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Sara Louise Dahl, Joshua S Woodworth, Christian Johann Lerche, Elisabeth Præstekjær Cramer, Pia Rude Nielsen, Claus Moser, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Niels Borregaard, Jack Bernard Cowland
Lipocalin-2 is a constituent of the neutrophil secondary granules and is expressed de novo by macrophages and epithelium in response to inflammation. Lipocalin-2 acts in a bacteriostatic fashion by binding iron-loaded siderophores required for bacterial growth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) produces siderophores that can be bound by lipocalin-2. The impact of lipocalin-2 in the innate immune response toward extracellular bacteria has been established whereas the effect on intracellular bacteria, such as M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Phutsa Sanguansermsri, Howard F Jenkinson, Jitkamol Thanasak, Kongthawat Chairatvit, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Suthathip Kittisenachai, Duangchewan Puengsurin, Rudee Surarit
Saliva contains many proteins that have an important role in biological process of the oral cavity and is closely associated with many diseases. Although the dog is a common companion animal, the composition of salivary proteome and its relationship with that of human are unclear. In this study, shotgun proteomics was used to compare the salivary proteomes of 7 Thai village dogs and 7 human subjects. Salivary proteomes revealed 2,532 differentially expressed proteins in dogs and humans, representing various functions including cellular component organization or biogenesis, cellular process, localization, biological regulation, response to stimulus, developmental process, multicellular organismal process, metabolic process, immune system process, apoptosis and biological adhesion...
2018: PloS One
Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Stephanie M Topp
Introduction: Despite access to free antiretroviral therapy (ART), many HIV-positive Zambians disengage from HIV care. We sought to understand how Zambian health system 'hardware' (tangible components) and 'software' (work practices and behaviour) influenced decisions to disengage from care among 'lost-to-follow-up' patients traced by a larger study on their current health status. Methods: We purposively selected 12 facilities, from 4 provinces. Indepth interviews were conducted with 69 patients across four categories: engaged in HIV care, disengaged from care, transferred to another facility and next of kin if deceased...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Katie Maras, Imogen Marshall, Chloe Sands
One-hundred-and-sixty jury-eligible participants read a vignette describing a male who was brought to the attention of police for suspicious and aggressive behaviours and displayed atypical behaviours in court. Half of participants were informed that he had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and were given background information about ASD; the other half received no diagnostic label or information. The provision of a label and information led to higher ratings of the defendant's honesty and likeability, reduced blameworthiness, and resulted in fewer guilty verdicts, and more lenient sentencing...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Annamaria Bagnasco, Giuseppe Aleo, Fiona Timmins, Gianluca Catania, Milko Zanini, Loredana Sasso
In the last three decades, the notion of incivility has been receiving increasing attention in the published literature (Viotti et al 2018). Arising from "subtle forms of mistreatment", incivility can manifest itself in rudeness and maltreatment of co-workers (Viotti et al 2018:597). Civility on the other hand "is characterized by an authentic respect for others when expressing disagreement, disparity, or controversy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Denis Frederic, Rat Corinne, Reynaud Matthieu, Siu-Paredes Francesca, Tubert-Jeannin Stephanie, Rude Nathalie
Background: The aim of this study was to present the different stages of development of the Schizophrenia Oral Health Profile (SOHP) questionnaire, aimed at assessing oral disorders and their impacts on functioning and psychosocial wellbeing for patients with schizophrenia (PWS) and to give the results of a feasibility study conducted in France. Materials and methods: The first step of this qualitative study was semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 PWS and 6 health professionals (HP)...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
Mouna Sdiri, Xiangmin Li, William W Du, Safia El-Bok, Yi-Zhen Xie, Mossadok Ben-Attia, Burton B Yang
The extensive applications of Cynomorium species and their rich bioactive secondary metabolites have inspired many pharmacological investigations. Previous research has been conducted to examine the biological activities and numerous interesting pharmaceutical activities have been reported. However, the antitumor activities of these species are unclear. To understand the potential anticancer activity, we screened Cynomorium coccineum and Cynomorium songaricum using three different extracts of each species. In this study, the selected extracts were evaluated for their ability to decrease survival rates of five different cancer cell lines...
