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Soap and infection

Reinier Mutters, Sarah L Warnes
BACKGROUND: Widespread antibiotic resistance has led to fears that we are entering a pre-antibiotic era and the relatively simple premise of hand washing to reduce transfer of bacteria and viruses has never been more important. Much of the emphasis has been on handwashing technique, type of soap and maintaining compliance but effective drying of the hands is just as important. AIM: To compare the efficacy of drying washed hands with a jet air dryer or paper towels to remove transient bacterial contamination and to determine the effect on residential flora...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Steven Pong, Pamela Holliday, Geoff Fernie
BACKGROUND: Improving hand hygiene compliance among health care professionals is the most effective way to reduce health care-acquired infections. Electronic systems developed to increase hand hygiene performance show promise but might not maintain staff participation over time. In this study, we investigated an intermittent deployment strategy to overcome potentially declining participation levels. METHODS: An electronic monitoring system was deployed 3 times at 6-month intervals on a musculoskeletal rehabilitation nursing unit in Toronto...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana Abdrabalnabi, Alla Taher, Shantymole Mathew, Kamal Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused multiple outbreaks. Such outbreaks increase economic and infection control burdens. We studied the infection control influence of MERS-CoV using a hospital-based analysis. METHODS: Our hospital had 17 positive and 82 negative cases of MERS-CoV between April 1, 2013, and June 3, 2013. The study evaluated the impact of these cases on the use of gloves, surgical masks, N95 respirators, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and soap, as well as hand hygiene compliance rates...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Akila Subramaniam, Ken B Waites, Victoria C Jauk, Joseph R Biggio, Amelia L M Sutton, Jeff M Szychowski, William W Andrews, Alan T N Tita
OBJECTIVE:  To explore whether the effect of azithromycin (AZI) on postcesarean infections varied by the presence/absence of genital mycoplasmataceae placental colonization. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This was a single-center substudy of multicenter double-blind C/SOAP (Cesarean Section Optimal Antibiotic Prophylaxis) trial of women randomized to AZI or placebo (+cefazolin) antibiotic prophylaxis at cesarean. Chorioamnion/placenta specimens were tested for genital mycoplasmataceae colonization by polymerase chain reaction...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Nicole Weber, Andrea L Martinsen, Amidou Sani, Elom Kokou Eric Assigbley, Chedly Azzouz, Arabella Hayter, Komlan Ayite, Amivi Afefa Bibiane Baba, Kokou Mawulé Davi, Rick Gelting
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in healthcare facilities are essential to ensure quality health care and to facilitate infection, prevention, and control practices. They are critical to responding to outbreaks and preventing healthcare-associated infections and, therefore, critical to global health security. Many healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income settings have limited WASH services. One tool to address this issue is the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool, or "WASH FIT...
2018: Health Security
Yetunde Ataiyero, Judith Dyson, Moira Graham
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is the primary measure in the prevention of health care-associated infections; however, from published studies, compliance of health care workers (HCWs) to HH guidelines is low. There is currently no review on HH compliance rates in developing countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), or the barriers to compliance. We therefore, through a narrative review, sought to identify the compliance with and the barriers to HH in SSA. METHODS: From 3 databases, we performed a search of peer-reviewed studies from SSA, conducted among HCWs, published in the English language between 2005 and 2017...
November 20, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
J Ditai, M Mudoola, M Gladstone, J Abeso, J Dusabe-Richards, M Adengo, P Olupot-Olupot, E D Carrol, J Storr, A Medina-Lara, B Faragher, A D Weeks
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis causes 0.5 million deaths annually, mostly in low resource settings. Babies born in African rural homes without running water or toilet facilities are especially vulnerable. Alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) may be used by mothers and carers as an alternative to hand washing with soap to prevent neonatal infection. However, no definite study has established the preferred formulation of hand rub for the mothers. This study aimed to assess the effects of addition of bitterants and perfume towards the acceptability of the alcohol-based hand rubs by the mothers in their homes after childbirth...
