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Surface Modification

Xiaoxia Chang, Tuo Wang, Piaoping Yang, Gong Zhang, Jinlong Gong
The ever-increasing anthropogenic consumption of fossil fuels and the resulting large emission of CO2 have led to a severe energy crisis and climate change. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 into fuels using solar energy is considered as a promising way to address these two problems. In particular, photoelectrochemical (PEC) reduction of CO2 can integrate and optimize the advantages of both photocatalysis and electrocatalysis for improved conversion efficiency and selectivity. In addition to the charge generation and separation, the efficient reduction of CO2 on the surface of a semiconductor-based photoelectrode remains a scientifically critical challenge, which can be greatly enhanced by the surface modification of cocatalysts...
December 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Usman Riaz, Ishraq Shabib, Waseem Haider
Magnesium (Mg) has emerged as an ideal alternative to the permanent implant materials owing to its enhanced properties such as biodegradation, better mechanical strengths than polymeric biodegradable materials and biocompatibility. It has been under investigation as an implant material both in cardiovascular and orthopedic applications. The use of Mg as an implant material reduces the risk of long-term incompatible interaction of implant with tissues and eliminates the second surgical procedure to remove the implant, thus minimizes the complications...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
G Caiti, J G G Dobbe, A C Y Loenen, M Beerens, S D Strackee, G J Strijkers, G J Streekstra
PURPOSE: 3D-printed patient-specific instruments (PSIs), such as surgical guides and implants, show great promise for accurate navigation in surgical correction of post-traumatic deformities of the distal radius. However, existing costs of computer-aided design and manufacturing process prevent everyday surgical use. In this paper, we propose an innovative semiautomatic methodology to streamline the PSIs design. METHODS: The new method was implemented as an extension of our existing 3D planning software...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Priyanka Priyanka, Yeqi Tan, Gemma K Kinsella, Gary T Henehan, Barry J Ryan
OBJECTIVE: This review examines on our current understanding of microbial lipase solvent tolerance, with a specific focus on the molecular strategies employed to improve lipase stability in a non-aqueous environment. RESULTS: It provides an overview of known solvent tolerant lipases and of approaches to improving solvent stability such as; enhancing stabilising interactions, modification of residue flexibility and surface charge alteration. It shows that judicious selection of lipase source supplemented by appropriate enzyme stabilisation, can lead to a wide application spectrum for lipases...
December 7, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Hao Li, Tingting Ma, Man Zhang, Jiani Zhu, Jie Liu, Fei Tan
To improve the biological performance of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel as an injectable bone grafting scaffold, sodium methallyl sulphonate (SMAS) was incorporated into PEGDA hydrogel. The physiochemical properties of the resultant polymers were assessed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, zeta potential, surface morphology, and protein adsorption analysis. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the hydrogel to evaluate the effect of the sulphonated modification on their attachment, proliferation, and differentiation...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Viktoria Meyer-Kobbe, Katharina Doll, Meike Stiesch, Rainer Schwestka-Polly, Anton Demling
PURPOSE: The objective of this in situ study was to quantify the intraoral biofilm reduction on bracket material as a result of different surface modifications using silver ions. In addition to galvanic silver coating and physical vapor deposition (PVD), the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) procedure was investigated for the first time within an orthodontic application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An occlusal splint equipped with differently silver-modified test specimens based on stainless steel bracket material was prepared for a total of 12 periodontally healthy patients and was worn in the mouth for 48 h...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Marco Bürger, Joanne Chory
Deacetylation is the removal of an acetyl group and occurs on a plethora of targets and for a wide range of biological reasons. Several pathogens deacetylate their surface carbohydrates to evade immune response or to support biofilm formation. Furthermore, dynamic acetylation/deacetylation cycles govern processes from chromatin remodeling to posttranslational modifications that compete with phosphorylation. Acetylation usually occurs on nitrogen and oxygen atoms and are referred to as N- and O-acetylation, respectively...
