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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291202/tobacco-taxation-illegal-cigarette-supply-and-geography
#1
Dardo Curti, Ce Shang, Frank J Chaloupka, Geoffrey T Fong
BACKGROUND: In Uruguay, real tobacco taxes increased significantly during 2005-2010 and 2014-2017 and decreased during 2010-2014. The effects of these tax changes on illegal and legal cigarette usage differed significantly when we compared cities in the middle and south of the country with cities on the border. OBJECTIVE: This paper analyses whether supply side factors such as geographical location, distribution networks and the effectiveness of tobacco control play a significant role in sales and use of illegal cigarettes when tobacco taxes change, particularly given the price gap between legal and lower-priced illegal cigarettes...
October 5, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270249/prevalence-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-in-red-eared-sliders-trachemys-scripta-elegans-retailed-in-pet-shops-in-japan
#2
Toshiro Kuroki, Tomoe Ishihara, Naoki Nakajima, Ichiro Furukawa, Yumi Une
We investigated the prevalence of Salmonella in 227 small red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) from 2006 to 2008. One hundred thirty turtles (57.3%) were positive for S. enterica subsp. enterica. Twenty-two serotypes including S. Montevideo, S. Newport, S. Pomona, S. Braenderup, S. Sandiego, and S. Litchfield were identified. Salmonella strains with closely related PFGE patterns were isolated from several shops located in different areas over 2006 to 2008. Antimicrobial resistance was detected among strains of S...
September 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214660/exploring-physical-activity-engagement-in-secondary-school-students-in-montevideo-uruguay-a-qualitative-study
#3
Irene Parobii, Andrew E Springer, Melissa B Harrell, Lucía M Gomensoro, María T Fresco, Nianest Alers, Cheryl L Perry, Diego Estol
Physical activity provides multiple health and educational benefits to children and youth, yet the majority of young people across the globe, including adolescents in Uruguay, do not participate in sufficient physical activity. This study aims to further inform intervention efforts for promoting adolescent physical activity in Uruguay by exploring physical activity perceptions and practices as well as physical activity barriers and opportunities in a sample of public and private secondary school students living in and around Montevideo, Uruguay...
January 2018: International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176551/drinking-water-lead-iron-and-zinc-concentrations-as-predictors-of-blood-lead-levels-and-urinary-lead-excretion-in-school-children-from-montevideo-uruguay
#4
Julia Ravenscroft, Aditi Roy, Elena I Queirolo, Nelly Mañay, Gabriela Martínez, Fabiana Peregalli, Katarzyna Kordas
The global burden of water-based lead (Pb) exposure on children is largely unknown; however, the importance of water sources as a path of Pb exposure is receiving increased attention due to recent prominent exposure events related to corroded plumbing infrastructure in the US. This study investigated the contribution of Pb in household drinking and cooking water to Pb levels in blood (PbB) and urine (PbU) within 353 early school-aged children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Additionally, the analysis considered the child's iron status and the water content of iron (WFe) and zinc (WZn) in relation to water Pb and blood/urine Pb concentrations...
December 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170999/high-resolution-identification-of-multiple-salmonella-serovars-in-a-single-sample-using-crispr-seroseq
#5
Cameron P Thompson, Alexandra N Doak, Naufa Amirani, Erin A Schroeder, Justin Wright, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Regina Lamendella, Nikki W Shariat
Salmonella enterica is represented by >2,600 serovars that can differ in routes of transmission, host colonization, and in resistance to antimicrobials. S. enterica is the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States with well-established detection methodology. Current surveillance protocols rely on characterization of a few colonies to represent an entire sample, thus minority serovars remain undetected. Salmonella contains two CRISPR loci, CRISPR1 and CRISPR2, and the spacer content of these can be considered serovar specific...
August 31, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165845/distribution-and-dissemination-of-antimicrobial-resistant-salmonella-in-broiler-farms-with-or-without-enrofloxacin-use
#6
Ke Shang, Bai Wei, Min Kang
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is a major zoonotic food-borne pathogen that persists on poultry farms, and animals undergo reinfection with endemic strains. The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella within and between broiler farms that used enrofloxacin and those that did not. RESULTS: Cloacal and environmental (litter, feed, and water) samples from two selected flocks in each of 12 farms owned by the same company were collected three times over a 30-day period of two production cycles during 2015-2016...
August 30, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159947/identification-of-the-minimal-bacterial-2-deoxy-7-amido-7-deazaguanine-synthesis-machinery
#7
Yifeng Yuan, Geoffrey Hutinet, Jacqueline Gamboa Valera, Jennifer Hu, Roman Hillebrand, Andrew Gustafson, Dirk Iwata-Reuyl, Peter C Dedon, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard
The 7-deazapurine derivatives, 2'-deoxy-7-cyano-7-deazaguanosine (dPreQ0 ) and 2'-deoxy-7-amido-7-deazaguanosine (dADG) are recently-discovered DNA modifications encoded by the dpd cluster found in a diverse set of bacteria. Here we identify the genes required for formation of dPreQ0 and dADG in DNA and propose a biosynthetic pathway. The preQ0 base is a precursor that in Salmonella Montevideo, is synthesized as an intermediate in the pathway of the tRNA modification queuosine. Of the eleven genes (dpdA - dpdK) found in the S...
