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t tubule

Djane C Baia-da-Silva, Alessandra S Orfanó, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Fabrício Freire de Melo, Suzan Simões, Iria Cabral, Marcus Vinicíus Guimarães Lacerda, Maria das Graças Barbosa Guerra, Wuelton M Monteiro, Nagila F C Secundino, Paulo F P Pimenta
The mosquito midgut is divided into two regions named anterior midgut (AMG) and posterior midgut (PMG). The midgut expands intensely after the blood ingestion to accommodate a large amount of ingested food. To efficiently support the bloodmeal-induced changes, the organization of the visceral muscle fibers has significant adjustments. This study describes the spatial organization of the Anopheles aquasalis (Culicidae, Anophelinae) midgut muscle network and morphological changes after bloodmeal ingestion and infection with Plasmodium vivax (Haemosporida, Plasmodiidae)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Umme K Rima, Abu S M Bari, Mohammad Z Hossain, Mohammad A H Khan
Background: Prostate hyperplasia and neoplasia are major illness of men and elderly dogs. Treatment of prostate cancer requires androgen deprivation surgery or therapy to prevent metastases and alleviate pain. Recently, six DNA vaccines have entered clinical trials against prostate cancer in humans with limited success. There is a need for new therapies that delay the establishment of malignancy and prolong survival. Materials and methods: A plasmid DNA vaccine coding for eight gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH-I) interspersed in eight T-helper epitopes was used...
December 2018: Prostate International
Özge Kuzgun, Sevda Özkardeşler, Şule Özbilgin, Mert Akan, Bekir Uğur Ergür, Gonca Kamacı, Mehmet Ensari Güneli, Nazire Ateş, Ali Rıza Şişman, Reci Meseri Dalak
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine before and after ischaemia in diabetic rat kidney ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury in the experimental diabetic rat model. Methods: Data belonging to 35 rats weighing between 250 and 300 g were analysed. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced using streptozotocin. Groups had bilateral renal vasculature clamped for 45 min ischaemia before clamps were removed, and 4 hours reperfusion was applied...
December 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Wilton T Snead, Wade F Zeno, Grace Kago, Ryan W Perkins, J Blair Richter, Chi Zhao, Eileen M Lafer, Jeanne C Stachowiak
Cellular membranes are continuously remodeled. The crescent-shaped bin-amphiphysin-rvs (BAR) domains remodel membranes in multiple cellular pathways. Based on studies of isolated BAR domains in vitro, the current paradigm is that BAR domain-containing proteins polymerize into cylindrical scaffolds that stabilize lipid tubules. But in nature, proteins that contain BAR domains often also contain large intrinsically disordered regions. Using in vitro and live cell assays, here we show that full-length BAR domain-containing proteins, rather than stabilizing membrane tubules, are instead surprisingly potent drivers of membrane fission...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
C De Miguel, R Sedaka, M Kasztan, J M Lever, M Sonnenberger, A Abad, C Jin, P K Carmines, D M Pollock, J S Pollock
AIM: Chronic high salt intake exaggerates renal injury and inflammation, especially with the loss of functional ETB receptors. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a chemical chaperone and bile salt that is approved for the treatment of hepatic diseases. Our aim was to determine whether TUDCA is reno-protective in a model of ETB receptor deficiency with chronic high salt-induced renal injury and inflammation. METHODS: ETB -deficient and transgenic control rats were placed on normal (0...
November 30, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Hua-Lin Zhou, Rongli Zhang, Puneet Anand, Colin T Stomberski, Zhaoxia Qian, Alfred Hausladen, Liwen Wang, Eugene P Rhee, Samir M Parikh, S Ananth Karumanchi, Jonathan S Stamler
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is protective against kidney injury, but the molecular mechanisms of this protection are poorly understood1,2 . Nitric oxide-based cellular signalling is generally mediated by protein S-nitrosylation, the oxidative modification of Cys residues to form S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). S-nitrosylation regulates proteins in all functional classes, and is controlled by enzymatic machinery that includes S-nitrosylases and denitrosylases, which add and remove SNO from proteins, respectively3,4 ...
