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Malnutrition, undernourished

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894303/integrated-agriculture-programs-to-address-malnutrition-in-northern-malawi
#1
Rachel Bezner Kerr, Emmanuel Chilanga, Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Isaac Luginaah, Esther Lupafya
BACKGROUND: In countries where the majority of undernourished people are smallholder farmers, there has been interest in agricultural interventions to improve nutritional outcomes. Addressing gender inequality, however, is a key mechanism by which agriculture can improve nutrition, since women often play a crucial role in farming, food processing and child care, but have limited decision-making and control over agricultural resources. This study examines the approaches by which gender equity in agrarian, resource-poor settings can be improved using a case study in Malawi...
November 28, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777589/spirulina-supplements-improved-the-nutritional-status-of-undernourished-children-quickly-and-significantly-experience-from-kisantu-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#2
Féfé Khuabi Matondo, Kikuni Takaisi, Adolphine Bedi Nkuadiolandu, Aimé Kazadi Lukusa, Michel Ntetani Aloni
Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769782/defining-malnutrition-a-plea-to-rethink
#3
P Soeters, F Bozzetti, L Cynober, A Forbes, A Shenkin, L Sobotka
In a recent consensus report in Clinical Nutrition the undernourished category of malnutrition was proposed to be defined and diagnosed on the basis of a low BMI or unintentional weight loss combined with low BMI or FFMI with certain cut off points. The definition was endorsed by ESPEN despite recent endorsement of a very different definition. The approach aims to assess whether nutritional intake is sufficient but is imprecise because a low BMI does not always indicate malnutrition and individuals with increasing BMI's may have decreasing FFM's...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721533/evaluation-of-pharmacokinetics-of-single-dose-chloroquine-in-malnourished-children-with-malaria-a-comparative-study-with-normally-nourished-children
#4
Prashant P Kadam, Nithya Jaideep Gogtay, Sunil Karande, V Shah, Urmila M Thatte
OBJECTIVES: Studies on antimalarial kinetics in children or adults who are undernourished or malnourished are both limited and have yielded conflicting results. The present study was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the pharmacokinetics of single dose chloroquine and its metabolite desethylchloroquine in children who were undernourished and compare them with children who were normally nourished. METHODS: Children of either gender between the ages of 5 and 12 years, smear positive for P...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703567/the-association-between-malnutrition-and-pressure-ulcers-in-elderly-in-long-term-care-facility
#5
Lenche Neloska, Katerina Damevska, Andjelka Nikolchev, Lidija Pavleska, Biljana Petreska-Zovic, Milenko Kostov
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is common in elderly and is a risk factor for pressure ulcers. AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in geriatric and palliative patients hospitalised in long-term care facility, and to examine the influence of nutritional status on the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PU). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study including 2099 patients admitted to the Hospital during a 24 month period (January 2013 to December 2014)...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672318/nutritional-intervention-in-cognitively-impaired-geriatric-trauma-patients-a-feasibility-study
#6
D Eschbach, T Kirchbichler, T Wiesmann, L Oberkircher, C Bliemel, S Ruchholtz, B Buecking
BACKGROUND: Most studies focusing on improving the nutritional status of geriatric trauma patients exclude patients with cognitive impairment. These patients are especially at risk of malnutrition at admission and of worsening during the perioperative fasting period. This study was planned as a feasibility study to identify the difficulties involved in including this high-risk collective of cognitively impaired geriatric trauma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective intervention study included cognitively impaired geriatric patients (Mini-Mental State Examination <25, age >65 years) with hip-related fractures...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642055/espen-diagnostic-criteria-for-malnutrition-a-validation-study-in-hospitalized-patients
#7
Rita S Guerra, Isabel Fonseca, Ana S Sousa, Alison Jesus, Fernando Pichel, Teresa F Amaral
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) released a consensus statement for undernutrition diagnosis: ESPEN diagnostic criteria for malnutrition (EDC). The EDC lacks validation and therefore, the present study aims to assess the concurrent and predictive validity of this tool in a cohort of inpatients. METHODS: A prospective observational study took place in a university hospital. Concurrent validity of EDC was evaluated using the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) nutrition status classification as the reference method...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558017/protein-malnutrition-pre-and-postnatal-and-nutritional-rehabilitation-modulates-the-morphology-of-muscle-fibers-in-wistar-rats
