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Immune mechanics

Lu Sun, Lixia Chen, Hua Li
Tumor immunotherapy, as a new treatment of cancer, has been developing on the basis of tumor immunology. Tumor immunotherapy stimulates and enhances the function of immune system in human bodies, in order to control and kill tumor cells. It is often used as an adjuvant therapy combined with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other conventional methods. Cancer immunotherapies involve cells, antibodies and cytokines, etc. Some immunotherapies are widely used to activate the immune system, while some others precisely target at different tumor antigens...
December 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Yuanyue Zhang, Lingyun Li, Chang Qi, Shuyao Hua, Xiaoyuan Fei, Feili Gong, Min Fang
Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid compound, has been reported to be an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases including hepatitis. However, the mechanism by which glycyrrhizin inhibits inflammation is unclear. Using a Con A-induced hepatitis model in mice, we found that administration of glycyrrhizin ameliorates Con A-induced liver injury, which manifests as reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17, as well as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rong Bohan, Xia Tianyu, Zhang Tiantian, Feng Ruonan, Huang Hongtao, Wu Qiong, Sun Chao
Normally, the gut microbiota has a mutually beneficial association with host health and maintains its commensal status in mammals. Conversely, it can also negatively influence host physiology under some certain circumstances, including obesity and other disease states. Although numerous gut microbial functions directly affect the gastrointestinal tract, in this paper, we focus on the influences of the gut microbiota on host adipose tissue and energy metabolism, particularly lipometabolism. We thoroughly discuss two important microbial products, short-chain fat acids and lipopolysaccharides, which are linked to several mechanisms involved in obesity and adipose, including differentiation, energy metabolism and immunity...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Marco Gentili, Simona Ronchetti, Erika Ricci, Rosanna Di Paola, Enrico Gugliandolo, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Oxana Bereshchenko, Graziella Migliorati, Carlo Riccardi
Cannabinoids are known to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. CB2 is the cannabinoid receptor that is expressed primarily on hematopoietic cells and mediates the immunoregulatory functions of cannabinoids. In order to study the effect of JTE907, a selective/inverse agonist of CB2 with anti-inflammatory properties, on the differentiation of T cell subtypes, we used an in vitro system of Th lineage-specific differentiation of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes isolated from the mouse spleen...
December 12, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Takamasa Kido, Kenji Ishiwata, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
Nutritional zinc deficiency leads to immune dysfunction and aggravates inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, the relationship between macrophage subtypes (M1 and M2) or helper T lymphocytes (Th1 and Th2) were investigated using the spleen from rats fed zinc-deficient or standard diet. In experiment I, five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed zinc-deficient diet (without zinc additives) or standard diet (containing 0.01% zinc) for 6 weeks. In experiment II, the rats were divided into four groups: one group was fed a standard diet for 6 weeks; two groups were fed zinc-deficient diet and were injected three times a week with either saline or interleukin (IL)-4 (zinc-deficient/IL-4 i...
December 15, 2018: Immunology
Zhi-Min Wei, Zhuo Wang, Xiao-Jian Wan, Xian-Jing Li, Yi-Xing Li, Yang Bai, Xue Yang, Yong Yang, Shun-Chang Jiao, Zhe-Feng Liu
Fc receptor common γ signaling chain (FcRγ), a common subunit shared by Fc receptors (FcγRI, III, IV, FcαRI, and FcεRI), is an important immune regulator both in innate and adaptive immunity. Previous studies have shown that FcRγ was a potential target of inflammatory diseases, whereas the role of FcRγ in sepsis has been poorly understood. In this study, we found that deficiency of FcRγ resulted in increased survival in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine and E. coli-induced sepsis in mice. This protective effect was characterized by decreased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10...