November 28, 2018: Nature
Harold D Love, Mingfang Ao, Seiver Jorgensen, Lindsey Swearingen, Nicholas J Ferrell, Rachel C Evans, Leslie Gewin, Raymond C Harris, Roy Zent, Shuvo Roy, William H Fissell
End-stage renal disease afflicts nearly 750,000 Americans and claims over 100,000 lives annually in the United States. Kidney transplantation is associated with longest survival and least cost but is limited by scarcity of donor organs. Most patients are treated with hemodialysis. Each hemodialysis treatment consumes over 160 liters of water and anchors the patient to a machine for 12-15 hours per week. Cultured tubule cells can reduce the obligate fluid requirements of a bioengineered artificial kidney by concentrating wastes and reabsorbing filtered salt and water...
November 28, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Azadeh Nikouee, Keita Uchida, Ian Moench, Anatoli N Lopatin
Efficient excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular myocytes depends critically on the presence of the t-tubular network. It has been recently demonstrated that cholesterol, a major component of the lipid bilayer, plays an important role in long-term maintenance of the integrity of t-tubular system although mechanistic understanding of underlying processes is essentially lacking. Accordingly, in this study we investigated the contribution of membrane cholesterol to t-tubule remodeling in response to acute hyposmotic stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Eva Alicja Rog-Zielinska, Cherrie Hei Ting Kong, Callum Michael Zgierski-Johnston, Paul Verkade, Judith Mantell, Mark Bryden Cannell, Peter Kohl
Aims: The ultrastructure of ventricular cardiomyocyte T-tubule connections with the outer cell surface ('mouth' regions) has been reported to differ between mice and rabbits. In mice, T-tubule mouths form convoluted narrow spaces filled with electron-dense matter that impedes diffusion between T-tubular lumen and bulk extracellular space. Here, we explore whether T-tubule mouths are also constricted in rat (another murine model used frequently for cardiac research) and whether pig and human T-tubule mouth configurations are structurally more similar to mice or rabbits...
November 1, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jaqueline R Silva, Danilo T Amaral, Vadim R Viviani
The Malpighian tubules in insects play an essential role in osmoregulation, through the transport of ions during excretion, whereas the fat body is usually associated with the intermediary metabolism. The tubules also are involved in excretion of organic solutes and xenobiotics. However, with the exception of a preliminary transcriptional survey of the Zophobas morio (Tenebrionidae) larval tubules, there are no detailed transcriptional analysis of this organ in Coleoptera. A luciferase-like enzyme that displays weak luminescence activity in the presence of firefly D-luciferin and ATP was cloned from the tubules of Z...
November 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Peter J Carman, Roberto Dominguez
Actin filament assembly typically occurs in association with cellular membranes. A large number of proteins sit at the interface between actin networks and membranes, playing diverse roles such as initiation of actin polymerization, modulation of membrane curvature, and signaling. Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain proteins have been implicated in all of these functions. The BAR domain family of proteins comprises a diverse group of multi-functional effectors, characterized by their modular architecture. In addition to the membrane-curvature sensing/inducing BAR domain module, which also mediates antiparallel dimerization, most contain auxiliary domains implicated in protein-protein and/or protein-membrane interactions, including SH3, PX, PH, RhoGEF, and RhoGAP domains...
November 19, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Y I Mahmoud, F S Abo-Zied, S T Salem
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a well-known food contaminant. Although the kidney is thought to be a target organ for 3-MCPD toxicity, nephrotoxic structural changes are relatively unstudied. We investigated the renal alterations caused by 3-MCPD in male albino rats. 3-MCPD was administered orally, at a dose of 60 mg/kg for 7 days. 3-MCPD caused significant elevation of serum creatinine and urea levels together with hydropic degeneration, necrosis and shedding of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, urinary casts in the distal convoluted tubules and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration...
