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Soap and infection

Claudia N Orozco-González, Laura Cortés-Sanabria, Alfonso M Cueto-Manzano, Beatriz Corona-Figueroa, Héctor R Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge López-Leal, Fabiola Martín-Del-Campo, Enrique Rojas-Campos, Benjamín Gómez-Navarro
OBJECTIVE: Pica could be strongly implicated in nutritional status of patients on dialysis; however, very scarce data are currently available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pica and its association with nutritional status in dialysis patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Four-hundred patients on dialysis, without previous pica diagnosis or transplant, pregnancy, mental illness, or infection, were included in the study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Ernestina Azor-Martinez, Romy Yui-Hifume, Francisco J Muñoz-Vico, Esperanza Jimenez-Noguera, Jenna Marie Strizzi, Irene Martinez-Martinez, Llenalia Garcia-Fernandez, María L Seijas-Vazquez, Pilar Torres-Alegre, Maria A Fernández-Campos, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory infections (RIs) are an important cause of morbidity and excessive antibiotic prescriptions in children attending day care centers (DCCs). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational and hand hygiene program in DCCs and homes in reducing RI incidence and antibiotic prescriptions in children. METHODS: A cluster, randomized, controlled, and open study of 911 children aged 0 to 3 years attending 24 DCCs in Almería (Spain) with an 8-month follow-up...
October 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Abrar A Alzaher, Sami S Almudarra, Muna H Mustafa, Ibrahim M Gosadi
To quantify the reduction in absence due to upper respiratory infections (URIs) among primary schoolgirls attending Riyadh's schools after delivering a hand hygiene workshop intervention over a period of 5 weeks. Methods: A cluster randomized trial was conducted among girls attending 4 primary schools between January and March 2018. The participants attended a hand hygiene workshop. The schoolgirls' absences were followed up for 5 weeks. Incidence rate, percentage of absence days, and absence rate were calculated for total and URIs absences...
October 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Akina Shrestha, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Séverine Erismann, Subodh Sharma, Rajendra Koju, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Infections with soil-transmitted helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa pose a considerable public health burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, including Nepal. We assessed the extent of intestinal parasite infections among schoolchildren in two districts of Nepal and determined underlying risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and May 2015 in the districts of Dolakha and Ramechhap, Nepal...
September 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Carlo Pallotto, Maurizio Fiorio, Verena De Angelis, Andrea Ripoli, Elisabetta Franciosini, Lucilla Quondam Girolamo, Francesca Volpi, Paolo Iorio, Daniela Francisci, Carlo Tascini, Franco Baldelli
OBJECTIVES: to investigate whether daily bathing with a soap-like solution of 4% chlorhexidine (CHG) followed by water rinsing (CHGwr) would decrease the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAI) in intensive care settings. METHODS: randomized, controlled trial; infectious diseases specialists were blinded to the intervention status. All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to the Post-operative Cardiosurgical Intensive Care Unit (PC-ICU) of the University Hospital of Perugia were enrolled and randomized to intervention arm (daily bathing with 4% CHGwr) or to control arm (daily bathing with standard soap)...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Takayoshi Kawahara, Isamu Akiba, Megumi Sakou, Takemasa Sakaguchi, Hatsumi Taniguchi
An influenza epidemic is still a problem despite the development of vaccines and anti-influenza drugs. Preventive measures such as handwashing are fundamental and important for counteracting influenza virus infection. In this study, we clarified the anti-influenza virus effects of surfactants, which are the main components of hand soaps for hand washing: potassium oleate (C18:1), sodium laureth sulfate (LES) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). For a human influenza virus strain (H3N2), C18:1 reduced the infectivity by 4 logs or more, whereas LES and SDS reduced the infectivity by 1 log or less...
