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Takeshi Hatani, Shunsuke Funakoshi, Thomas J Deerinck, Eric A Bushong, Takeshi Kimura, Hiroshi Takeshima, Mark H Ellisman, Masahiko Hoshijima, Yoshinori Yoshida
Many studies have shown the feasibility of in vivo cardiac transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) in animal experiments. However, nano-structural confirmation of the successful incorporation of the engrafted iPSC-CMs including electron microscopy (EM) has not been accomplished, partly because identification of graft cells in EM has proven to be difficult. Using APEX2, an engineered ascorbate peroxidase imaging tag, we successfully localized and analyzed the fine structure of sarcomeres and the excitation contraction machinery of iPSC-CMs 6 months after their engraftment in infarcted mouse hearts...
October 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nosta Glaser, Ramesh Iyer, William F Gilly, Clara Franzini-Armstrong
Muscles of the mesopelagic copepod Gaussia princeps (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Calanoida) are responsible for repetitive movements of feeding and swimming appendages that are too fast to be followed by eye. This paper provides a comparative functional and ultrastructural description of five muscles that have different contraction speeds and are located within different anatomical sites. All are very fast, as indicated by a thick:thin filament ratio of 3:1 and sarcomere lengths that vary between 1 and 3 μm. Measured lengths of thin and thick filaments indicate classification of the muscles into three distinct groups (short, medium and long) and predict a difference in speed of up to threefold between fibers with the shortest and longest sarcomeres...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
E A Rog-Zielinska, E T O'toole, A Hoenger, P Kohl
Cardiomyocytes both cause and experience continual cyclic deformation. The exact effects of this deformation on the properties of intracellular organelles are not well characterized, although they are likely to be relevant for cardiomyocyte responses to active and passive changes in their mechanical environment. In the present study we provide three-dimensional ultrastructural evidence for mechanically induced mitochondrial deformation in rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes over a range of sarcomere lengths representing myocardial tissue stretch, an unloaded "slack" state, and contracture...
October 10, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Gourav Dey, Manish Kumar, Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Ashwani Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad
The data presented in this article is associated with the quantitative proteomic analysis of four mosquito tissues - midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovaries and fat body from female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. To identify the proteins that were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, the four mosquito tissues were labelled with iTRAQ labels and analyzed using a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Database searches of the 1,10,616 raw spectra from 23 peptide fractions resulted in the identification of 84,733 peptide spectrum matches corresponding to 16,278 peptides and 3372 proteins...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Rakesh Malhotra, Timothy Craven, Walter T Ambrosius, Anthony A Killeen, William E Haley, Alfred K Cheung, Michel Chonchol, Mark Sarnak, Chirag R Parikh, Michael G Shlipak, Joachim H Ix
BACKGROUND: Random assignment to the intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) arm (<120mmHg) in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) resulted in more rapid declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) than in the standard arm (SBP<140mmHg). Whether this change reflects hemodynamic effects or accelerated intrinsic kidney damage is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal subgroup analysis of clinical trial participants. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of SPRINT participants with prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as eGFR<60mL/min/1...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Sungman Park, Young-Jin Kim, Min Soo Kim, Hee-Sung Kim, Min-Woo Kim, Yeon-Mi Kang, Sang-Kon Lee, Kyoung-Chan Choi, Nam Kim, Youn-Myoung Gimm, Yoon-Won Kim
Accumulating evidence does not yet confirm the effect of power line frequency magnetic field (MF) on human health and fertility. We recently reported that, at continuous 60 Hz MF exposure in mice, the dose given as magnetic flux density (tesla; T) and duration of exposure was related to induce testicular germ cell apoptosis. We aimed to characterize the effect of a 20-week continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF on the motility, morphology, and number of sperm as well as the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in rats...
