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electrical neuromodulation

Inés Ramírez-García, Laia Blanco-Ratto, Stèphanie Kauffmann, Andrea Carralero-Martínez, Emília Sánchez
AIM: To evaluate the non-inferiority of the transcutaneous electrical stimulation technique, as compared with the percutaneous therapy (PTNS), regarding the efficacy in symptoms and QoL improvement in patients with overactive bladder (iOAB). METHODS: Patients with overactive detrusor (DO) and persisting symptoms after first-line or second-line treatment were randomized to receive either transcutaneous therapy or PTNS 1 day a week (30 min at 20 Hz and 200 cycles/s) for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Arndt van Ophoven
Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a minimally invasive, established treatment modality for overactive bladder (OAB) as well as for other pelvic functional disorders, such as non-obstructive urinary retention and fecal incontinence. A pacemaker implanted in the upper buttocks delivers mild electrical pulses to the sacral nerves thereby modulating pathological afferent signals from pelvic end organs. The current article conveys the current knowledge on the indications, contraindications, mechanism of action, implantation technique, efficacy and complications of SNM for the treatment refractory OAB...
October 11, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Vincent Chi-Kwan Cheung, Chuanxin Minos Niu, Si Li, Qing Xie, Ning Lan
The past decades have witnessed remarkable progresses in neural technologies such as functional electrical stimulation (FES) and their applications in neuro-rehabilitation and neuromodulation. These advances are powered by new neuroscientific understandings of the organization and compositionality of neuromuscular control illuminating how muscle groups may be activated together as discrete units known as muscle synergies. These parallel developments have promoted novel approaches to clinical rehabilitation for neurological disorders that are insurmountable to current treatments...
October 11, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Min D Tang-Schomer, Taylor Jackvony, Sabato Santaniello
Synchronous network activity plays a crucial role in complex brain functions. Stimulating the nervous system with applied electric field (EF) is a common tool for probing network responses. We used a gold wire-embedded silk protein film-based interface culture to investigate the effects of applied EFs on random cortical networks of in vitro cultures. Two-week-old cultures were exposed to EF of 27 mV/mm for <1 h and monitored by time-lapse calcium imaging. Network activity was represented by calcium signal time series mapped to source neurons and analyzed by using a community detection algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nicholas T Trapp, Willa Xiong, Charles R Conway
Depression is one of the most disabling conditions in the world. In many cases patients continue to suffer with depressive disorders despite a series of adequate trials of medication and psychotherapy. Neuromodulation treatments offer a qualitatively different modality of treatment that can frequently prove efficacious in these treatment-refractory patients. The field of neuromodulation focuses on the use of electrical/electromagnetic energy, both invasively and noninvasively, to interface with and ultimately alter activity within the human brain for therapeutic purposes...
October 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yury Gerasimenko, Dimitry Sayenko, Parag Gad, Justin Kozesnik, Tatiana Moshonkina, Aleksandr Grishin, Aleksandr Pukhov, Sergey Moiseev, Ruslan Gorodnichev, Victor Selionov, Inessa Kozlovskaya, V Reggie Edgerton
Neuronal control of stepping movement in healthy human is based on integration between brain, spinal neuronal networks, and sensory signals. It is generally recognized that there are continuously occurring adjustments in the physiological states of supraspinal centers during all routines movements. For example, visual as well as all other sources of information regarding the subject's environment. These multimodal inputs to the brain normally play an important role in providing a feedforward source of control...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kim van Dun, Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto
Non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum is growingly applied both in the clinic and in research settings to modulate the activities of cerebello-cerebral loops. The anatomical location of the cerebellum, the high responsiveness of the cerebellar cortex to magnetic/electrical stimuli, and the implication of the cerebellum in numerous cerebello-cerebral networks make the cerebellum an ideal target for investigations and therapeutic purposes. In this mini-review, we discuss the potentials of cerebellar neuromodulation in major brain disorders in order to encourage large-scale sham-controlled research and explore this therapeutic aid further...