2018: PloS One
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, M Rashid, A Rahman, Tajuddin, Azamal Husen, Sumbul Rehman
Background: Biogenic fabrication of silver nanoparticles from naturally occurring biomaterials provides an alternative, eco-friendly and cost-effective means of obtaining nanoparticles. It is a favourite pursuit of all scientists and has gained popularity because it prevents the environment from pollution. Our main objective to take up this project is to fabricate silver nanoparticles from lichen, Usnea longissima and explore their properties. In the present study, we report a benign method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous-ethanolic extract of Usnea longissima and their characterization by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Nezar Mehanna, Nader Mohamed, Moges Wordofa, Dessie Abera, Abiyot Mesfin, Mistire Wolde, Kassu Desta, Aster Tsegaye, Bineyam Taye
BACKGROUND: There has been a noticeable increase in the prevalence of allergy-related disorders (ARDs) in the modern era. Urbanization is believed to be a major environmental risk factor for the onset of ARDs but data from low- to middle-income countries is limited. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of ARDs and atopy among a population of rural Ethiopian school children and identify environmental and lifestyle factors associated with such disorders...
2018: PloS One
Thibaud Vermeil, Alexandra Peters, Claire Kilpatick, Daniela Pires, Benedetta Allegranzi, Didier Pittet
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) affect hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. Performing hand hygiene is widely accepted as a key strategy of infection prevention and control (IPC) to prevent HAI, as healthcare workers' contaminated hands are the vehicle most often implicated in the cross-transmission of pathogens in healthcare. In the last 20 years, a paradigm shift has occurred in hand hygiene: the change from handwashing with soap and water to using alcohol-based hand rubs. In order to put this revolution into context and understand how such a change was able to be implemented across so many different cultures and geographic regions, it is useful to understand how the idea of hygiene in general and hand hygiene specifically developed...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Susan E Kline, Erinn C Sanstead, James R Johnson, Shalini L Kulasingam
OBJECTIVE: We developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the impact of a preoperative Staphylococcus aureus decolonization bundle on surgical site infections (SSIs), health-care-associated costs (HCACs), and deaths due to SSI. METHODS: Our model population comprised US adults undergoing elective surgery. We evaluated 3 self-administered preoperative strategies: (1) the standard of care (SOC) consisting of 2 disinfectant soap showers; (2) the "test-and-treat" strategy consisting of the decolonization bundle including chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soap, CHG mouth rinse, and mupirocin nasal ointment for 5 days) if S...
November 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ibidolapo Taiwo Ijarotimi, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Adeola Aderinwale, Oluwadamilola Abiodun-Adewusi, Ime-Maria Okon
Introduction: Hospital-acquired infections of Lassa fever (LF) have been described in many West African countries. We assessed the availability of Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures and their use in the health centres (HCs) at the affected Local Government Areas (LGAs) during an ongoing LF outbreak in Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: We included all primary and secondary HCs and their healthcare workers (HCWs) in the affected Ose and Owo LGAs. We collected data from respondents using self-administered questionnaires and used a checklist to assess the IPC measures at the HCs...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Teresa Caya, Mary Jo Knobloch, Jackson Musuuza, Emily Wilhelmson, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Many studies investigating daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing as an infection control intervention to decrease health care-associated infections have focused on reduction of infection and colonization; few studies have assessed CHG bathing compliance, work system factors, facilitators, and barriers to implementation. METHODS: This is a combination retrospective/prospective pilot study conducted at a large academic teaching hospital that implemented daily CHG bathing across all inpatient units...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Dadi Marami, Konjit Hailu, Moti Tolera
Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are major public health problems worldwide, with high prevalence in low income countries where substandard food hygiene practices are common. Asymptomatic food handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of parasitic infections. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among asymptomatic food handlers working at Haramaya University cafeterias, eastern Ethiopia...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Ryan L Mork, Patrick G Hogan, Carol E Muenks, Mary G Boyle, Ryley M Thompson, John J Morelli, Melanie L Sullivan, Sarah J Gehlert, David G Ross, Alicia Yn, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Andrey Rzhetsky, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Stephanie A Fritz
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). To develop interventions to prevent recurrent infections, household attributes and individual practices influencing S. aureus colonization must be discerned. METHODS: Households of healthy children with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) SSTI (n = 150; 671 participants) were interviewed regarding health history, activities, and hygiene practices. S. aureus colonization was assessed in household members, and recovered isolates were typed by repetitive sequence-based PCR...