October 5, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
Peter T Wright, Jose L Sanchez-Alonso, Carla Lucarelli, Anita Alvarez-Laviada, Claire E Poulet, Sean O Bello, Giuseppe Faggian, Cesare M Terracciano, Julia Gorelik
Introduction: We investigated the effect of partial mechanical unloading (PMU) of the heart on the physiology of calcium and beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP (βAR-cAMP) microdomains. Previous studies have investigated PMU using a model of heterotopic-heart and lung transplantation (HTHAL). These studies have demonstrated that PMU disrupts the structure of cardiomyocytes and calcium handling. We sought to understand these processes by studying L-Type Calcium Channel (LTCC) activity and sub-type-specific βAR-cAMP signaling within cardiomyocyte membrane microdomains...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marco C Bottino, Maria T P Albuquerque, Asma Azabi, Eliseu A Münchow, Kenneth J Spolnik, Jacques E Nör, Paul C Edwards
Evoked bleeding (EB) clinical procedure, comprising a disinfection step followed by periapical tissue laceration to induce the ingrowth of undifferentiated stem cells from the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, is currently the only regenerative-based therapeutic approach to treating pulp tissue necrosis in undeveloped (immature) permanent teeth approved in the United States. Yet, the disinfection step using antibiotic-based pastes leads to cytotoxic, warranting a biocompatible strategy to promote root canal disinfection with no or minimal side-effects to maximize the regenerative outcomes...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yuan Meng, Ren Lin, Fengjuan Wu, Qi Sun, Lihong Jia
Many previous studies have indicated the adverse effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on sperm production and quality; however, the mechanisms underlying BPA male reproductive toxicity have yet to be elucidated. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perinatal exposure to BPA on the spermatogenic capacity of male offspring, and to explore the possible influence of inflammatory responses in BPA reproductive toxicity. Twenty-one pregnant C57BL/6mice were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a group receiving 0...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
O Yawson Emmanuel, Kosisochukwu Kingsley Obasi, Ismail Lawal
Telfairia occidentalis (TO), commonly called Pumpkin is a plant with numerous medicinal values. Here we investigated the effects of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous leaves extract on the testis of Adult Male Wistar Rats (Rattus novergicus). Thirty-Five (35) adult male rats were grouped into seven (7) containing five (n = 5) rats in each group. Group A served as control, group B and C received 100 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and four weeks respectively, group D and E received 200 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and four weeks respectively, while group F and G received 300 mg/kg body weight of Telfairia occidentalis for two and four weeks respectively...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Alasdair D Henry, N MacQuaide, F L Burton, A C Rankin, E G Rowan, R M Drummond
The pulmonary veins have an external sleeve of cardiomyocytes that are a widely recognised source of ectopic electrical activity that can lead to atrial fibrillation. Although the mechanisms behind this activity are currently unknown, changes in intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) signalling are purported to play a role. Therefore, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was monitored in the pulmonary vein using fluo-4 and epifluorescence microscopy. Electrical field stimulation evoked a synchronous rise in Ca2+ in neighbouring cardiomyocytes; asynchronous spontaneous Ca2+ transients between electrical stimuli were also present...
September 16, 2018: Cell Calcium
Yuxuan Guo, Blake D Jardin, Pingzhu Zhou, Isha Sethi, Brynn N Akerberg, Christopher N Toepfer, Yulan Ai, Yifei Li, Qing Ma, Silvia Guatimosim, Yongwu Hu, Grigor Varuzhanyan, Nathan J VanDusen, Donghui Zhang, David C Chan, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Christine E Seidman, Jonathan G Seidman, William T Pu
After birth, cardiomyocytes (CM) acquire numerous adaptations in order to efficiently pump blood throughout an animal's lifespan. How this maturation process is regulated and coordinated is poorly understood. Here, we perform a CRISPR/Cas9 screen in mice and identify serum response factor (SRF) as a key regulator of CM maturation. Mosaic SRF depletion in neonatal CMs disrupts many aspects of their maturation, including sarcomere expansion, mitochondrial biogenesis, transverse-tubule formation, and cellular hypertrophy...
September 21, 2018: Nature Communications
G Faria, K S Viola, H Coaguila-Llerena, L R A Oliveira, R T Leonardo, A J Aranda-García, J M Guerreiro-Tanomaru
AIM: To assess the penetration of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel or NaOCl solutions with surfactants, and the effect of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) on penetration into dentinal tubules. METHODOLOGY: Bovine incisor root canals were instrumented, the roots sectioned and the dentine blocks obtained were stained with crystal violet. Dentine blocks (n = 10 per group) were exposed to 3% NaOCl gel or 3% NaOCl solution for 10 and 20 min. Other dentine blocks (n = 10 per group) were exposed to Chlor-Extra (6% NaOCl + surfactant), 6% NaOCl, 2...
September 16, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Fuyu Kobirumaki-Shimozawa, Togo Shimozawa, Kotaro Oyama, Yasuharu Kushida, Takako Terui, Shin'ichi Ishiwata, Norio Fukuda
The present study was conducted to systematically investigate the optimal viral titer as well as the volume of the adenovirus vector (ADV) that expresses α -actinin-AcGFP in the Z-disks of myocytes in the left ventricle (LV) of mice. An injection of 10  μ L ADV at viral titers of 2 to 4 × 1011 viral particles per mL (VP/mL) into the LV epicardial surface consistently expressed α -actinin-AcGFP in myocytes in vivo , with the fraction of AcGFP-expressing myocytes at ~10%. Our analysis revealed that SL was ~1...