#8
Thays de Souza Lopes, Hananiah Tardivo Quintana, Jeferson André Bortolin, Paulo Henrique Matos Alves, Regina de Souza Bolina Matos, Edson Aparecido Liberti, Flavia de Oliveira
This study investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal conditions of protein deficiency followed to nutritional rehabilitation in the morphology of skeletal muscle. Twelve Wistar male rats were distributed in two groups: nourished (N), with normal protein diet and undernourished (U), with low protein diet. The respective diet was maintained until animals completed 21 days of life. After that, part of group U (n = 4) received normal protein diet, forming a third group, renourished group (R). Forty-two-day-old animals were euthanized and we performed histopathological and morphometric analysis of the soleus muscle...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456223/time-constrained-mother-and-expanding-market-emerging-model-of-under-nutrition-in-india
#9
S Chaturvedi, S Ramji, N K Arora, S Rewal, R Dasgupta, V Deshmukh
BACKGROUND: Persistent high levels of under-nutrition in India despite economic growth continue to challenge political leadership and policy makers at the highest level. The present inductive enquiry was conducted to map the perceptions of mothers and other key stakeholders, to identify emerging drivers of childhood under-nutrition. METHODS: We conducted a multi-centric qualitative investigation in six empowered action group states of India. The study sample included 509 in-depth interviews with mothers of undernourished and normal nourished children, policy makers, district level managers, implementer and facilitators...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429836/missed-opportunities-for-nutritional-rehabilitation-in-children-admitted-to-surgical-wards
#10
Pooja Dave, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Ajay Phatak, Rajendra Desai, Shirish Srivastava
Background. Malnutrition in children has serious health and economic consequences. We studied documentation of malnutrition, actual prevalence, and treatment given in children admitted to surgical wards. Methods. Retrospective study of 154 patients aged <5 yrs admitted to general surgical, orthopedic, and otorhinolaryngology wards. Records were evaluated for completeness of data, way of documentation, and data quality. Descriptive analysis was done. If malnutrition was not identified and/or proper action was not taken, it was defined as a "missed opportunity...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364433/effects-of-perinatal-protein-malnutrition-and-fenfluramine-action-on-food-intake-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-hypothalamus-and-raphe-nuclei-of-neonate-rats
#11
Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Larissa Cavalcanti do Amaral Almeida, Gabriel Araújo Tavares, Renata Cristinny de Farias Campina, Elizabeth do Nascimento, Sandra Lopes de Souza
In neonatal rats, hunger and satiety responses occur particularly via dehydration and gastric distention, respectively. The control of food intake in newborns is yet to be fully consolidated, particularly with respect to the participation of the hypothalamic nuclei and their relationship with the serotonergic pathway. Moreover, it is unclear how the environmental stressors in early life, like undernutrition, interfere in these events. Therefore, this study examined the serotonin-system's impact on food intake in rat neonates at postnatal day (P) 10 and P18 and the manner in which protein undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation interferes in this behavior...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345066/the-use-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-the-acute-care-setting
#12
Omorogieva Ojo
Oral nutritional supplements offer support to patients in acute care who are undernourished or at risk of malnutrition. Yet doubts remain over cost and compliance. Omorogieva Ojo, Senior Lecturer in Primary Care at University of Greenwich weighs up the evidence.
June 23, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315054/urban-rural-and-provincial-disparities-in-child-malnutrition-in-china
#13
Yichao Wu, Di Qi
This article investigates how the nutritional deprivation and inequality among children in China by provinces and urban/rural areas has changed over time from 1991 to 2009 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data. The children who were undernourished in stunting and underweight have declined over years, but provincial disparities were significant and urban children performed better than the rural peers. The nutritional deprivation of children has been alleviated in China over time, but more efforts should be made by the government to improve the nutritional condition in less developed provinces and for those children who are severely undernourished...