August 29, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084656/distribution-of-virulence-genes-among-salmonella-serotypes-isolated-from-pigs-in-southern-vietnam
#8
Tran T Q Lan, Marie-Lou Gaucher, Nguyen T M Nhan, Ann Letellier, Sylvain Quessy
This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella serogroups and serotypes and their virulence gene carriage in pig fecal samples from farms and slaughterhouses in some southern provinces of Vietnam. The presence of Salmonella was assessed based on culture enrichment of the collected samples and biochemical and serological analyses; 27.7% (51) of 184 samples were posititve for Salmonella. Based on the availability of antisera, serogroups were determined for 61% (31) of 51 isolates. Twenty isolates belonging to Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium (10 isolates), Anatum (8 isolates), Senftenberg (7 isolates), Paratyphi B (3 isolates), Paratyphi A (1 isolate), Montevideo (1 isolate), and Saintpaul (1 isolate) were further characterized by a multiplex PCR protocol targeting Salmonella invasion A and virulence plasmid C genes ( invA and spvC, respectively)...
September 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077443/effect-of-waste-milk-pasteurization-on-fecal-shedding-of-salmonella-in-preweaned-calves
#9
Tom S Edrington, J Armando Garcia Buitrago, G Robert Hagevoort, G H Loneragan, D M Bricta-Harhay, Todd R Callaway, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
The objective of the current research was to determine if pasteurization of nonsaleable waste milk influences fecal Salmonella concentrations and prevalence, or antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of the cultured isolates. Holstein dairy calves (n = 211) were housed on a single commercial dairy in the southwestern United States and randomly allotted to be fed either pasteurized (PWM; n = 128 calves) or nonpasteurized waste milk (NPWM; n = 83 calves). Fecal samples were collected via rectal palpation or from freshly voided, undisturbed fecal pats, weekly during the first 4 wk of the animal's life and then again at weaning...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067394/school-start-times-matter-eveningness-does-not
#10
Ignacio Estevan, Ana Silva, Bettina Tassino
Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) has been associated with school performance when school activities are arranged early in the morning. This study aims to evaluate this association in 224 adolescents of a secondary school in Montevideo, Uruguay, attending either morning or afternoon shifts. Students' socio-demographic characteristics and performance indicators were similar across shifts, while afternoon-shift students exhibited later circadian preferences. After controlling for socio-demographic and other educational variables, eveningness was associated with lower grades only in morning-shift students...
August 1, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30052174/comparative-genomics-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-montevideo-reveals-lineage-specific-gene-differences-that-may-influence-ecological-niche-association
#11
Scott V Nguyen, Dayna M Harhay, James L Bono, Timothy P L Smith, Patricia I Fields, Blake A Dinsmore, Monica Santovenia, Rong Wang, Joseph M Bosilevac, Gregory P Harhay
Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo has been linked to recent foodborne illness outbreaks resulting from contamination of products such as fruits, vegetables, seeds and spices. Studies have shown that Montevideo also is frequently associated with healthy cattle and can be isolated from ground beef, yet human salmonellosis outbreaks of Montevideo associated with ground beef contamination are rare. This disparity fuelled our interest in characterizing the genomic differences between Montevideo strains isolated from healthy cattle and beef products, and those isolated from human patients and outbreak sources...
August 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010397/survival-of-tomato-outbreak-associated-salmonella-serotypes-in-soil-and-water-and-the-role-of-biofilms-in-abiotic-surface-attachment
#12
Govindaraj Dev Kumar, Robert C Williams, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Renee R Boyer, Joseph D Eifert
Salmonella serotypes linked to tomato-associated outbreaks were evaluated for survival in soil and water over a 40-day period. Salmonella enterica serotypes Anatum, Baildon, Braenderup, Montevideo, Newport, and Javiana were inoculated separately into sterile soil and water, followed by plating onto TSAYE and XLT4 at 10-day intervals. Biofilm production by Salmonella serotypes was measured on both quartz particles (soil surrogate) and glass coverslips, and was evaluated using a crystal violet dye assay. Salmonella populations in soil and water over 40 days indicated no significant differences between Salmonella serotypes tested (p > 0...
September 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957504/multiple-metal-exposure-diet-and-oxidative-stress-in-uruguayan-school-children
#13
Katarzyna Kordas, Aditi Roy, Marie Vahter, Julia Ravenscroft, Nelly Mañay, Fabiana Peregalli, Gabriela Martínez, Elena I Queirolo
Oxidative stress (OS) is an important consequence of exposure to toxic metals but it is unclear to what extent low-level metal exposures contribute to OS in children. We examined the cross-sectional association between urinary concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) and urinary markers of OS: F2 -8α isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG). We also tested effect modification by dietary intakes. Of the 211 children aged 6-8 years living in Montevideo who were eligible for the study because they had at least one OS marker measured via ELISA, 143 were included in a complete-case analysis...