October 1, 2018: Cerebellum
Peter Single, Jonathan Scott
The current pulses delivered through platinum electrodes by medical implants to recruit neurones give rise to slowly-decaying voltage tails, called "artefacts". These tails make measurement of evoked potentials following the pulses very difficult. We present evidence to show that in a typical clinical scenario these tails are mostly caused by concentration gradients of species induced in the electrical double layer adsorbed onto the surface of both stimulating and passive electrodes. A compact model is presented that allows simulation of these artefacts...
September 27, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Alessandra A Gorgulho, Fernando Fernandes, Lucas P Damiani, Daniel A N Barbosa, Abrão Cury, Camila M Lasagno, Priscila R T Bueno, Bruno F O Santos, Renato H N Santos, Otávio Berwanger, Alexandre B Cavalcanti, Manoel J Teixeira, Ricardo A Moreno, Antonio A F De Salles
BACKGROUND: More than 30% of major depressive disorder patients fail to respond to adequate trials of medications and psychotherapy. While modern neuromodulation approaches (ie, vagal nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation) are yet to prove their efficacy for such cases in large randomized controlled trials, trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) has emerged as an alternative with promising effects on mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy, safety, tolerability, and placebo effect duration of continuous subcutaneous TNS (sTNS) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD)...
September 28, 2018: Neurosurgery
James C Young, David N Vaughan, Antonio G Paolini, Graeme D Jackson
In this review, we consider how the piriform cortex is engaged in both focal and generalized epilepsy networks and postulate the various neural pathways that can be effectively neuromodulated by stimulation at this site. This highlights the common involvement of the piriform cortex in epilepsy. We address both current and future preclinical studies of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the piriform cortex, with attention to the critical features of these trials that will enable them to be of greatest utility in informing clinical translation...
September 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Semin Kim, Yohan Jang, Minsu Jang, Ahyoun Lim, John G Hardy, Hyun S Park, Jae Young Lee
Electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) is an intriguing biomaterial capable of efficient electrical interactions with biological systems. Especially, biomimetic PPy-based biomaterials incorporating biomolecules, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), can impart the characteristic biological interactions with living cells/tissues to the conductive biomaterials. Here we report the effects of the molecular weight (MW) of HA on PPy-based biomaterials. We utilized HA of a wide range of MW (35 × 103 Da - 3 × 106 Da) as dopants during the electrochemical production of PPy/HA films and their characterization of materials and cellular interactions...
September 25, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Nicholas D James, Stephen B McMahon, Edelle C Field-Fote, Elizabeth J Bradbury
Neuromodulation, the use of electrical interfaces to alter neuronal activity, has been successful as a treatment approach in several neurological disorders, including deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease and epidural spinal stimulation for chronic pain. Neuromodulation can also be beneficial for spinal cord injury, from assisting basic functions such as respiratory pacing and bladder control, through to restoring volitional movements and skilled hand function. Approaches range from electrical stimulation of peripheral muscles, either directly or via brain-controlled bypass devices, to stimulation of the spinal cord and brain...
October 2018: Lancet Neurology
Megan L Gill, Peter J Grahn, Jonathan S Calvert, Margaux B Linde, Igor A Lavrov, Jeffrey A Strommen, Lisa A Beck, Dimitry G Sayenko, Meegan G Van Straaten, Dina I Drubach, Daniel D Veith, Andrew R Thoreson, Cesar Lopez, Yury P Gerasimenko, V Reggie Edgerton, Kendall H Lee, Kristin D Zhao
Spinal sensorimotor networks that are functionally disconnected from the brain because of spinal cord injury (SCI) can be facilitated via epidural electrical stimulation (EES) to restore robust, coordinated motor activity in humans with paralysis1-3 . Previously, we reported a clinical case of complete sensorimotor paralysis of the lower extremities in which EES restored the ability to stand and the ability to control step-like activity while side-lying or suspended vertically in a body-weight support system (BWS)4 ...
