objective of this study was to verify the recovery of preoperative plasma LC in patients with heart failure undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting supplemented with a daily oral dose of 50 mg / kg. Volunteers with ischemic heart failure who underwent surgery were randomized into a supplemented group (A-received 50 mg / kg L-carnitine) or placebo group (B) for 60 days...
July 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Kaihui Zhang, Yan Huang, Zhongtao Gai, Yi Liu
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical and genetic characteristics of a girl featuring motor retardation, language retardation and regression, and light persisting diarrhea. METHODS: The patient was clinically examined and tested by tandem mass spectrometry and next generation sequencing. RESULTS: The proband could not stand and walk alone, and had light persisting diarrhea. She manifested language development retardation and regression. Laboratory tests were all normal, but the screening of metabolic disorders for urine and blood showed deficiency of short chain coenzyme A dehydrogenase due to elevated ethylmalonic acid and butyryl carnitine...
October 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Stefanie Stangenberg, Long The Nguyen, Ibrahim Al-Odat, Yik Lung Chan, Amgad Zaky, Carol Pollock, Hui Chen, Sonia Saad
Epidemiological and animal studies showed that L-carnitine (LC) supplementation can ameliorate oxidative stress-induced tissues damage. We have previously shown that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) can increase renal oxidative stress in newborn offspring with postnatal kidney underdevelopment and renal dysfunction in adulthood, which were normalised by LC administration in the SE dams during pregnancy. Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment may lead to alteration in the epigenome, a mechanism by which adverse prenatal conditions increase the susceptibility to chronic disease later in life...
October 5, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Taymour Mostafa, Laila A Rashed, Dina A Sabry, Ihab Osman, Nashaat Nabil, Firas Kareem, Ingi A Mostafa
This cross-sectional comparative study aimed to compare serum L-carnitine and 25(OH)D levels between men with ED non-responding for oral sildenafil citrate and healthy volunteers. Overall, 192 men, recruited from two University Hospitals, were allocated into two equal groups of matched age; healthy potent men and men with ED non-responders for oral sildenafil citrate. Oral sildenafil citrate non-responders self-reported inadequate erectile responses after four attempts using 100 mg with the manufacturer's guidelines relative to meals, associated medications, and sexual stimulation/arousal...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Ji Soo Han, Kyu Kim, Youngae Jung, Jae-Hwan Lee, June Namgung, Hae-Young Lee, Jon Suh, Geum-Sook Hwang, Sang-Hak Lee
In the current study, the metabolic effects of atorvastatin dose escalation versus atorvastatin/fenofibric acid combination were compared using metabolomics analyses. Men and women with combined hyperlipidaemia were initially prescribed atorvastatin (10 mg, ≥4 weeks). Patients who reached low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol targets, but had triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels ≥150 mg/dL and <50 mg/dL, respectively, were randomized to receive atorvastatin 20 mg or atorvastatin 10 mg/fenofibric acid 135 mg for 12 weeks...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wang Ting, Kazuyuki Suzuki, Keisuke Kakisaka, Mio Onodera, Kei Sawara, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine (L-CA) has been used therapeutically to treat hepatic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia, but the mechanism by which L-CA contributes to ammonia detoxification in the brain is still unclear. Thus, the cytotoxicity and changes in intracellular amino acids (AAs) in astrocytes with hyperammonemia following L-CA administration were studied. METHODS: Human astrocytes were treated with ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl), L-CA or a mixture of NH4 Cl and L-CA under defined conditions...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ji-Hun An, Wonno Youn, Alice Nguvoko Kiyonga, Changjin Lim, Minho Park, Young-Ger Suh, Hyung Chul Ryu, Jae Sun Kim, Chun-Woong Park, Kiwon Jung
Research studies related to the polymorphs of l-Carnitine orotate (CO), a medication used for the treatment and prevention of liver diseases, are insignificant or almost nonexistent. Accordingly, in the present study, l-Carnitine orotate (CO) was prepared for investigating CO polymorphs. Here, a reactive crystallization was induced by reacting 1g of l-Carn (1 equivalent) and 0.97 g of OA (1 equivalent) in methanol (MeOH); as a result, CO form-I and CO form-II polymorphs were obtained after 1 h and 16 h of stirring, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Indar K Sharawat, Lesa Dawman
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal-recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. A 13-month-old boy presented with microcephaly, developmental delay, and progressive spasticity and was being treated as spastic cerebral palsy, later on had loss of developmental milestones after acute episode of illness at 12 months of age. The magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed widened Sylvian fissure, hyperintensities in bilateral globus pallidus, and bilateral frontoparietal atrophy along with white matter loss...