2018: Communications biology
Myung-Jin Moon
Among the triad spinning units for capture thread producing system in the orb-web spiders, aqueous gluey substances are produced from two pairs of aggregate silk glands (ASG). Although biochemical analysis of glue substance is produced by way of their passage through the ASG, its structural modifications in the nodular area have been nearly neglected till now. This paper focused on identifying the fine structural characteristics of the aggregate nodules in the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavata using both of light and transmission electron microscopes...
2018: Animal Cells and Systems
Kelly Watters, Ann C Palmenberg
Viruses in the rhinovirus C species (RV-C) are more likely to cause severe wheezing illnesses and asthma exacerbations in children than related isolates of the RV-A or RV-B. The RV-C capsid is structurally distinct from other rhinoviruses and does not bind ICAM-1 or VLDL receptors. The RV-C receptor is instead, human cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3), a protein unique to the airway epithelium. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6967330, encoding C529Y) in CDHR3 regulates the display density of CDHR3 on cell surfaces and is among the strongest known genetic correlates for childhood virus-induced asthma susceptibility...
December 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
John A Scanelli, Geoffrey R Reiser, John F Sloboda, Joseph T Moskal
Elderly patients undergoing both elective and nonelective hip arthroplasty contribute markedly to health care spending, and the current aging population is likely to require even more resources. Several national joint replacement registries show a lower risk of revision surgery in patients older than 75 years who received cemented femoral components compared with cementless implants for primary total hip arthroplasty. Despite a higher incidence of early periprosthetic femoral fracture, noncemented femoral components are being used with increasing frequency in elderly patients worldwide...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
George M Carman, Gil-Soo Han
Phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that plays a major role in lipid homeostasis by controlling the cellular levels of its substrate, PA, and its product, diacylglycerol. These lipids are essential intermediates for the synthesis of triacylglycerol and membrane phospholipids; they also function in lipid signaling, vesicular trafficking, lipid droplet formation, and phospholipid synthesis gene expression. The importance of PA phosphatase to lipid homeostasis and cell physiology is exemplified in yeast, mice, and humans by a host of cellular defects and lipid-based diseases associated with loss or overexpression of the enzyme activity...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Milena M Awad, Kate L Seib, Maria Scarselli, Silvana Savino, Joe Tiralongo, Dena Lyras, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of hospital-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. C. difficile produces two cytotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, both toxins are multi-domain proteins that lead to cytotoxicity through the modification and inactivation of small GTPases of the Rho/Rac family. Previous studies have indicated that host glycans are targets for TcdA and TcdB, with interactions thought to be with both α- and β-linked galactose. In the current study, screening of glycan arrays with different domains of TcdA and TcdB revealed that the binding regions of both toxins interact with a wider range of host glycoconjugates than just terminal α- and β-linked galactose, including blood groups, Lewis antigens, N-Acetylglucosamine, mannose and glycosaminoglycans...