July 19, 2018: Pediatric Research
James J Yu, Melissa B Manus, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
The skin harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, and alterations to these communities can impact the effectiveness of the skin as a barrier to infectious organisms or injury. As the global availability and adoption of antibacterial products increases, it is important to understand how these products affect skin microbial communities of people living in rural areas of developing countries, where risks of infection and injury often differ from urban populations in developed countries. We investigated the effect of antibacterial soap on skin microbial communities in a rural Malagasy population that practices subsistence agriculture in the absence of electricity and running water...
2018: PloS One
Saheed Gidado, Emmanuel Awosanya, Suleiman Haladu, Halimatu Bolatito Ayanleke, Suleman Idris, Ismaila Mamuda, Abdulaziz Mohammed, Charles Akataobi Michael, Ndadilnasiya Endie Waziri, Patrick Nguku
Introduction: Cholera outbreaks in rural communities are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Effective interventions to control these outbreaks require identification of source and risk factors for infection. In September, 2010 we investigated a cholera outbreak in Bashuri, a cholera naïve rural community in northern Nigeria to identify the risk factors and institute control measures. Methods: We conducted an unmatched case-control study. We defined a case as any resident of Bashuri community two years and above with acute watery diarrhea with or without vomiting and a control as any resident two years and above without acute watery diarrhea and vomiting...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Tingting Liu, Liying Zhu, Zhidong Zhang, Ling Jiang, He Huang
OBJECTIVES: Bacillus spp., which have relevance to pseudo-epidemics in clinics, may cause serious infections as well as high morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients with haematological malignancies. Here we report the isolation of Bacillus sp. M13(2017) with a multidrug-resistant phenotype and spore-producing structures, a new strain isolated from radiation-polluted soil in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. METHODS: The draft genome of Bacillus sp...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Geysa Maria Nogueira Farias, José Reginaldo Pinto, Juliana Carneiro Melo, Lara Gurgel Fernandes Távora, Danielle Malta Lima, Fernanda Judith Viana Correia, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Júnior
Kyrle's disease (KD) is a rare skin pathology characterized by transepidermal elimination of abnormal keratin. The aim of this article is to report a rare case of KD associated with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and HIV. A 51-year-old male patient complained of diarrhea for 8 months. He was submitted to HIV testing, which showed a positive result. He started antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir. The diagnostic investigation was negative for opportunistic diseases. After 2 months, skin lesions started appearing, characterized by hyperchromic, pruritic macules and papules distributed in the trunk, back, and upper limbs...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Nushka Ubhayawardana, Ishani Gammana Liyanage, H M J C B Herath, Uthpala Amarasekera, Tilanka Dissanayake, Sujan de Silva, Nayana Fernando, Sriyani Ekanayake
A descriptive cross-sectional school based study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths and the associated factors among school children in Kaduwela Medical Officer of Health (MOH) area in the Colombo district, which was affected by floods in 2016. The study was conducted in 9 selected schools in Kaduwela MOH area from September 2016 to March 2017. Permission was obtained from the relevant authorities. Grade 1 students were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed written consent from their parents/guardian...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Larissa Vernier, Annick Lenglet, Boris M Hogema, Ali M Moussa, Cono Ariti, Simone Vollmer, Andrea Irwin, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang, Charity Kamau
BACKGROUND: From September 2016-April 2017, Am Timan, Chad, experienced a large HEV outbreak in an urban setting with a limited impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. To better understand HEV epidemiology in this context, we estimated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) and assessed the risk factors for recent HEV infections (positive anti-HEV IgM) during this outbreak. METHODS: A serological survey using simple random sampling was implemented in Am Timan at the tail-end of the outbreak (sample size aim = 384 household)...
June 26, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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