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pain neurophysiology

Kharma C Foucher, Samuel J Chmell, Carol A Courtney
Impaired descending pain inhibition has been linked to chronic pain and poorer patient outcomes. Vibration perception threshold (VPT) has also been observed and linked to radiographic stage of OA. However, it is not known how duration of symptoms may influence these neurophysiological measures. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between duration of symptoms and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), a measure of descending pain inhibition, and VPT, and to determine whether these relationships differed in men and women seeking orthopedic care...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Jon J Ford, Sarah L Slater, Matthew C Richards, Luke D Surkitt, Alexander Y P Chan, Nicholas F Taylor, Andrew J Hahne
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether individualised manual therapy plus guideline-based advice results in superior outcomes to advice alone in participants with clinical features potentially indicative of lumbar zygapophyseal joint pain. DESIGN: Multi centre parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 14 physiotherapy clinics in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four participants with clinical features potentially indicative of lumbar zygapophyseal joint pain...
August 3, 2018: Physiotherapy
Daivik B Vyas, Allen L Ho, David Y Dadey, Arjun V Pendharkar, Eric S Sussman, Robert Cowan, Casey H Halpern
OBJECTIVES: Cluster headaches are a set of episodic and chronic pain syndromes that are sources of significant morbidity for patients. The standard of care for cluster headaches remains medication therapy, however a minority of patients will remain refractory to treatment despite changes to dosage and therapeutic combinations. In these patients, functional neuromodulation using Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) presents the opportunity to alleviate the significant pain that is experienced by targeting the neurophysiological substrates that mediate pain...
October 10, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Loredana Cavalli, Lucia Briscese, Tiziana Cavalli, Paolo Andre, Maria Chiara Carboncini
Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat several disorders in Asian countries and its use is increasing in Western countries as well. Current literature assessed the safety and efficacy of acupuncture in the acute management and rehabilitation of patients with neurologic disorders. In this paper, the role of acupuncture in the treatment of acute severe acquired brain injuries is described, acting on neuroinflammation, intracranial oedema, oxidative stress, and neuronal regeneration. Moreover, beneficial effects of acupuncture on subacute phase and chronic outcomes have been reported in controlling the imbalance of IGF-1 hormone and in decreasing spasticity, pain, and the incidence of neurovegetative crisis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Faris Alodaibi, Ahmed Alhowimel, Hana Alsobayel
BACKGROUND: Pain is a leading cause of disability and accounts for many hospital and physical therapy visits. Current pain science understanding has evolved and changed substantially in the past 20 years; however, university health science curricula may not have progressed at the same rate. This study aimed to examine knowledge about pain neurophysiology among physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia, and to compare their knowledge across different education levels and by gender. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted to examine the pain neurophysiology knowledge among college physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia...
October 3, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Luana Colloca, Nicole Corsi, Mirta Fiorio
Over the last few decades, placebo, and nocebo effects in general, have been investigated at rest. This proposed study explores whether they could work even when the experience of pain occurs during a movement. Exercise itself can have a hypoalgesic effect, suggesting that placebo- and exercise-induced hypoalgesia could foster pain reduction. In the present study, we investigated the interplay of exercise, placebo and nocebo effects on pain. To this aim, we developed a machine-controlled isotonic motor task to standardize the exercise across participants and used a well-validated model of placebo and nocebo manipulations with reinforced expectations via a conditioning procedure including visual cues paired with heat painful stimulations...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel D Hodgson, Camila D Lima, Jonathan L Low, David G Behm
Background: Roller massagers are popular devices that are used to improve range of motion (ROM), enhance recovery from muscle soreness, and reduce pain under acute conditions. However, the effects of roller massage training and training frequency are unknown. Purpose: The objective was to compare two different roller massage training frequencies on muscle performance. Study Design: Randomized controlled intervention study. Methods: Twenty-three recreationally active university students were randomly allocated to three groups: control (n=8;), rolling three (3/W; n=8;) and six (6/W; n=7) times per week for four weeks...
August 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Richard King, Victoria Robinson, Helene L Elliott-Button, James A Watson, Cormac G Ryan, Denis J Martin
Pain neurophysiology education (PNE) is an educational intervention for patients with chronic pain. PNE purports to assist patients to reconceptualise their pain away from the biomedical model towards a more biopsychosocial understanding by explaining pain biology. This study aimed to explore the extent, and nature, of patients' reconceptualisation of their chronic low back pain (CLBP) following PNE. Eleven adults with CLBP underwent semistructured interviews before and three weeks after receiving PNE. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed in a framework approach using four a priori themes identified from our previous research: (1) degrees of reconceptualisation, (2) personal relevance, (3) importance of prior beliefs, and (4) perceived benefit of PNE...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Clécio Vier, Marcelo Anderson Bracht, Marcos Lisboa Neves, Maíra Junkes-Cunha, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Background: Low back pain (LBP) has more than doubled in the last 20 years, probably influenced by biopsychosocial factors. Noninvasive treatments have been applied in individuals with chronic nonspecific LBP as spinal manipulation and pain education. However, the neurophysiological effects of these treatments are not clear. The aim of this research is to verify the pain control, functional and neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation, and pain education in individuals with chronic nonspecific LBP...
September 2018: Integrative medicine research
Brett Vaughan, Jane Mulcahy, Kylie Fitzgerald, Philip Austin
OBJECTIVE: Educating patients about the neurobiological basis of their pain experience is now an important part of managing patients with pain disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) in a population seeking osteopathy treatment for both acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain complaints. METHODS: Patients attending the Victoria University Osteopathy Clinic for their initial osteopathy consultation were recruited consecutively...