September 24, 2018: Nature Medicine
Hee-Jin Park, Heekyung Kang, Jihoon Jo, Euiheon Chung, Sohee Kim
Implantable magnetic stimulation is an emerging type of neuromodulation using coils that are small enough to be implanted in the brain. A major advantage of this method is that stimulation performance could be sustained even though the coil is encapsulated by gliosis due to foreign body reactions. Magnetic fields can induce indirect electric fields and currents in neurons. Compared to transcranial magnetic stimulation, the coil size used in implantable magnetic stimulation can be greatly reduced. However, the size reduction is accompanied by an increase in coil resistance...
September 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brian M Ilfeld, Engy T Said, John J Finneran, Jacklynn F Sztain, Wendy B Abramson, Rodney A Gabriel, Bahareh Khatibi, Matthew W Swisher, Pia Jaeger, Dana C Covey, Catherine M Robertson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective proof of concept study was to investigate the feasibility of using percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation of the femoral nerve to treat pain in the immediate postoperative period following ambulatory anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar autograft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperatively, an electrical lead (SPRINT, SPR Therapeutics, Inc., Cleveland, OH, USA) was percutaneously implanted with ultrasound guidance anterior to the femoral nerve caudad to the inguinal crease...
August 30, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Dennis Kumral, Alvin M Zfass
The well-regulated mechanisms of intestinal transit favor aboral movement of intestinal contents during the formation of normal stool. Electrical pacemakers initiate mechanical smooth muscular propulsion under regulation by the enteric nervous system-a function of the "brain-gut axis." Several unique intestinal motor patterns function in concert to enhance the activities of intestinal transit. Development of pharmacologic targets of intestinal transit mechanisms afford clinicians control in the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders...
October 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Clinton G Lauritsen, Stephen D Silberstein
Background Migraine is a primary headache disorder involving dysregulation of central and peripheral pain pathways. Medical treatment is often limited by drug side effects, comorbidities and poor compliance. This makes neuromodulation an ideal option for migraine treatment. Cefaly® is a transcutaneous electrical neurostimulator designed specifically for migraine treatment. It results in external trigeminal nerve stimulation of the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves. External trigeminal nerve stimulation is effective for acute and preventive migraine treatment and may result in normalization of dysregulated pain pathways...
August 23, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
D Stephan, S Attwood, J Labenz, F Willeke
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are very common. Despite the fact that 40% of patients continue to suffer under conservative treatment, only approximately 1% of affected patients are operated on in Germany. Until recently, antireflux surgery was performed nearly exclusively in the form of a Nissen fundoplication or a Toupet hemifundoplication. These methods are still considered the gold standard. A new surgical minimally invasive procedure is described which treats reflux symptoms through electrical neuromodulation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)...
October 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Christopher C Duncan, David T Kluger, Tyler S Davis, David J Warren, David M Page, Douglas T Hutchinson, Gregory A Clark
OBJECTIVES: Kilohertz high-frequency alternating current (KHFAC) electrical nerve stimulation produces a reversible nerve block in peripheral nerves in human patients with chronic pain pathologies. Although this stimulation methodology has been verified with nonselective extrafascicular electrodes, the effectiveness of producing a selective nerve block with more-selective intrafascicular electrodes has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to examine whether intrafascicular electrodes can block painful stimuli while preserving conduction of other neural activity within the implanted nerve...
August 17, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Elma O'Sullivan-Greene, Tatiana Kameneva, David Trevaks, Anthony Shafton, Sophie C Payne, Robin McAllen, John B Furness, David B Grayden
OBJECTIVE: Artificial modulation of peripheral nerve signals (neuromodulation) by electrical stimulation is an innovation with potential to develop treatments that replace or supplement drugs. One function of the nervous system that can be exploited by neuromodulation is regulation of disease intensity. Optimal interfacing of devices with the nervous system requires suitable models of peripheral nerve systems so that closed-loop control can be utilized for therapeutic benefit. APPROACH: We use physiological data to model afferent signaling in the vagus nerve that carries information about inflammation in the small intestine to the brain...
October 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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