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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110342/trypanosoma-brucei-triggers-a-marked-immune-response-in-male-reproductive-organs
#1
Tânia Carvalho, Sandra Trindade, Sílvia Pimenta, Ana B Santos, Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Luísa M Figueiredo
African trypanosomiasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted between mammals by the bite of a tsetse. It has been recently shown that parasites accumulate in large numbers in various organs and tissues, including the mouse testis. Whether parasites are protected from the immune system in the male reproductive organ or can be transmitted through sexual route remains unknown. Here we show that parasites can be detected by fine needle aspiration cytology of the male reproductive system in mice, and histopathological analysis revealed that T...
August 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109442/nephrotoxicity-and-kidney-transport-assessment-on-3d-perfused-proximal-tubules
#2
Marianne K Vormann, Linda Gijzen, Simon Hutter, Lisette Boot, Arnaud Nicolas, Angelique van den Heuvel, Jelle Vriend, Chee Ping Ng, Tom T G Nieskens, Vincent van Duinen, Bjorn de Wagenaar, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Laura Suter-Dick, Sebastiaan J Trietsch, Martijn Wilmer, Jos Joore, Paul Vulto, Henriette L Lanz
Proximal tubules in the kidney play a crucial role in reabsorbing and eliminating substrates from the body into the urine, leading to high local concentrations of xenobiotics. This makes the proximal tubule a major target for drug toxicity that needs to be evaluated during the drug development process. Here, we describe an advanced in vitro model consisting of fully polarized renal proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured in a microfluidic system. Up to 40 leak-tight tubules were cultured on this platform that provides access to the basolateral as well as the apical side of the epithelial cells...
August 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093550/m-alpha2-delta-promotes-myonuclear-positioning-and-association-with-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum
#3
Adriana Reuveny, Marina Shnayder, Dana Lorber, Shuoshuo Wang, Talila Volk
The cytoplasm of striated myofibers contains a large number of membrane organelles, including sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), T-tubules, and the nuclear membrane. These organelles maintain a characteristic juxtaposition, that appears to be essential for efficient inter-membranous exchange of RNA, proteins, and ions. We found that the membrane associated muscle-specific alpha2/delta subunit of the Ca++ channel complex (Ma2/d) localizes to the SR and T-tubules, and accumulates at the myonuclear surfaces. Furthermore, Ma2/d mutant larval muscles exhibt nuclear positioning defects, disruption of the nuclear-SR juxta positioning, as well as impaired larval locomotion...
August 9, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091982/ph-responsive-polymer-microcapsules-for-targeted-delivery-of-biomaterials-to-the-midgut-of-drosophila-suzukii
#4
Calum T J Ferguson, Areej A Al-Khalaf, R Elwyn Isaac, Olivier J Cayre
Drosophila suzukii or spotted wing Drosophila is an economically important pest which can have a devastating impact on soft and stone fruit industries. Biological pesticides are being sought as alternatives to synthetic chemicals to control this invasive pest, but many are subject to degradation either in the environment or in the insect gut and as a result require protection. In this study we identified a sharp change in pH of the adult midgut from neutral to acidic (pH <3), which we then exploited to develop poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) microcapsules that respond to the change in midgut pH by dissolution and release of their cargo for uptake into the insect...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086384/long-term-contractile-activity-and-thyroid-hormone-supplementation-produce-engineered-rat-myocardium-with-adult-like-structure-and-function
#5
Christopher Jackman, Hanjun Li, Nenad Bursac
The field of cardiac tissue engineering has developed rapidly, but structural and functional immaturity of engineered heart tissues hinder their widespread use. Here, we show that a combination of low-rate (0.2 Hz) contractile activity and thyroid hormone (T3) supplementation significantly promote structural and functional maturation of engineered rat cardiac tissues ("cardiobundles"). The progressive maturation of cardiobundles during first 2 weeks of culture resulted in cell cycle exit and loss of spontaneous activity, which in longer culture yielded decreased contractile function...
August 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074596/orfelia-type-luciferin-and-its-associated-storage-protein-in-the-non-luminescent-cave-worm-neoditomyia-sp-diptera-keroplatidae-from-the-atlantic-rainforest-biological-and-evolutionary-implications
#6
Vadim R Viviani, Danilo T Amaral, Vanessa R Bevilaqua, Rafaela L Falaschi
Bioluminescence in Diptera is found in the family Keroplatidae, in the glowworms of the genera Arachnocampa, Orfelia and Keroplatus. Despite belonging to the same family, Arachnocampa spp. and Orfelia fultoni display morphologically and biochemically distinct bioluminescence systems: Arachnocampa spp. produce light by the terminal ends of Malpighian tubules using ATP, a luciferin and a luciferase, whereas Orfelia fultoni produces light by translucent areas associated with rows of black bodies in the anterior and posterior parts of the body, using a 140 kDa luciferase and a luciferin which do not cross-react with the Arachnocampa luciferin-luciferase system, and a substrate binding fraction (SBF) which apparently releases luciferin in the presence of reductants...