October 2016: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271658/comparison-of-intradialytic-parenteral-nutrition-with-glucose-or-amino-acid-mixtures-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Yan Liu, Xiao Xiao, Dan-Ping Qin, Rong-Shao Tan, Xiao-Shi Zhong, Dao-Yuan Zhou, Yun Liu, Xuan Xiong, Yuan-Yuan Zheng
Many long-term maintenance hemodialysis patients have symptoms of protein-energy wasting caused by malnutrition. Each session of hemodialysis removes about 10 to 12 g of amino acids and 200 to 480 kcal of energy. Patients receiving hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease may be undernourished for energy, protein consumption, or both. Non-diabetic hemodialysis patients were randomized to three treatment groups: oral supplementation, oral supplementation plus high-concentration glucose solution (250 mL containing 50% glucose) and these two interventions plus 8...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197665/the-second-international-conference-on-nutrition-implications-for-hidden-hunger
#15
Leslie Amoroso
The Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) was jointly organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and was held at the FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 19 to 21 November 2014. The ICN2 was a high-level intergovernmental meeting that focused global attention on addressing malnutrition in all its forms: undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity. The ICN2 was held to specifically address the persistent and unacceptably high levels of malnutrition...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197518/the-second-international-conference-on-nutrition-as-seen-by-a-member-state
#16
Hanns-Christoph Eiden, Simone Welte
For years now, providing people with food and balanced diets has been a problem unsolved by the world community. Despite numerous initiatives, the great breakthrough has still not happened, not least because the issue is so complex. Hunger and undernourishment must be fought as much as hidden hunger, overweight and obesity. Increasingly, several forms of malnutrition have been occurring simultaneously. The so-called double burden of malnutrition has become the new normal. The follow-up process of the Second International Conference on Nutrition assumes a vital role in that context...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120940/relationship-between-water-compartments-body-composition-assessed-by-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-and-blood-pressure-in-school-children
#17
Monika Łątka, Kinga Wójtowicz, Tomasz Drożdż, Ewelina Dąbrowska, Przemko Kwinta, Jacek Antoni Pietrzyk, Dorota Drożdż
BACKGROUND: Electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is becoming more widely used in clinical practice as a method of body composition analysis. In healthy children blood pressure (BP) changes with age, body mass and height. Until now the relation between water compartments and BP in healthy children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition as well as water compartments (measured by electrical bioimpedance) and BP. METHODS: The study was performed in 72 children (32 girls and 40 boys) aged: 6-7 and 12-13 years...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034596/enhancing-nutrition-security-via-india-s-national-food-security-act-using-an-axe-instead-of-a-scalpel
#18
Sonalde Desai, Reeve Vanneman
In September 2013, India passed a historic National Food Security Act. This paper examines the potential impact of the two central pillars of this act - expansion of the Public Distribution System and strengthening of the Integrated Child Development Schemes - on child nutrition. Using new data from the India Human Development Survey of 2011-12, this paper shows that access to subsidized grains via PDS is not related to improved child nutrition, and while ICDS seems to be related to lower child undernutrition, it has a limited reach in spite of the universalization of the program...
August 5, 2015: India Policy Forum: [papers]. India Policy Forum. Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006407/characteristics-of-hospitalized-children-with-a-diagnosis-of-malnutrition-united-states-2010
#19
Ruba A Abdelhadi, Sandra Bouma, Sigrid Bairdain, Jodi Wolff, Amanda Legro, Steve Plogsted, Peggi Guenter, Helaine Resnick, Jaime C Slaughter-Acey, Mark R Corkins
INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients in the United States. In 2010, 80,710 of 6,280,710 hospitalized children <17 years old had a coded diagnosis of malnutrition (CDM). This report summarizes nationally representative, person-level characteristics of hospitalized children with a CDM. METHODS: Data are from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, which contains patient-level data on hospital inpatient stays. When weighted appropriately, estimates from the project represent all U...
July 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994962/moderate-malnutrition-in-rats-induces-somatic-gene-mutations
#20
M Monserrat Pacheco-Martínez, Edith Cortés-Barberena, Elsa Cervantes-Ríos, María Del Carmen García-Rodríguez, Leonor Rodríguez-Cruz, Rocío Ortiz-Muñiz
The relationship between malnutrition and genetic damage has been widely studied in human and animal models, leading to the observation that interactions between genotoxic exposure and micronutrient status appear to affect genomic stability. A new assay has been developed that uses the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene (Pig-a) as a reporter for measuring in vivo gene mutation. The Pig-a assay can be employed to evaluate mutant frequencies (MFs) in peripheral blood reticulocytes (RETs) and erythrocytes (RBCs) using flow cytometry...
July 2016: Mutation Research
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