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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471572/-cardiovascular-medication-in-elderly-patients
#1
Robert H G Schwinger
Elderly people show increased probability to develop atherosclerotic diseases; in consequence heart failure - most often following coronary heart disease - as well as atrial fibrillation is more common. Following guidelines may lead to polypharmacy, i. e. use of more than 5 drugs daily. Thus, drug interactions as well as side effects become more likely; especially in elderly patients reduced kidney function has to be taken into account. Only drugs which have shown to prolong life or to reduce symptoms in controlled clinical trials should be used...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468912/hormone-treatments-in-congestive-heart-failure
#2
Lei Lei, Yuanjie Mao
The common ultimate pathological feature for all cardiovascular diseases, congestive heart failure (CHF), is now considered as one of the main public health burdens that is associated with grave implications. Neurohormonal systems play a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis, pathophysiology, and cardiovascular diseases. Hormone treatments such as the newly invented dual-acting drug valsartan/sacubitril are promising candidates for CHF, in addition to the conventional medications encompassing beta receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467353/can-tolvaptan-protect-renal-function-in-the-early-postoperative-period-of-cardiac-surgery-results-of-a-single-center-randomized-controlled-study
#3
Yuichiro Kishimoto, Yoshinobu Nakamura, Shingo Harada, Takeshi Onohara, Satoru Kishimoto, Tomohiro Kurashiki, Yoshikazu Fujiwara, Motonobu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Oral administration of tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, significantly reduces deterioration of renal function, which has recently been highlighted as an exacerbating factor for adverse events in patients with acute heart failure. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that concomitant administration of tolvaptan with a conventional diuretic is beneficial for perioperative body fluid management in patients who have undergone cardiac surgery.Methods and Results:In all, 280 patients who underwent cardiac surgery were prospectively randomized to concomitant treatment with tolvaptan and a conventional diuretic (tolvaptan group; 147 patients) or treatment with a conventional diuretic alone (control group; 133 patients)...
February 21, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467030/drug-discontinuation-before-contrast-procedures-and-the-effect-on-acute-kidney-injury-and-other-clinical-outcomes-a-systematic-review-protocol
#4
Swapnil Hiremath, Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda, Benjamin J W Chow, Dean Fergusson, Greg A Knoll, Wael Shabana, Brianna Lahey, Olivia McBride, Alexandra Davis, Ayub Akbari
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is defined as worsening of renal function after the administration of iodinated contrast material. In patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and/or diabetes, renin-angiotensin system blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and metformin can increase the risk of CI-AKI when undergoing contrast imaging. Despite CI-AKI being the leading iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury, there is a lack of sufficient scientific evidence supporting which drugs should be stopped, when they should be stopped, and when they should be resumed...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466220/-head-to-head-comparison-of-suppression-of-tumorogenicity-2-and-copeptin-significance-for-prognosis-of-patients-after-acute-heart-failure-decompensation
#5
O Y Narusov, D E Koshkina, V N Protasov, A A Skvortsov, V P Masenko, S N Tereshchenko, Y F Osmolovskaya, T V Kuznetsova
PURPOSE: To assess the suppression of tumorogenicity 2 (ST2) and copeptin significance for risk stratification of patient (pts) with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) during long-term follow-up compared with traditional risk factors. METHODS: We included in a prospective study 159 pts with ADHF. Blood samples to determine copeptin, sST2, NT-proBNP and hsTnT concentration were collected at admission and at discharge from the hospital. Serial determination of biomarker concentration was performed at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up...