July 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Sheila Moreira da Silva Guimarães, Wanise Maria de Souza Cruz, Guilherme de Souza Weigert, Fernanda Bertão Scalco, Alexandre Siciliano Colafranceschi, Marcia Gonçalves Ribeiro, Gilson Teles Boaventura
The heart has an intense aerobic metabolism and is among the most metabolically active organs in the body. Its tissue stores fatty acid, the main energetic substrate, and requires high concentrations of plasma L-carnitine. This nutrient is essential in the transport of fatty acids to the mitochondria to generate energy and maintain the proper concentration of coenzyme A free. In decompensated chronic heart failure metabolic changes, associated with inflammation, alter the metabolism of L-carnitine and compromise cardiac energy metabolism...
September 26, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Ralf Henkel, Inderpreet Singh Sandhu, Ashok Agarwal
Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are closely associated with various pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases, ageing and male infertility. Hence, antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl cysteine, L-carnitine and folic acid are regularly used in various treatment regimens to protect cells from the damage induced by free radicals. However, given their over-the-counter availability at unnaturally high concentrations and also the fact that they are commonly added to various food products, patients may run a risk of consuming excessive dosages of these compounds, which may then be toxic...
September 26, 2018: Andrologia
Eman Adel Zayed, Afaf A AinShoka, Kamal A El Shazly, Hekma A Abd El Latif
BACKGROUND: Frequent consumption of fructose and saturated fatty acids increase risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Features of MS include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of omega-3 and l-carnitine in ameliorating features of MS. METHODS: MS was induced in rats by high-fructose high-fat fed diet for 8 weeks. They were randomly divided into five groups: normal control, MS control group treated with saline, MS groups given omega-3 (260 mg/kg), l-carnitine (200 mg/kg), or metformin (100 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Flavia Bongiovì, Calogero Fiorica, Fabio S Palumbo, Giulia Di Prima, Gaetano Giammona, Giovanna Pitarresi
In this work, new micellar systems able to cross corneal barrier and to improve the permeation of imatinib free base were prepared and characterized. HA-EDA-C16 , HA-EDA-C16 -PEG, and HA-EDA-C16 -CRN micelles were synthesized starting from hyaluronic acid (HA), ethylenediamine (EDA), hexadecyl chains (C16 ), polyethylene glycol (PEG), or l-carnitine (CRN). These nanocarriers showed optimal particle size and mucoadhesive properties. Imatinib-loaded micelles were able to interact with corneal barrier and to promote imatinib transcorneal permeation and penetration...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Karen Lindhardt Madsen, Nicolai Preisler, Jan Rasmussen, Gitte Hedermann, Jess Have Olesen, Allan Meldgaard Lund, John Vissing
Context: Primary Carnitine Deficiency (PCD) is an inborn error of fatty acid metabolism. PCD patients risk sudden heart failure upon fasting or illness if they are not treated with daily L-carnitine. Objective: To investigate energy metabolism during exercise in patients with PCD with and without L-carnitine treatment. Design: Interventional study. Setting: Hospital exercise laboratories and department of cardiology...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Prem S Shekhawat, Srinivas Sonne, Dietrich Matern, Vadivel Ganapathy
l-Carnitine plays a crucial role in uptake and subsequent β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria. Placental trophoblast cells oxidize long-chain fatty acids for energy production. Here we present data showing that l-carnitine deficiency due to a defect in the carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5) in a mouse model leads to embryonic lethality. Placental levels of l-carnitine are reduced to <10% of normal and deficiency of l-carnitine is associated with markedly reduced expression of several growth factors and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) genes...
September 2018: Placenta
Guoliang Zhao, Haiying Zhang, Yi Wang, Xiaohui Gao, Huaqing Liu, Wei Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of levocarnitine on cardiac function, urinary albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and troponin in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure. METHODS: 246 patients with CHD-caused HF was selected and randomly divided into Group A and Group B. A fully automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the levels of ALB, Hs-CRP, BNP and troponin in two groups of patients, and the expression levels of LVDD and LVEF were detected by cardiac color ultrasonography...
September 6, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Satoshi Endo, Tadashi Takahashi, Masaya Sato, Yoshinori Noya, Masayoshi Obana
Botulinum neurotoxin injection therapy and rehabilitation have been conducted for stroke patients to reduce the spasticity of their affected limbs and improve their walking ability and daily living. Furthermore, their disability was reported to be related to muscle wasting. Supplementation of l-carnitine was reported to improve physical endurance and was used to treat sarcopenia in, for example, patients with cancer. Here, we report a case of chronic stroke with muscle wasting in a patient with improved walking endurance by l-carnitine supplementation, botulinum neurotoxin injection, and rehabilitation...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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