November 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nicholas Kadar
Ignaz Semmelweis was a Hungarian obstetrician who discovered the cause of puerperal or childbed fever (CBF) in 1847 when he was a 29 year old Chief Resident ('first assistant') in the first clinic of the lying-in division of the Vienna General Hospital. Childbed fever was then the leading cause of maternal mortality, and so ravaged lying-in hospitals that they often had to be closed. The maternal mortality rate (MMR) from CBF at the first clinic where Semmelweis worked, and where only medical students were taught, was three times greater than at the second clinic, where only midwives were taught, and Semmelweis was determined to find out why...
November 13, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
P Ramirez Galleymore, V Viera
Surgical wound infection is one of the main complications of patients undergoing surgery and has significant clinical and economical consequences, especially when it affects prosthetic implants or is caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Cutaneous preparation is one of the main preventive measures. Clinical practice guidelines recommend not to remove the hair from the surgery site unless it interferes with the operation, and that if removal proves necessary, it should be done with a single-use cutter, as close as possible to the time of surgery...
November 5, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Claudia N Orozco-González, Laura Cortés-Sanabria, Alfonso M Cueto-Manzano, Beatriz Corona-Figueroa, Héctor R Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge López-Leal, Fabiola Martín-Del-Campo, Enrique Rojas-Campos, Benjamín Gómez-Navarro
OBJECTIVE: Pica could be strongly implicated in nutritional status of patients on dialysis; however, very scarce data are currently available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pica and its association with nutritional status in dialysis patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Four-hundred patients on dialysis, without previous pica diagnosis or transplant, pregnancy, mental illness, or infection, were included in the study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Ernestina Azor-Martinez, Romy Yui-Hifume, Francisco J Muñoz-Vico, Esperanza Jimenez-Noguera, Jenna Marie Strizzi, Irene Martinez-Martinez, Llenalia Garcia-Fernandez, María L Seijas-Vazquez, Pilar Torres-Alegre, Maria A Fernández-Campos, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory infections (RIs) are an important cause of morbidity and excessive antibiotic prescriptions in children attending day care centers (DCCs). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational and hand hygiene program in DCCs and homes in reducing RI incidence and antibiotic prescriptions in children. METHODS: A cluster, randomized, controlled, and open study of 911 children aged 0 to 3 years attending 24 DCCs in Almería (Spain) with an 8-month follow-up...
November 2018: Pediatrics
Abrar A Alzaher, Sami S Almudarra, Muna H Mustafa, Ibrahim M Gosadi
To quantify the reduction in absence due to upper respiratory infections (URIs) among primary schoolgirls attending Riyadh's schools after delivering a hand hygiene workshop intervention over a period of 5 weeks. Methods: A cluster randomized trial was conducted among girls attending 4 primary schools between January and March 2018. The participants attended a hand hygiene workshop. The schoolgirls' absences were followed up for 5 weeks. Incidence rate, percentage of absence days, and absence rate were calculated for total and URIs absences...
October 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Akina Shrestha, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Séverine Erismann, Subodh Sharma, Rajendra Koju, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Infections with soil-transmitted helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa pose a considerable public health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Nepal. We assessed the extent of intestinal parasite infections among schoolchildren in two districts of Nepal and determined underlying risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and May 2015 in the districts of Dolakha and Ramechhap, Nepal...