September 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466174/-pharmacological-properties-of-loop-diuretics-and-their-clinical-effects
#6
G Sakalauskienė, G Civinskienė, A Antuševas, P Civinskas
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465713/hydrochlorothiazide-and-alternative-diuretics-versus-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-for-the-regression-of-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-a-head-to-head-meta-analysis
#7
George C Roush, Ramy Abdelfattah, Steven Song, John B Kostis, Michael E Ernst, Domenic A Sica
BACKGROUND: Found in 36-41% of hypertension, elevated left ventricular mass (LVM) independently predicts cardiovascular events and total mortality. Conversely, drug-induced regression of LVM predicts improved outcomes. Previous studies have favored renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) over other antihypertensives for reducing LVM but ignored differences among thiazide-type diuretics. From evidence regarding potency, cardiovascular events, and electrolytes, we hypothesized a priori that 'CHIP' diuretics [CHlorthalidone, Indapamide and Potassium-sparing Diuretic/hydrochlorothiazide (PSD/HCTZ)] would rival RASIs for reducing LVM...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463627/spironolactone-versus-clonidine-as-a-fourth-drug-therapy-for-resistant-hypertension-the-rehot-randomized-study-resistant-hypertension-optimal-treatment
#8
Eduardo M Krieger, Luciano F Drager, Dante M A Giorgi, Alexandre C Pereira, José Augusto Soares Barreto-Filho, Armando R Nogueira, José Geraldo Mill, Paulo A Lotufo, Celso Amodeo, Marcelo C Batista, Luiz C Bodanese, Antônio C C Carvalho, Iran Castro, Hilton Chaves, Eduardo A S Costa, Gilson S Feitosa, Roberto J S Franco, Flávio D Fuchs, Armênio C Guimarães, Paulo C Jardim, Carlos A Machado, Maria E Magalhães, Décio Mion, Raimundo M Nascimento, Fernando Nobre, Antônio C Nóbrega, Antônio L P Ribeiro, Carlos R Rodrigues-Sobrinho, Antônio F Sanjuliani, Maria do Carmo B Teixeira, Jose E Krieger
The aim of this study is to compare spironolactone versus clonidine as the fourth drug in patients with resistant hypertension in a multicenter, randomized trial. Medical therapy adherence was checked by pill counting. Patients with resistant hypertension (no office and ambulatory blood pressure [BP] monitoring control, despite treatment with 3 drugs, including a diuretic, for 12 weeks) were randomized to an additional 12-week treatment with spironolactone (12.5-50 mg QD) or clonidine (0.1-0.3 mg BID). The primary end point was BP control during office (<140/90 mm Hg) and 24-h ambulatory (<130/80 mm Hg) BP monitoring...
February 20, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462772/design-and-synthesis-of-novel-1-3-diaryltriazene-substituted-sulfonamides-as-potent-and-selective-carbonic-anhydrase-ii-inhibitors
#9
Nabih Lolak, Suleyman Akocak, Silvia Bua, Murat Koca, Claudiu T Supuran
A series of novel 1,3-diaryltriazene-substituted sulfonamides was synthesized by reaction of diazonium salt of 4-amino benzenesulfonamide with substituted aromatic amines. The obtained 1,3-diaryltriazene-substituted sulfonamides were investigated as inhibitors of four selected human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms (hCA I, hCA II, hCA VII and hCA IX) are involved in various diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, retinitis pigmentosa, cancer, obesity, etc. All these sulfonamides were found to be potent inhibitors of the cytosolic isoform hCA II with low nanomolar to sub-nanomolar Ki s in the range of 0...
February 15, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462700/eugenia-brasiliensis-leaves-extract-attenuates-visceral-and-somatic-inflammatory-pain-in-mice
#10
Róli R Simões, Scheila I Kraus, Igor S Coelho, Daniela Dal-Secco, Diogo A Siebert, Gustavo A Micke, Michele D Alberton, Adair R S Santos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) is a Brazilian tree distributed throughout Atlantic rain forest, since Bahia until Santa Catarina state, and is popularly known as "grumixaba, grumixameira, cumbixaba, ibaporoiti, and cereja-brasileira". The bark and leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis are used in folk medicine as adstringent, diuretic, energizing, anti-rheumatic and anti-inflammatory. This study aimed at investigating the chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia brasiliensis (HEEb)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461155/cut-stroke-in-half-polypill-for-primary-prevention-in-stroke
#11
Michael Brainin, Valery Feigin, Sheila Martins, Karl Matz, Jayanta Roy, Peter Sandercock, Yvonne Teuschl, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Anita Wiseman
This review summarizes the potential for polypill therapies for stroke prevention. While a number of studies applying different approaches regarding polypill have been performed, none of them has had a focus on stroke as the main outcome. A combination pill containing drugs such as statins, diuretics, and other antihypertensives is currently available in various formats. Estimates focusing mostly on primary prevention show that using such a combination drug a reduction in the 5-year stroke incidence by 50% can be achieved - especially in low- and middle-income countries with a high prevalence of risk factors even among people at young ages...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459079/anti-hypertensive-treatment-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#12
REVIEW
Costas Tsioufis, Ioannis Andrikou, Gerasimos Siasos, Konstantinos Filis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Hypertension has been related to increased risk of PAD. The treatment of elevated blood pressure (BP) in these patients is indicated to lower the cardiovascular risk with a BP goal of less than 130/80mmHg. Although there is no evidence that one class of antihypertensive medication or strategy is superior for BP lowering in PAD, the use of renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) inhibitors can be effective to reduce the cardiovascular risk...