August 3, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074185/relationship-between-renalase-expression-and-kidney-disease-an-observational-study-in-72-patients-undergoing-renal-biopsy
#7
Yi-Sha Huang, Jian-Bo Lai, Sheng-Fa Li, Ting Wang, Ying-Nan Liu, Qing-Xia Zhang, Shu-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Han Sun, Nan Hu, Xin-Zhou Zhang
The relationship between the levels of renalase and changes in proteinuria, hypertension, renal function, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression was investigated in patients (chronic nephritis, primary nephrotic syndrome or other kidney disease) that underwent renal biopsy. The study group comprised 72 patients undergoing renal biopsy. Patient profiles and renal function were collected. Concentrations of renalase and Bcl-2 were measured by immunohistochemistry. Tubular injury was detected by periodic acid Schiff staining (PAS) and renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay...
April 2018: Current medical science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065939/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-corrects-defective-mini-puberty-in-boys-with-cryptorchidism-a-prospective-randomized-study
#8
Beata Vincel, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Dalius Malcius, Birute Jones, Faruk Hadziselimovic
Introduction: This prospective study investigated the efficacy of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (LH-RHa) in restoring defective mini-puberty. Materials and Methods: Boys with isolated bilateral cryptorchidism and defective mini-puberty were randomly divided into two groups. The "surgery only" group underwent a second orchidopexy without hormonal treatment (control). The "LH-RHa" group received LH-RHa therapy followed by a second orchidopexy...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065035/symbiont-photosynthesis-in-giant-clams-is-promoted-by-v-type-h-atpase-from-host-cells
#9
Eric J Armstrong, Jinae N Roa, Jonathon H Stillman, Martin Tresguerres
Giant clams (genus Tridacna ) are the largest living bivalves and, like reef-building corals, host symbiotic dinoflagellate algae ( Symbiodinium ) that significantly contribute to their energy budget. In turn, Symbiodinium rely on the host to supply inorganic carbon (Ci ) for photosynthesis. In corals, host "proton pump" vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase (VHA) is part of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) that promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis. Here, we report that VHA in the small giant clam ( Tridacna maxima ) similarly promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057032/an-eqtl-landscape-of-kidney-tissue-in-human-nephrotic-syndrome
#10
Christopher E Gillies, Rosemary Putler, Rajasree Menon, Edgar Otto, Kalyn Yasutake, Viji Nair, Paul Hoover, David Lieb, Shuqiang Li, Sean Eddy, Damian Fermin, Michelle T McNulty, Nir Hacohen, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Matthias Kretzler, Xiaoquan Wen, Matthew G Sampson
Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies illuminate the genetics of gene expression and, in disease research, can be particularly illuminating when using the tissues directly impacted by the condition. In nephrology, there is a paucity of eQTL studies of human kidney. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and microdissected glomerular (GLOM) and tubulointerstitial (TI) transcriptomes from 187 individuals with nephrotic syndrome (NS) to describe the eQTL landscape in these functionally distinct kidney structures...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051196/screening-of-drug-transporter-interactions-in-a-3d-microfluidic-renal-proximal-tubule-on-a-chip
#11
Jelle Vriend, Tom T G Nieskens, Marianne K Vormann, Bartholomeus T van den Berge, Angelique van den Heuvel, Frans G M Russel, Laura Suter-Dick, Henriëtte L Lanz, Paul Vulto, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Martijn J Wilmer
Drug-transporter interactions could impact renal drug clearance and should ideally be detected in early stages of drug development to avoid toxicity-related withdrawals in later stages. This requires reliable and robust assays for which current high-throughput screenings have, however, poor predictability. Kidney-on-a-chip platforms have the potential to improve predictability, but often lack compatibility with high-content detection platforms. Here, we combined conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (ciPTEC-OAT1) with the microfluidic titer plate OrganoPlate to develop a screenings assay for renal drug-transporter interactions...
July 26, 2018: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038012/junctional-membrane-ca-2-dynamics-in-human-muscle-fibers-are-altered-by-malignant-hyperthermia-causative-ryr-mutation
#12
Tanya R Cully, Rocky H Choi, Andrew R Bjorksten, D George Stephenson, Robyn M Murphy, Bradley S Launikonis
We used the nanometer-wide tubules of the transverse tubular (t)-system of human skeletal muscle fibers as sensitive sensors for the quantitative monitoring of the Ca2+ -handling properties in the narrow junctional cytoplasmic space sandwiched between the tubular membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum cisternae in single muscle fibers. The t-system sealed with a Ca2+ -sensitive dye trapped in it is sensitive to changes in ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ leak, the store operated calcium entry flux, plasma membrane Ca pump, and sodium-calcium exchanger activities, thus making the sealed t-system a nanodomain Ca2+ sensor of Ca2+ dynamics in the junctional space...
August 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033399/endocrine-disruptor-responses-in-african-sharptooth-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-exposed-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate
#13
Aina O Adeogun, Oju R Ibor, Maurice E Imiuwa, Emmanuel D Omogbemi, Azubuike V Chukwuka, Roseline A Omiwole, Augustine Arukwe
In the present study, we have investigated the endocrine disruptive effects of waterborne di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP: 0 (control), 10, 100, 200 and 400 μg/L) on juvenile Clarias gariepinus by analyzing transcript patterns for hepatic vitellogenin (vtg), estrogen receptor-α (er-α), aromatase (cyp19a1b) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (ppar-α) using quantitative real-time PCR after 3, 7 and 14 days exposure period. In addition, we analyzed CYP19 and PPAR protein levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while cellular testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were measured using enzyme immune assay (EIA)...
