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electrical neuromodulation

Christopher C Duncan, David T Kluger, Tyler S Davis, David J Warren, David M Page, Douglas T Hutchinson, Gregory A Clark
OBJECTIVES: Kilohertz high-frequency alternating current (KHFAC) electrical nerve stimulation produces a reversible nerve block in peripheral nerves in human patients with chronic pain pathologies. Although this stimulation methodology has been verified with nonselective extrafascicular electrodes, the effectiveness of producing a selective nerve block with more-selective intrafascicular electrodes has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to examine whether intrafascicular electrodes can block painful stimuli while preserving conduction of other neural activity within the implanted nerve...
August 17, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Elma O'Sullivan-Greene, Tatiana Kameneva, David Trevaks, Anthony Shafton, Sophie C Payne, Robin McAllen, John B Furness, David B Grayden
 Artificial modulation of peripheral nerve signals (neuromodulation) by electrical stimulation is an innovation with potential to develop treatments that replace or supplement drugs. One function of the nervous system that can be exploited by neuromodulation is regulation of disease intensity. Optimal interfacing of devices with the nervous system requires suitable models of peripheral nerve systems so that closed-loop control can be utilized for therapeutic benefit. 
 We use physiological data to model afferent signaling in the vagus nerve that carries information about inflammation in the small intestine to the brain...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Aurélien Venara, Marie Bougard, Stéphanie Mucci, Annabelle Lemoult, Paul Le Naoures, Astrid Darsonval, Julien Barbieux, Michel Neunlist, Antoine P Hamy
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus involves an inflammatory pathway characterized by an increase of inflammation mediators in the colon wall; this could probably be prevented by sacral nerve neuromodulation. The posterior tibial nerve can be stimulated electrically to mimic neuromodulation. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation in reducing the delay in GI motility recovery, to assess the safety of posterior tibial nerve stimulation in a perioperative setting, and to assess the efficacy of posterior tibial nerve stimulation in reducing the occurrence of postoperative ileus...
September 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Avi Rascoe, Pawan Sharma, Prithvi K Shah
Purpose: Extensive pre-clinical and clinical experimentation has yielded data on the robustness and versatility of epidural stimulation (ES) strategies to activate spinal neural circuitry to produce functional benefits. Increasing studies are now reporting that closed-loop electrical stimulation delivery methods significantly enhance the neuromodulation effects of stimulation, to in turn, improve physiological outcomes of the intervention. No studies have yet explored the feasibility and usage of closed-loop systems to neuromodulate the cervical spinal cord using ES...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fabrizio R Assis, Diana H Yu, Xun Zhou, Sunjeet Sidhu, Anisha Bapna, Zoar J Engelman, Satish Misra, David R Okada, Jonathan Chrispin, Ronald Berger, Kaushik Mandal, Hans Lee, Harikrishna Tandri
BACKGROUND: Bilateral thoracoscopic stellectomy has antiarrhythmic effects, however, the procedure is invasive with associated morbidity. Sympathetic nerves from both stellate ganglia form the deep cardiac plexus (CP) in the aortopulmonary window (APW), anterior to the trachea. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a novel and minimally invasive transtracheal approach to block the cardiac plexus in porcine models. METHODS: In 12 Yorkshire pigs, right (RSG) and left (LSG) stellate ganglia were electrically stimulated and sympathetic baseline response recorded (hemodynamic parameters and T wave pattern)...
July 31, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Mariana Pereira, Sofia Rita Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Mamede de Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a promising technique to modulate spinal circuits. Combining clinical with modelling studies can improve effectiveness of tsDCS protocols. The aim of this study is to measure the effects of lumbar tsDCS on motor spinal responses and observe if these are consistent with the electric field (E-field) predicted from a computational model. METHODS: The exploratory study design was double-blind crossover and randomized...