February 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458991/prevalence-of-the-risk-factors-for-qt-prolongation-and-associated-drug-drug-interactions-in-a-cohort-of-medical-inpatients
#13
Qasim Khan, Mohammad Ismail, Iqbal Haider, Zahid Ali
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Medical inpatients are at increased risk of QT interval prolongation due to multiple risk actors and QT prolonging drugs. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of risk factors for QT prolongation; QT prolonging medications; associated drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs); their predictors; and TdP (torsades de pointes) risks of drugs. METHODS: This cohort study was carried out in medical wards of two tertiary hospitals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458778/anti-hypertensive-drugs-and-skin-cancer-risk-a-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Sara Gandini, Domenico Palli, Giuseppe Spadola, Benedetta Bendinelli, Emilia Cocorocchio, Ignazio Stanganelli, Lucia Miligi, Giovanna Masala, Saverio Caini
INTRODUCTION: Several anti-hypertensive drugs have photosensitizing properties, however it remains unclear whether long-term users of these drugs are also at increased risk of skin malignancies. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis on the association between use of anti-hypertensive drugs and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, and included observational and experimental epidemiological studies published until February 28th, 2017...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456800/discovery-and-in-vitro-optimization-of-3-sulfamoylbenzamides-as-romk-inhibitors
#15
Matthew F Sammons, Sujay V Kharade, Kevin J Filipski, Markus Boehm, Aaron C Smith, Andre Shavnya, Dilinie P Fernando, Matthew S Dowling, Philip A Carpino, Neil A Castle, Shannon G Zellmer, Brett M Antonio, James R Gosset, Anthony Carlo, Jerod S Denton
Inhibitors of the renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) show promise as novel mechanism diuretics, with potentially lower risk of diuretic-induced hypokalemia relative to current thiazide and loop diuretics. Here, we report the identification of a novel series of 3-sulfamoylbenzamide ROMK inhibitors. Starting from HTS hit 4 , this series was optimized to provide ROMK inhibitors with good in vitro potencies and well-balanced ADME profiles. In contrast to previously reported small-molecule ROMK inhibitors, members of this series were demonstrated to be highly selective for inhibition of human over rat ROMK and to be insensitive to the N171D pore mutation that abolishes inhibitory activity of previously reported ROMK inhibitors...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456372/drug-drug-interaction-related-uncontrolled-glycemia
#16
Mohamed Anwar Hammad, Balamurugan Tangiisuran, Abeer Mohamed Kharshid, Noorizan Abdul-Aziz, Yahaya Hassan, Nor Azizah Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Elsayed
Context: The literature of drug-drug interaction (DDI)-related uncontrolled causality, and preventability of DDI-induced UCG (HbA1c >7%) in outpatients glycemia (UCG) among outpatients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus is still limited. Aims: The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence, mechanism, severity, with Type 2 diabetes. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang General Hospital. Methods: A computerized system for DDI checking was used to assess the severity and mechanism of DDIs...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455544/heart-failure-affects-liver-morphology-and-function-what-are-the-clinical-implications
#17
E Goncalvesova, M Kovacova
Liver dysfunction in heart failure is common and usually clinically significant, especially in patients with advanced or severe acute heart failure. Lesions are caused by an impaired hepatic circulation due to congestion and hypoperfusion. Congestive lesions are more common and typically manifested by painful hepatomegaly and increased direct bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. The inferior vena cava and hepatic veins are usually dilated. Congestive lesions are characterized by dilatation of the central vein with fibrotic changes in the surrounding areas on histological examination...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455335/evaluating-the-safety-and-tolerability-of-sacubitril-valsartan-for-hfref-managed-within-a-pharmacist-clinic
#18
Elizabeth K Pogge, Lindsay E Davis
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to describe the use of pharmacist-managed sacubitril/valsartan therapy in a multi-center, outpatient cardiac group. BACKGROUND: Sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi), is a novel agent for the treatment of heart failure. An ARNi is recommended by national guidelines to be used in place of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy for patients who remain symptomatic...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454528/continuous-infusion-versus-intermittent-bolus-injection-of-furosemide-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Ka Ting Ng, Aslinah Velayit, Delton Kah Yeang Khoo, Amirah Mohd Ismail, Marzida Mansor
OBJECTIVE: Fluid overload is a common phenomenon seen in intensive care units (ICUs). However, there is no general consensus on whether continuous or bolus furosemide is safer or more effective in these hemodynamically unstable ICU patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the clinical outcomes of continuous versus bolus furosemide in a critically ill population in ICUs. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews were searched from their inception until June 2017...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453696/interrelationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-left-ventricle-performance
#20
REVIEW
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
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