September 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Carlo Pallotto, Maurizio Fiorio, Verena De Angelis, Andrea Ripoli, Elisabetta Franciosini, Lucilla Quondam Girolamo, Francesca Volpi, Paolo Iorio, Daniela Francisci, Carlo Tascini, Franco Baldelli
OBJECTIVES: to investigate whether daily bathing with a soap-like solution of 4% chlorhexidine (CHG) followed by water rinsing (CHGwr) would decrease the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAI) in intensive care settings. METHODS: randomized, controlled trial; infectious diseases specialists were blinded to the intervention status. All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to the Post-operative Cardiosurgical Intensive Care Unit (PC-ICU) of the University Hospital of Perugia were enrolled and randomized to intervention arm (daily bathing with 4% CHGwr) or to control arm (daily bathing with standard soap)...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Takayoshi Kawahara, Isamu Akiba, Megumi Sakou, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Hatsumi Taniguchi
An influenza epidemic is still a problem despite the development of vaccines and anti-influenza drugs. Preventive measures such as handwashing are fundamental and important for counteracting influenza virus infection. In this study, we clarified the anti-influenza virus effects of surfactants, which are the main components of hand soaps for hand washing: potassium oleate (C18:1), sodium laureth sulfate (LES) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). For a human influenza virus strain (H3N2), C18:1 reduced the infectivity by 4 logs or more, whereas LES and SDS reduced the infectivity by 1 log or less...
2018: PloS One
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, M Rashid, A Rahman, Tajuddin, Azamal Husen, Sumbul Rehman
Background: Biogenic fabrication of silver nanoparticles from naturally occurring biomaterials provides an alternative, eco-friendly and cost-effective means of obtaining nanoparticles. It is a favourite pursuit of all scientists and has gained popularity because it prevents the environment from pollution. Our main objective to take up this project is to fabricate silver nanoparticles from lichen, Usnea longissima and explore their properties. In the present study, we report a benign method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous-ethanolic extract of Usnea longissima and their characterization by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Nezar Mehanna, Nader Mohamed, Moges Wordofa, Dessie Abera, Abiyot Mesfin, Mistire Wolde, Kassu Desta, Aster Tsegaye, Bineyam Taye
BACKGROUND: There has been a noticeable increase in the prevalence of allergy-related disorders (ARDs) in the modern era. Urbanization is believed to be a major environmental risk factor for the onset of ARDs but data from low- to middle-income countries is limited. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of ARDs and atopy among a population of rural Ethiopian school children and identify environmental and lifestyle factors associated with such disorders...
2018: PloS One
Thibaud Vermeil, Alexandra Peters, Claire Kilpatick, Daniela Pires, Benedetta Allegranzi, Didier Pittet
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) affect hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. Performing hand hygiene is widely accepted as a key strategy of infection prevention and control (IPC) to prevent HAI, as healthcare workers' contaminated hands are the vehicle most often implicated in the cross-transmission of pathogens in healthcare. In the last 20 years, a paradigm shift has occurred in hand hygiene: the change from handwashing with soap and water to using alcohol-based hand rubs. In order to put this revolution into context and understand how such a change was able to be implemented across so many different cultures and geographic regions, it is useful to understand how the idea of hygiene in general and hand hygiene specifically developed...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Susan E Kline, Erinn C Sanstead, James R Johnson, Shalini L Kulasingam
OBJECTIVE: We developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the impact of a preoperative Staphylococcus aureus decolonization bundle on surgical site infections (SSIs), health-care-associated costs (HCACs), and deaths due to SSI. METHODS: Our model population comprised US adults undergoing elective surgery. We evaluated 3 self-administered preoperative strategies: (1) the standard of care (SOC) consisting of 2 disinfectant soap showers; (2) the "test-and-treat" strategy consisting of the decolonization bundle including chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soap, CHG mouth rinse, and mupirocin nasal ointment for 5 days) if S...
November 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ibidolapo Taiwo Ijarotimi, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Adeola Aderinwale, Oluwadamilola Abiodun-Adewusi, Ime-Maria Okon
Introduction: Hospital-acquired infections of Lassa fever (LF) have been described in many West African countries. We assessed the availability of Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures and their use in the health centres (HCs) at the affected Local Government Areas (LGAs) during an ongoing LF outbreak in Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: We included all primary and secondary HCs and their healthcare workers (HCWs) in the affected Ose and Owo LGAs. We collected data from respondents using self-administered questionnaires and used a checklist to assess the IPC measures at the HCs...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
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