September 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kate W Grimsrud, Rashmi B Halker Singh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and describe recent and emerging treatment options for episodic migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances have been made in better understanding the pathophysiology of migraine, which has led to further investigation of potential new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment options. A number of new medications are emerging for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine, including CGRP monoclonal antibodies, CGRP receptor antagonists, serotonin 5-HT1F agonists, and PACAP receptor monoclonal antibodies...
July 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Parineeta Thapa, Pramote Euasobhon
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is an unwanted adverse event in any operation. It leads to functional limitations and psychological trauma for patients, and leaves the operative team with feelings of failure and humiliation. Therefore, it is crucial that preventive strategies for CPSP are considered in high-risk operations. Various techniques have been implemented to reduce the risk with variable success. Identifying the risk factors for each patient and applying a timely preventive strategy may help patients avoid the distress of chronic pain...
July 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
Parag N Gad, Evgeniy Kreydin, Hui Zhong, Kyle Latack, V Reggie Edgerton
It is commonly assumed that restoration of locomotion is the ultimate goal after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is universal among SCI patients and significantly impacts their health and quality of life. Micturition is a neurologically complex behavior that depends on intact sensory and motor innervation. SCI disrupts both motor and sensory function and leads to marked abnormalities in urine storage and emptying. Current therapies for LUT dysfunction after SCI focus on preventing complications and managing symptoms rather than restoring function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Guofeng Li, Weibao Qiu, Jiehan Hong, Qiuju Jiang, Min Su, Peitian Mu, Ge Yang, Yongchuan Li, Congzhi Wang, Huailing Zhang, Hairong Zheng
Neuromodulation is an important method for investigating neural circuits and treating neurological and psychiatric disorders. Multiple-target neuromodulation is considered an advanced technology for the flexible optimization of modulation effects. However, traditional methods such as electrical and magnetic stimulation are not convenient for multiple-target applications due to their disadvantages of invasiveness or poor spatial resolution. Ultrasonic neuromodulation is a new noninvasive method that has gained wide attention in the field of neuroscience, and it is potentially able to support multiple-target stimulation by allocating multiple focal points in the brain using an array transducer...
June 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Ilya Tarotin, Kirill Aristovich, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Currently there is no imaging method which is able to distinguish the functional activity inside nerves. Such a method would be essential for understanding peripheral nerve physiology and would allow precise neuromodulation of organs these nerves supply. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a method which produces images of electrical impedance change (dZ) of an object by injecting alternating current and recording surface voltages. It has been shown to be able to image fast activity in the brain and large peripheral nerves...
June 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Shinji Tanaka, Mark D Okusa
BACKGROUND: No approved pharmacological agents are available for the treatment and prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI). The nervous system has been reported to play an important role, directly or indirectly via the immune system, in the pathophysiology of AKI. Neuromodulation, such as vagus nerve stimulation and pulsed ultrasound, is emerging as an innovative therapeutic treatment for various diseases including AKI. However, lack of effective methods to selectively stimulate or inhibit neurons has hampered the complete understanding of the roles of the nervous system in AKI because electrical stimulation is nonspecific for cell types...
July 10, 2018: Nephron
Szilvia Kugler, Gábor Duray, István Préda
Atrial fibrillation affects approximately three percent of the adults. Ablation strategies targeting the isolation of the pulmonary veins are the up-to-date cornerstones for atrial fibrillation ablations. However, a one-year success rate of repeated interventions is not more than 70%. Long-term efficacy of catheter ablation is presumably limited by electrical and structural remodeling of the atria, which results in a progressive increase in the duration of atrial fibrillation to become sustained. The potential pathophysiological importance of the epicardial adipose tissue, atrial fibrosis, autonomic nervous system and arrhythmogenic foci are documented by several studies...