October 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954918/complete-genome-sequences-of-four-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-serovar-senftenberg-and-montevideo-isolates-associated-with-a-2016-multistate-outbreak-in-the-united-states
#14
Julie Haendiges, Tyann Blessington, Jie Zheng, Gordon Davidson, Jesse D Miller, Maria Hoffmann
A multistate outbreak of 11 Salmonella infections linked to pistachio nuts occurred in 2016. In this announcement, we report the complete genome sequences of four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo isolates from pistachios collected during the 2016 outbreak investigation.
June 28, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872935/a-case-of-prototheca-zopfii-genotype-1-infection-in-a-dog-canis-lupus-familiaris
#15
Caroline S Silveira, Deborah Cesar, M Kelly Keating, Marlene DeLeon-Carnes, Aníbal G Armién, Martín Luhers, Franklin Riet-Correa, Federico Giannitti
Protothecosis is a rare disease caused by environmental algae of the genus Prototheca. These are saprophytic, non-photosynthetic, aerobic, colorless algae that belong to the Chlorellaceae family. Seven different species have been described. Prototheca zopfii genotype 2 and P. wickerhamii are most commonly involved in pathogenic infections in humans and animals. The objective of this work is to describe, for the first time, a case of protothecosis caused by P. zopfii genotype 1 in a dog. The dog, a 4-year-old mix bred male, was presented to a veterinary clinic in Montevideo, Uruguay, with multiple skin nodules, one of which was excised by surgical biopsy...
June 6, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848185/suspected-chorioamnionitis-and-myometrial-contractility-mechanisms-for-increased-risk-of-cesarean-delivery-and-postpartum-hemorrhage
#16
Alyssa Zackler, Pamela Flood, Rori Dajao, Lauren Maramara, Laura Goetzl
OBJECTIVE: Chorioamnionitis is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery and uterine atony. We hypothesized that the onset of maternal fever is temporally associated with decreased uterine contractility. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic center. PATIENTS: Term participants who developed a fever in the setting of an intrauterine pressure catheter. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Montevideo units (MVUs) and oxytocin dose at time 0 (first oral temperature ≥38°C) and in the five 1--hour blocks preceding and following T0...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783044/tomato-type-and-post-treatment-water-rinse-affect-efficacy-of-acid-washes-against-salmonella-enterica-inoculated-on-stem-scars-of-tomatoes-and-product-quality
#17
Xuetong Fan, Joshua B Gurtler, Kimberly J B Sokorai
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of post-treatment rinsing with water on the inactivation efficacy of acid treatments against Salmonella inoculated onto stem scar areas of two types of tomatoes. In addition, impact on fruit quality was investigated during 21 days post-treatment storage at 10 °C. A four-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica (S. Montevideo, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul, and S. Typhimurium) was inoculated onto stem scar areas of grape and large round tomatoes. The inoculated fruits were then treated for 2 min with the following solutions: water, 2% lactic acid +2% acetic acid +2% levulinic acid, 1...
September 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763755/salmonella-enterica-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-flesh-and-peel-cantaloupe-extracts-on-four-food-contact-surfaces
#18
Piumi De Abrew Abeysundara, Nitin Dhowlaghar, Ramakrishna Nannapaneni, Mark W Schilling, Barakat Mahmoud, Chander S Sharma, Din-Pow Ma
Salmonella enterica is responsible for the highest number of foodborne disease outbreaks pertaining to cantaloupe industry. The objective of this study was to examine the growth and biofilm formation by outbreak strains of S. enterica ser. Poona (S. Poona), S. enterica ser. Stanley (S. Stanley) and S. enterica ser. Montevideo (S. Montevideo) on different food-contact processing surfaces in cantaloupe flesh and peel extracts at 22 °C and 10 °C. The generation time of all S. enterica strains tested was shorter in the high concentration (50 mg/ml) of cantaloupe extract and high temperature...
September 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755194/time-course-of-salmonella-shedding-and-antibody-response-in-naturally-infected-pigs-during-grower-finisher-stage
#19
Saranya Nair, Abdolvahab Farzan, Terry L O'Sullivan, Robert M Friendship
A longitudinal trial was conducted to determine the course of Salmonella shedding and antibody response in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Ten-week-old pigs ( n = 45) were transferred from a farm with history of salmonellosis and housed at a research facility. Weekly fecal samples (weeks 1 to 11) as well as tissue samples at slaughter were cultured for Salmonella. Serum samples were tested for presence of Salmonella antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627330/traffic-light-system-can-increase-healthfulness-perception-implications-for-policy-making
#20
Leandro Machín, Jessica Aschemann-Witzel, María Rosa Curutchet, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how information about low nutrient content included in the traffic light labeling system influences consumers' perception of the healthfulness of products with high content of 1 key nutrient, and to compare the traffic light system with warnings in terms of the perception of healthfulness. DESIGN: Images of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels (the traffic light labeling system with different numbers of nutrients with low content, and warnings) were evaluated in study 1, whereas product labels featuring the different FOP nutrition labels were evaluated in study 2...
July 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
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