2018: BioMed Research International
Chrishan J A Ramachandra, Ashish Mehta, Philip Wong, K P Myu Mai Ja, Regina Fritsche-Danielson, Ratan V Bhat, Derek J Hausenloy, Jean-Paul Kovalik, Winston Shim
BACKGROUND: Preferential utilization of fatty acids for ATP production represents an advanced metabolic phenotype in developing cardiomyocytes. We investigated whether this phenotype could be attained in human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and assessed its influence on mitochondrial morphology, bioenergetics, respiratory capacity and ultra-structural architecture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole-cell proteome analysis of day 14 and day 30-CMs maintained in glucose media revealed a positive influence of extended culture on mitochondria-related processes that primed the day 30-CMs for fatty acid metabolism...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Kayla M Coffin, Jun Liu, Travis K Warren, Candace D Blancett, Kathleen A Kuehl, Donald K Nichols, Jeremy J Bearss, Christopher W Schellhase, Cary J Retterer, Jessica M Weidner, Sheli R Radoshitzky, Jennifer M Brannan, Anthony P Cardile, John M Dye, Gustavo Palacios, Mei G Sun, Jens H Kuhn, Sina Bavari, Xiankun Zeng
Sexual transmission of filoviruses was first reported in 1968 after an outbreak of Marburg virus (MARV) disease and recently caused flare-ups of Ebola virus disease in the 2013-2016 outbreak. How filoviruses establish testicular persistence and are shed in semen remain unknown. We discovered that persistent MARV infection of seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site that harbors sperm production, is a relatively common event in crab-eating macaques that survived infection after antiviral treatment. Persistence triggers severe testicular damage, including spermatogenic cell depletion and inflammatory cell invasion...
September 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Henry Sutanto, Bart van Sloun, Patrick Schönleitner, Marc A M J van Zandvoort, Gudrun Antoons, Jordi Heijman
Spontaneous Ca2+ -release events (SCaEs) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum play crucial roles in the initiation of cardiac arrhythmias by promoting triggered activity. However, the subcellular determinants of these SCaEs remain incompletely understood. Structural differences between atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, e.g., regarding the density of T-tubular membrane invaginations, may influence cardiomyocyte Ca2+ -handling and the distribution of cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) has recently been shown to undergo remodeling in atrial fibrillation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xian-Feng Yang, Cong Fu, Yang-Qing Liu, Ru-Sheng Liu, Hao Feng, Ren-Yu Huang, Xiao-Qin Ding, Ling Sun, Zhou-Hui Pan
Objective: To study the expression of CLAUDIN-11 in the testis tissue of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients with different severities and investigate its clinical significance. METHODS: Sixty-two NOA patients were divided into a hypospermatogenesis (HS) group (n = 30) and a Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCO) group (n =32). The expression of CLAUDIN-11 in the testicular tissue of the patients was detected by immunohistochemistry, that of CLAUDIN-11 mRNA determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the levels of serum reproductive hormones measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay...
March 2018: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Chien-Ming Lin, Chih-Jen Cheng, Sung-Sen Yang, Min-Hua Tseng, Ming-Tso Yen, Chih-Chien Sung, Shih-Hua Lin
The Kelch-like 3 ( KLHL3) mutations contributed to the most common causative genes in patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII); however, the molecular mechanisms of PHAII-causing mutations in BTB domain of KLHL3 in vivo have not been investigated. We generated and analyzed Klhl3 knock-in (KI) mice carrying a missense M131V mutation in the BTB domain (corresponding to human KLHL3 M78V mutation). Klhl3M131V/+ KI mice exhibited typical PHAII phenotype with an exaggerated diuretic response to hydrochlorothiazide...
August 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
William T Jaegle, Erin A Keyser, Lynn Messersmith, Robert O Brady, Caela Miller
Background: Sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT) are a rare (2%) subtype of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor. SCTATs are usually cured at time of diagnosis by surgical resection with an oophorectomy. SCTATs have a 100%(disease related) five-year survival. One third of SCTAT tumors are associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Literature review discovered only two published cases of extra-ovarian SCTAT. Due to the rarity there is no standard treatment for extraovarian SCTATs. Case: A 39-year-old para-1 female with a symptomatic fibroid uterus, heavy menstrual bleeding, and a history of a uterine myomectomy, underwent an elective total abdominal hysterectomy...
November 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
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