July 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Eleanor McAlees, Paul F Vollebregt, Natasha Stevens, Tom C Dudding, Anton V Emmanuel, Paul L Furlong, Shaheen Hamdy, Richard L Hooper, James F X Jones, Christine Norton, P Ronan O'Connell, S Mark Scott, Charles H Knowles
BACKGROUND: Faecal incontinence (FI) is a substantial health problem with a prevalence of approximately 8% in community-dwelling populations. Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is considered the first-line surgical treatment option in adults with FI in whom conservative therapies have failed. The clinical efficacy of SNM has never been rigorously determined in a trial setting and the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. METHODS/DESIGN: The design encompasses a multicentre, randomised, double-blind crossover trial and cohort follow-up study...
June 26, 2018: Trials
Dhakshin S Ramanathan, Ling Guo, Tanuj Gulati, Gray Davidson, April K Hishinuma, Seok-Joon Won, Robert T Knight, Edward F Chang, Raymond A Swanson, Karunesh Ganguly
Recent work has highlighted the importance of transient low-frequency oscillatory (LFO; <4 Hz) activity in the healthy primary motor cortex during skilled upper-limb tasks. These brief bouts of oscillatory activity may establish the timing or sequencing of motor actions. Here, we show that LFOs track motor recovery post-stroke and can be a physiological target for neuromodulation. In rodents, we found that reach-related LFOs, as measured in both the local field potential and the related spiking activity, were diminished after stroke and that spontaneous recovery was closely correlated with their restoration in the perilesional cortex...
June 18, 2018: Nature Medicine
Brian M Ilfeld, Rodney A Gabriel, Engy T Said, Amanda M Monahan, Jacklynn F Sztain, Wendy B Abramson, Bahareh Khatibi, John J Finneran, Pia T Jaeger, Alexandra K Schwartz, Sonya S Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducing needle followed by the delivery of electric current. This modality has been reported to treat chronic pain as well as postoperative pain the day following knee surgery. However, it remains unknown if this analgesic technique may be used in ambulatory subjects following foot procedures beginning within the recovery room immediately following surgery, and with only short series of patients reported to date, the only available data are derived from strictly observational studies...
August 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Bradley B Barth, Xiling Shen
The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
John O'Brien, Stewart A Bloomfield
Electrical synaptic transmission via gap junctions underlies direct and rapid neuronal communication in the central nervous system. The diversity of functional roles played by electrical synapses is perhaps best exemplified in the vertebrate retina in which gap junctions are expressed by each of the five major neuronal types. These junctions are highly plastic; they are dynamically regulated by ambient illumination and circadian rhythms acting through light-activated neuromodulators. The networks formed by electrically coupled neurons provide plastic, reconfigurable circuits positioned to play key and diverse roles in the transmission and processing of visual information at every retinal level...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Vision Science
Andy Tay, Ali Sohrabi, Kate Poole, Stephanie Seidlits, Dino Di Carlo
Neuromodulation tools are useful to decipher and modulate neural circuitries implicated in functions and diseases. Existing electrical and chemical tools cannot offer specific neural modulation while optogenetics has limitations for deep tissue interfaces, which might be overcome by miniaturized optoelectronic devices in the future. Here, a 3D magnetic hyaluronic hydrogel is described that offers noninvasive neuromodulation via magnetomechanical stimulation of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The hydrogel shares similar biochemical and biophysical properties as the extracellular matrix of spinal cord, facilitating healthy growth of functional neurites and expression of excitatory and inhibitory ion channels...
June 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
Reza Ramezani, Yan Liu, Fahimeh Dehkhoda, Ahmed Soltan, Dorian Haci, Hubin Zhao, Dimitrios Firfilionis, Anupam Hazra, Mark O Cunningham, Andrew Jackson, Timothy G Constandinou, Patrick Degenaar
Neuromodulation technologies are progressing from pacemaking and sensory operations to full closed-loop control. In particular, optogenetics-the genetic modification of light sensitivity into neural tissue allows for simultaneous optical stimulation and electronic recording. This paper presents a neural interface application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) for intelligent optoelectronic probes. The architecture is designed to enable simultaneous optical neural stimulation and electronic recording. It provides four low noise (2...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
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