September 26, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Elisabeth S May, Moritz M Nickel, Son Ta Dinh, Laura Tiemann, Henrik Heitmann, Isabel Voth, Thomas R Tölle, Joachim Gross, Markus Ploner
Chronic pain is a major health care issue characterized by ongoing pain and a variety of sensory, cognitive, and affective abnormalities. The neural basis of chronic pain is still not completely understood. Previous work has implicated prefrontal brain areas in chronic pain. Furthermore, prefrontal neuronal oscillations at gamma frequencies (60-90 Hz) have been shown to reflect the perceived intensity of longer lasting experimental pain in healthy human participants. In contrast, noxious stimulus intensity has been related to alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (14-29 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor areas...
September 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
M Yu Maksimova, E T Suanova, P A Fedin, N A Shuvakhina
AIM: To study neurophysiological characteristics of persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) in comparison to trigeminal neuralgia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five patients with PIFP at the age from 25 to 74 years (42 women and 3 men), 25 patients with trigeminal neuralgia at the age from 25 to 84 (15 women and 10 men) and 20 healthy volunteers were examined. Multimodal evoked potentials (EP): brainstem auditory (BAEPs), trigeminal (TEPs) and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) evoked potentials were recorded...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Elena R Serrano-Ibáñez, Carmen Ramírez-Maestre, Alicia E López-Martínez, Rosa Esteve, Gema T Ruiz-Párraga, Mark P Jensen
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory postulates two distinct neurophysiological systems that underlie thoughts, emotions, and behavior: the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS). Preliminary research suggests that both systems may play relevant roles in the adjustment of individuals with chronic pain. However, there is a lack of research on the extent to which emotional regulation (i.e., cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) mediates the associations between BIS and BAS activation and emotional responses in individuals with chronic pain...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sophie Ng Wing Tin, Hela G Zouari, Abir Wahab, Damien Sène, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Objective: To determine whether clinical features of neuropathic pain differ with respect to the presence of small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Methods: We compared the clinical presentation of neuropathic pain between 15 patients with pSS and SFN detected by neurophysiological tests (laser-evoked potentials, cold and warm detection thresholds, sympathetic skin responses, and electrochemical skin conductance) and 15 patients with pSS but no neurophysiological evidence of SFN...
September 20, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, Steven E Harte, Srinivas Chiravuri, Richard E Harris, Chad M Brummett, Parag G Patil, Daniel J Clauw, Scott F Lempka
OBJECTIVE: The physiological mechanisms behind the therapeutic effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) are only partially understood. Our aim was to perform a literature review of studies that used objective measures to characterize mechanisms of action of SCS in neuropathic pain patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the PubMed data base to identify clinical studies that used objective measures to assess the effects of SCS in neuropathic pain. We extracted the study factors (e...
September 24, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Barry L Whitsel, Charles J Vierck, Robert S Waters, Mark Tommerdahl, Oleg V Favorov
Traditionally, cytoarchitectonic area 3a of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) has been regarded as a proprioreceptive relay to motor cortex. However, neuronal spike train recordings and optical intrinsic signal imaging, obtained from nonhuman sensorimotor cortex, show that neuronal activity in some of cortical columns in area 3a can be readily triggered by C-nociceptor afferent drive. These findings indicate that area 3a is a critical link in cerebral cortical encoding of 2nd /slow pain. Also, area 3a contributes to abnormal pain processing in the presence of activity-dependent reversal of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Mohamed A Sabbahi, Fikriye Ovak-Bittar
Objectives: The evaluation of patients with lower back pain (LBP) is based mainly on clinical examinations and imaging procedures that are subjective or anatomic in nature. The treatments, either physical therapy or osteopathy, lack evidence-based protocol and may be disruptive to the spine. Therefore, a neurophysiologic-based approach to managing such patients is necessary. Methods: A 40-year-old female complained of LBP and radiculopathy for more than 12 years, a condition that was accompanied by numbness, tingling and weakness in the left leg...
2018: Clinical Neurophysiology Practice
Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Sara E Berger, Taha B Abdullah, Lejian Huang, Guillermo A Cecchi, James W Griffith, Thomas J Schnitzer, A Vania Apkarian
The placebo response is universally observed in clinical trials of pain treatments, yet the individual characteristics rendering a patient a 'placebo responder' remain unclear. Here, in chronic back pain patients, we demonstrate using MRI and fMRI that the response to placebo 'analgesic' pills depends on brain structure and function. Subcortical limbic volume asymmetry, sensorimotor cortical thickness, and functional coupling of prefrontal regions, anterior cingulate, and periaqueductal gray were predictive of response...
September 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Jay L Shils, Jeffrey E Arle
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a common therapeutic technique for treating medically refractory neuropathic back and other limb pain syndromes. SCS has historically been performed using a sedative anesthetic technique where the patient is awakened at various times during a surgical procedure to evaluate the location of the stimulator lead. This technique has potential complications, and thus other methods that allow the use of a general anesthetic have been developed. There are two primary methods for placing leads under general anesthesia, based on 1) compound muscle action potentials and 2) collisions between somatosensory evoked potentials...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Gadi Bartur, Hillel Pratt, Silvi Frenkel-Toledo, Nachum Soroker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mirror Visual Feedback (MVF; the illusory perception of movement in one hand upon viewing the moving opposite hand in a midsagittal mirror) is thought to facilitate restoration of mal-adaptive neurophysiological processes underlying conditions like complex regional pain syndrome and phantom limb pain, and to have a positive effect on brain plasticity processes underlying motor recovery after stroke. However, its exact mode of action remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to explore the immediate neurophysiological effects of MVF in patients with stroke-related hemiparesis...
September 4, 2018: Brain Research
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