December 10, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Aaron H Nile, Rami N Hannoush
Wnt signaling regulates physiological processes ranging from cell differentiation to bone formation. Dysregulation of Wnt signaling is linked to several human ailments, including colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancers. As such, modulation of this pathway has been an attractive strategy for therapeutic development of anticancer agents. Since the discovery of Wnt proteins more than 35 years ago, research efforts continue to focus on understanding the biochemistry of their molecular interactions and their biological functions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Emilia Palo, Mikko Salomäki, Mika Lastusaari
The use of upconverting nanoparticles in various applications in aqueous media relies on their surface modifications as most synthesis routes yield hydrophobic particles. However, introducing upconverting nanoparticles in aqueous solutions commonly results in the quenching of their luminescence intensity and in the worst case, disintegration of the nanoparticles. We demonstrate the use of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) as a protecting layer-by-layer coating for the upconverting NaYF4 :Yb3+ ,Er3+ nanoparticles...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Haifeng Zhang, Qifeng Dang, Chengsheng Liu, Dejun Yu, Yan Wang, Xiaoying Pu, Yan Liu, Yuanyuan Liang, Dongsu Cha
MCS-MA-TEPA microparticles, with 251.22 mg g-1 of adsorption capacity for Cd(II), higher than most of the counterparts, were first fabricated by chemical coprecipitation, spray drying, and Michael addition reaction, without any cross-linker participation. These Fe3 O4 -nanoparticle-embedded microparticles of 5.95 μm in size, derived from modifications by methyl acrylate (MA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) on magnetic chitosan (MCS) microparticles, were of plum-pudding-like and wrinkle-like topography portrayed by TEM and SEM...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
R K Kasimanickam, V R Kasimanickam, A Arangasamy, J P Kastelic
Sperm are highly specialized compartmentalized cells, with unique compositional, morphological and functional properties, including a plasma membrane that undergoes dynamic protein remodeling and surface modifications. Seminal plasma is a highly complex biological fluid containing proteins, amino acids, enzymes, fructose and other carbohydrates, lipids, major minerals and trace elements. Seminal plasma proteins are involved in regulation of osmotic pressure and pH of seminal plasma, transport of ions, lipid and hormones...
November 28, 2018: Theriogenology
Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Susmita Aryal, Arunkumar Pitchaimani, Sanghyo Park, Jaehong Key, Santosh Aryal
The rationale for the design of drug delivery nanoparticles is traditionally based on co-solvent self-assembly following bottom-up approaches or in combination with top-down approaches leading to tailored physiochemical properties to regulate biological responses. However, the optimal design and control of material properties to achieve specific biological responses remain the central challenge in drug delivery research. Considering this goal, we herein designed discoidal polymeric particles (DPPs) whose surfaces are re-engineered with isolated red blood cell (RBC) membranes to tailor their pharmacokinetics...
December 7, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Derong Lin, Wei Zhou, Qi He, Baoshan Xing, Zhijun Wu, Hong Chen, Dingtao Wu, Qing Zhang, Wen Qin
Compared with the traditional method, the microwave assisted method can greatly shorten the reaction time of hydroxypropyl starch and improve product quality. The microwave assisted conditions and physicochemical properties of natural corn starch were studied. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the reaction conditions of three-level-three-factorial center composite design. The optimum parameters are as follows: the additive amount of propylene oxide is 8%, the radiation time is 6.08 min, and the microwave power is 303...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Noemí Encinas, Mercedes Angulo, Carlos Astorga, Montserrat Colilla, Isabel Izquierdo-Barba, María Vallet-Regí
The design of drug delivery systems needs to consider biocompatibility and host body recognition for an adequate actuation. In this work, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) surfaces were successfully modified with two silane molecules to provide mixed-charge brushes (-NH3 ⊕ /-PO3 ⊝ ) and well evaluated in terms of surface properties, low-fouling capability and cell uptake in comparison to PEGylated MSNs. The modification process consists in the simultaneous direct-grafting of hydrolysable short chain amino (aminopropyl silanetriol, APST) and phosphonate-based (trihydroxy-silyl-propyl-methyl-phosphonate, THSPMP) silane molecules able to provide a pseudo-zwitterionic nature under physiological pH conditions...
December 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Sirikorn Kitiyodom, Somrudee Kaewmalun, Naiyaphat Nittayasut, Kunat Suktham, Suvimol Surassmo, Katawut Namdee, Channarong Rodkhum, Nopadon Pirarat, Teerapong Yata
Vaccination is the most effective approach for prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture. Although immersion vaccination is more applicable compared to in-feed/oral administration and injection, this method suffers from low potency as the efficiency of uptake of antigens through mucosal membranes is limited. In this study, we have successfully developed a mucoadhesive vaccine delivery system to enhance the efficacy of direct immersion vaccination against Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in red tilapia...
December 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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