November 19, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Xin Shen, Jonas van den Brink, Yufeng Hou, Dylan Colli, Christopher Le, Terje R Kolstad, Niall MacQuaide, Cathrine R Carlson, Peter M Kekenes-Huskey, Andrew G Edwards, Christian Soeller, William E Louch
KEY POINTS: Using 3D direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), we developed novel approaches to quantitatively describe the nanoscale, 3D organization of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in cardiomyocytes. Complex arrangements of RyR clusters were observed in 3D space, both at the cell surface and within the cell interior, with allocation to dyadic and non-dyadic pools. 3D imaging importantly allowed discernment of clusters overlapping in the z-axis, for which detection was obscured by conventional 2D imaging techniques...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Hitesh Soni, Anberitha T Matthews, Sandeep Pallikkuth, Rajashekhar Gangaraju, Adebowale Adebiyi
Organ toxicity, including kidney injury, limits the use of cisplatin for the treatment of multiple human cancers. Hence, interventions to alleviate cisplatin-induced nephropathy are of benefit to cancer patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway enhances cisplatin efficacy against several cancer cells. However, whether augmentation of the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin by Notch inhibition comes at the cost of increased kidney injury is unclear...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Izzy Jayasinghe, Alexander H Clowsley, Oscar de Langen, Sonali S Sali, David J Crossman, Christian Soeller
Remodelling of the membranes and protein clustering patterns during the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies has renewed the interest in spatial visualisation of these structures in cardiomyocytes. Coincidental emergence of single molecule (super-resolution) imaging and tomographic electron microscopy tools in the last decade have led to a number of new observations on the structural features of the couplons, the primary sites of excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. In particular, super-resolution and tomographic electron micrographs have revised and refined the classical views of the nanoscale geometries of couplons, t-tubules and the organisation of the principal calcium handling proteins in both healthy and failing hearts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Z E Plyler, S E Birket, B D Schultz, J S Hong, S M Rowe, C F Petty, M R Crowley, D K Crossman, T R Schoeb, E J Sorscher
This study utilizes morphological and mechanistic endpoints to characterize the onset of bilateral atresia of the vas deferens in a recently derived cystic fibrosis (CF) rat model. Embryonic reproductive structures, including Wolffian (mesonephric) duct, Mullerian (paramesonephric) duct, mesonephric tubules, and gonad, were shown to mature normally through late embryogenesis, with involution of the vas deferens and/or epididymis typically occurring between birth and postnatal day 4 (P4), although timing and degree of atresia varied...
October 31, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Shehu-Tijani Shittu, Seyyid Alli Shittu, Afeez Ayobami Olatunji, Wahab Adekunle Oyeyemi
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the Ocimum gratissimum (OG) effects on sperm quality and testicular cytoarchitecture in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHOD: Twenty male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were assigned into 4 groups (n=5) as A (control), B (OG), C (Dia) and D (Dia+OG). Groups A and B were normal animals receiving distilled water or OG (400 mg/kg), respectively while diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in groups C and D, followed by the administration of distilled water or OG, respectively for 28 days...
October 30, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Shahid Muhammad Iqbal, Rosa Lemmens-Gruber
Cardiomyocytes are highly coordinated cells with multiple proteins organized in micro domains. Minor changes or interference in subcellular proteins can cause major disturbances in physiology. The cardiac sodium channel (NaV 1.5) is an important determinant of correct electrical activity in cardiomyocytes which are localized at intercalated discs, T-tubules and lateral membranes in the form of a macromolecular complex with multiple interacting protein partners. The channel is tightly regulated by post-translational modifications for smooth conduction and propagation of action potentials...
October 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
O Awodele, W A Badru, A A Busari, O E Kale, T B Ajayi, R O Udeh, P M Emeka
BACKGROUND: The misconception about dietary supplements being safe has led many into the in-patient wards. Cellgevity® (CGV) is a Max International premiere antioxidant supplement formula used by a large population. This study evaluated the effects of therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses of CGV on reproductive function and biochemical indices in Wistar rats. METHODS: Seventy-two Wistar rats weighing 130 ± 15.8 g were grouped into two categories (male or female) of six rats per group...
October 25, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ana De La Mata, Sendoa Tajada, Samantha O'Dwyer, Collin Matsumoto, Rose E Dixon, Nirmala Hariharan, Claudia M Moreno, Luis Fernando Santana
Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) are at the center of new cell-based therapies for cardiac disease, but may also serve as a useful in vitro model for cardiac cell development. An intriguing feature of hESC-CMs is that although they express contractile proteins and have sarcomeres, they do not develop transverse-tubules (T-tubules) with adult-like Ca2+ release units (CRUs). We tested the hypothesis that expression of the protein BIN1 in hESC-CMs promotes T-tubules formation, facilitates CaV 1...
October 23, 2018: Stem Cells
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