September 26, 2018: Cancers
Chancy S Chimatiro, Precious Hajison, Effie Chipeta, Adamson S Muula
BACKGROUND: Exploring barriers contributing to low utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) during the first trimester of pregnancy is of national programmatic importance. We conducted an exploratory study in 2013 at Bilira Health Centre in Ntcheu district-Malawi with an aim of understanding barriers that prevent pregnant women from attending antenatal clinics in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHOD: This was cross sectional exploratory study using qualitative approach...
September 21, 2018: Reproductive Health
Nishi Suryavanshi, Vidya Mave, Abhay Kadam, Savita Kanade, Srilatha Sivalenka, V Sampath Kumar, Pauline Harvey, Radhayshyam Gupta, Asha Hegde, Nikhil Gupte, Amita Gupta, Robert C Bollinger, Anita Shankar
BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) program in India is one of the largest in the world. It uses outreach workers (ORWs) to facilitate patient uptake of services, however, the challenges faced by the ORWs, and their views about the effectiveness of this program are unknown. METHODS: The COMmunity-Home Based INDia (COMBIND) Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV study evaluated an integrated mobile health and behavioral intervention to enhance the capacity of ORWs in India...
2018: PloS One
Jermaine Ravalier, Rheanna Morton, Lauren Russell, Antonio Rei Fidalgo
The UK domiciliary care workers play a vital role in maintaining and improving the lives of service users who have a variety of needs. Around 60% of these employees work under zero-hours contracts but, while it is known that conditions such as temporary and shift working can influence employee health and performance, zero-hours have not been widely investigated. This project sought to first investigate the stress associated with working as a domiciliary care worker, as well as comparing the experiences of employees contracted to zero-hours with those contracted to at least 16 hr per week...
September 2, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Roger Y Bello, Sophie E Canton, Denis Jelovina, John D Bozek, Bruce Rude, Olga Smirnova, Mikhail Y Ivanov, Alicia Palacios, Fernando Martín
Autoionizing resonances are paradigmatic examples of two-path wave interferences between direct photoionization, which takes a few attoseconds, and ionization via quasi-bound states, which takes much longer. Time-resolving the evolution of these interferences has been a long-standing goal, achieved recently in the helium atom owing to progress in attosecond technologies. However, already for the hydrogen molecule, similar time imaging has remained beyond reach due to the complex interplay between fast nuclear and electronic motions...
August 2018: Science Advances
Caleb O Lemley, Caitlin G Hart, Racheal L Lemire, E Heath King, Richard M Hopper, Seong B Park, Brian J Rude, Derris D Burnett
The objective was to examine uterine artery blood flow (UBF) as well as macroscopic and microscopic placentome vascular density in nutrient-restricted Angus and Brahman heifers. Angus (n = 6) and Brahman (n = 6) heifers were bred to a single sire and pregnancy confirmed at 30-d postbreeding. Heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments consisting of 100% (control-fed; CON; n = 6) or 60% (total nutrient-restricted; RES; n = 6) based from net energy requirements for gestating heifers. Nutritional treatments were imposed from days 50 to 180 of gestation...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Arianna Zanolini, Kombatende Sikombe, Izukanji Sikazwe, Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Paul Somwe, Carolyn Bolton Moore, Stephanie M Topp, Nancy Czaicki, Laura K Beres, Chanda P Mwamba, Nancy Padian, Charles B Holmes, Elvin H Geng
BACKGROUND: In public health HIV treatment programs in Africa, long-term retention remains a challenge. A number of improvement strategies exist (e.g., bring services closer to home, reduce visit frequency, expand hours of clinic operation, improve provider attitude), but implementers lack data about which to prioritize when resource constraints preclude implementing all. We used a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify preferences for a number of potential clinic improvements to enhance retention...