July 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028203/caveolin-3-ko-disrupts-t-tubule-structure-and-decreases-t-tubular-i-ca-density-in-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#14
Simon M Bryant, Cherrie H T Kong, Judy J Watson, Hanne C Gadeberg, David M Roth, Hemal H Patel, Mark B Cannell, Andrew F James, Clive H Orchard
Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) is a protein that has been implicated in t-tubule formation and function in cardiac ventricular myocytes. In cardiac hypertrophy and failure, Cav-3 expression decreases, t-tubule structure is disrupted and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is impaired. However, the extent to which the decrease in Cav-3 expression underlies these changes is unclear. We therefore investigated the structure and function of myocytes isolated from the hearts of Cav-3 KO mice. These mice showed cardiac dilatation and decreased ejection fraction in vivo, compared to WT controls...
July 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021947/gene-level-regulation-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-renal-proximal-tubule-is-controlled-by-two-independent-but-interacting-regulatory-mechanisms-involving-salt-inducible-kinase-1-and-creb-regulated-transcriptional-coactivators
#15
REVIEW
Mary Taub
For many years, studies concerning the regulation of Na,K-ATPase were restricted to acute regulatory mechanisms, which affected the phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase, and thus its retention on the plasma membrane. However, in recent years, this focus has changed. Na,K-ATPase has been established as a signal transducer, which becomes part of a signaling complex as a consequence of ouabain binding. Na,K-ATPase within this signaling complex is localized in caveolae, where Na,K-ATPase has also been observed to regulate Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor (IP3R)-mediated calcium release...
July 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012538/helicokinin-alters-ion-transport-in-the-secondary-cell-containing-region-of-the-malpighian-tubule-of-the-larval-cabbage-looper-trichoplusia-ni
#16
Dennis Kolosov, Michael J O'Donnell
Excretion in insects is accomplished by the combined actions of the Malpighian tubules (MTs) and hindgut, which together form the functional kidney. MTs of many insect groups consist of principal cells (PC) and secondary cells (SC). In most insect groups SCs are reported to secrete ions from haemolymph into the tubule lumen. Paradoxically, SCs in the MTs of the lepidopteran cabbage looper T. ni are used to reabsorb Na+ and K+ back into haemolymph. The current study was designed to investigate the effects and mode of action of the lepidopteran kinin, Helicokinin (HK), on ion transport in the SC-containing region of MT of T...
July 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005894/histone-acetylation-and-methylation-marks-in-chromatin-of-panstrongylus-megistus-hemiptera-reduviidae
#17
Elenice M Alvarenga, Carlos H L Imperador, Vanessa B Bardella, Vera L C C Rodrigues, Mateus Mondin, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello, Alberto S Moraes, Maria Luiza S Mello
Panstrongylus megistus, a potential vector of Chagas disease, currently occupies a wider geographic distribution in Brazil than Triatoma infestans, another member of the hemipteran Reduviidae family and a vector of the same disease. A small heterochromatic body (chromocenter) formed by the Y chromosome is evident in the somatic cells of P. megistus, differing in size and chromosome type contribution from the well-studied chromocenters present in T. infestans. While the overall distribution of histone epigenetic marks differ when comparing the heterochromatin and euchromatin territories in T...
July 10, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991602/solute-movement-in-the-t-tubule-system-of-rabbit-and-mouse-cardiomyocytes
#18
Cherrie H T Kong, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Clive H Orchard, Mark B Cannell
Cardiac transverse (t-) tubules carry both electrical excitation and solutes toward the cell center but their ability to transport small molecules is unclear. While fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) can provide an approach to measure local solute movement, extraction of diffusion coefficients is confounded by cell and illumination beam geometries. In this study, we use measured cellular geometry and detailed computer modeling to derive the apparent diffusion coefficient of a 1-kDa solute inside the t-tubular system of rabbit and mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes...
July 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990935/effects-of-phenanthrene-on-different-levels-of-biological-organization-in-larvae-of-the-sediment-dwelling-invertebrate-chironomus-sancticaroli-diptera-chironomidae
#19
V S Richardi, M Vicentini, G S Morais, D Rebechi, T A da Silva, L F Fávaro, M A Navarro-Silva
The hydrocarbon phenanthrene is an organic compound commonly found in the environment. In aquatic ecosystems, it is highly toxic to organisms, although little is known about its effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate phenanthrene effects on biochemical, histological, and ontogenetic levels in larvae of the sediment-dwelling invertebrate Chironomus sancticaroli at acute and chronic exposure. Lethal concentrations were estimated and toxicity (acute-96 h and chronic- 8 d) tests were performed at phenanthrene concentrations from 0...
June 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989668/burosumab-at-long-last-an-effective-treatment-for-fgf23-associated-hypophosphatemia
#20
Michael Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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