August 2018: PLoS Medicine
Ruding Zhang, Jingze Bao, YuHuang Wang, Chuan-Fu Sun
Storing as many as three K-ions per atom, bismuth is a promising anode material for rechargeable potassium-ion batteries that may replace lithium-ion batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage. However, Bi suffers from poor electrochemical cyclability in conventional electrolytes. Here, we demonstrate that a 5 molar (M) ether-based electrolyte, versus the typical 1 M electrolyte, can effectively passivate the bismuth surface due to elevated reduction resistance. This protection allows a bismuth-carbon anode to simultaneously achieve high specific capacity, electrochemical cyclability and Coulombic efficiency, as well as small potential hysteresis and improved rate capability...
August 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Giovanni Pezzulo, Francesco Donnarumma, Haris Dindo, Alessandro D'Ausilio, Ivana Konvalinka, Cristiano Castelfranchi
Human communication is a traditional topic of research in many disciplines such as psychology, linguistics and philosophy, all of which mainly focused on language, gestures and deictics. However, these do not constitute the sole channels of communication, especially during online social interaction, where instead an additional critical role may be played by sensorimotor communication (SMC). SMC refers here to (often subtle) communicative signals embedded within pragmatic actions - for example, a soccer player carving his body movements in ways that inform a partner about his intention, or to feint an adversary; or the many ways we offer a glass of wine, rudely or politely...
June 30, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Kristian Rude, Peter Svensson, Thomas Starch-Jensen
PURPOSE: The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in neurosensory disturbances (NSDs) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) with piezoelectric surgery compared with conventional techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed (Medline), Embase Library, and Cochrane Library search in combination with a manual search of relevant journals was conducted from January 2000 to November 2017. Randomized controlled trials and controlled trials in humans were considered...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Eric S Ruff, Takashi Hirase, Malcolm J Rude
Background: Capsular contracture (CC) is the most frequently reported complication following breast augmentation. A growing body of evidence implicates subclinical (biofilm) infection around breast implants as an important cause of CC, however effective prophylactic and treatment modalities remain controversial. Objectives: This article aims to review a single surgeon's experience using an antibiotic-impregnated mesh as a prophylactic measure against biofilm formation and recurrent CC...
July 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Bernard Atinyagrika Adugbire, Lydia Aziato
Background: The purpose of the study was to explore surgical patients' experiences of discharge planning and home care in the Northern part of Ghana. Methods: The study was conducted at a referral hospital located at the Northern part of Ghana. A qualitative explorative descriptive design was adopted for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants. Data was saturated with 15 participants aged between 23 and 65 years. All the interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim...
2018: BMC Nursing
Fu-Gang Zhao, Cheng-Min Hu, Yu-Ting Kong, Bingyige Pan, Xiang Yao, Jian Chu, Zi-Wen Xu, Biao Zuo, Wei-Shi Li
In this contribution, we describe a novel, facile, and scalable methodology for high degree functionalization toward graphene by the reaction between bulk graphite fluoride and in situ generated amine anion. Using this, the rationally designed sulfanilic acid pending on a graphene scaffold (G-SO3 H), a two-dimensional (2D) π-conjugated counterpart of poly(styrenesulfonate), is available. Combined reliable characterizations demonstrate that a very large quantity of sulfanilic blocks are linked to graphene through the foreseen substitution of carbon-fluorine units and an unexpected reductive defluorination simultaneously proceeds during the one-step reaction, endowing the resultant G-SO3 H with splendid dispersity in various solvents and film-forming property via the former, and with recovered 2D π-conjugation via the latter...
July 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Francesca Siu-Paredes, Nathalie Rude, Corinne Rat, Matthieu Reynaud, Mohamad Hamad, Sahar Moussa-Badran, Frederic Denis
Background: The aim of this work was to present the creation of appropriate tools to evaluate the coping strategies in Oral-Health-related Quality of Life (OHrQOL) implemented by persons with schizophrenia (PWS), the Schizophrenia Coping Oral Health Profile (SCOOHP), and the results of a feasibility study. Methods: A qualitative investigation was conducted between June 2016 and May 2017.The first step included 26 semi-structured individual interviews, 20 with PWS and 6 with health professionals (HPs), and 2 focus groups (PWS and HPs) to explore the experiences of the participants and how they felt about coping strategies in OHrQOL...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
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