December 14, 2018: Immunologic Research
Seza Ozen
The pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases has shed light on the concept of inflammation in general and on our understanding of the role of the innate immune system. The autoinflammatory diseases have a large spectrum with varying features of inflammation. The most common autoinflammatory diseases are those associated with periodic fevers. The delay in diagnosis of these four common diseases (familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndrome, mevalonate kinase deficiency, and TNF receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome) results in secondary amyloidosis of the kidney...
December 14, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Mario Mandalà, Piotr Rutkowski
The recent advances in cancer immunotherapy with unprecedented success in therapy of advanced melanoma represent a turning point in the landscape of melanoma treatment. Given the complexity of activation of immunological system and the physiologic multifactorial homeostatic mechanisms controlling immune responses, combinatorial strategies are eagerly needed in melanoma therapy. Nevertheless, rational selection of immunotherapy combinations should be more biomarker-guided, including not only the cancer immunogram, PD-L1 expression, interferon gene expression signature, mutational burden, and tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells but also intratumoral T cell exhaustion and microbiota composition...
December 14, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Anaïs Menny, Marina Serna, Courtney M Boyd, Scott Gardner, Agnel Praveen Joseph, B Paul Morgan, Maya Topf, Nicholas J Brooks, Doryen Bubeck
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is one of the immune system's first responders. Complement proteins assemble on target membranes to form pores that lyse pathogens and impact tissue homeostasis of self-cells. How MAC disrupts the membrane barrier remains unclear. Here we use electron cryo-microscopy and flicker spectroscopy to show that MAC interacts with lipid bilayers in two distinct ways. Whereas C6 and C7 associate with the outer leaflet and reduce the energy for membrane bending, C8 and C9 traverse the bilayer increasing membrane rigidity...
December 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Bennett Davenport, Jens Eberlein, Verena van der Heide, Kevin Jhun, Tom T Nguyen, Francisco Victorino, Andrew Trotta, Jerry Chipuk, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Eric T Clambey, Donald K Scott, Dirk Homann
Aging of established antiviral T cell memory can foster a series of progressive adaptations that paradoxically improve rather than compromise protective CD8+ T cell immunity. We now provide evidence that this gradual evolution, the pace of which is contingent on the precise context of the primary response, also impinges on the molecular mechanisms that regulate CD8+ memory T cell (TM ) homeostasis. Over time, CD8+ TM generated in the wake of an acute infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus become more resistant to apoptosis and acquire enhanced cytokine responsiveness without adjusting their homeostatic proliferation rates; concurrent metabolic adaptations promote increased CD8+ TM quiescence and fitness but also impart the reacquisition of a partial effector-like metabolic profile; and a gradual redistribution of aging CD8+ TM from blood and nonlymphoid tissues to lymphatic organs results in CD8+ TM accumulations in bone marrow, splenic white pulp, and, particularly, lymph nodes...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Nikolay V Ogryzko, Amy Lewis, Heather L Wilson, Annemarie H Meijer, Stephen A Renshaw, Philip M Elks
Drug-resistant mycobacteria are a rising problem worldwide. There is an urgent need to understand the immune response to tuberculosis to identify host targets that, if targeted therapeutically, could be used to tackle these currently untreatable infections. In this study we use an Il-1β fluorescent transgenic line to show that there is an early innate immune proinflammatory response to well-established zebrafish models of inflammation and Mycobacterium marinum infection. We demonstrate that host-derived hypoxia signaling, mediated by the Hif-1α transcription factor, can prime macrophages with increased levels of Il-1β in the absence of infection, upregulating neutrophil antimicrobial NO production, leading to greater protection against infection...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Duncan Wilson
Pathogens often face zinc restriction due to the action of nutritional immunity - host processes which restrict microbial access to key micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Candida albicans scavenges environmental zinc via two pathways. The plasma membrane transporter Zrt2 is essential for zinc uptake and growth in acidic environments. Neutralisation to pH 7 severely decreases the solubility of ionic Zn2+ ; this increase in pH triggers expression and activity of a second zinc scavenging system, the zincophore...
December 11, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Kyung-Ah Lee, Won-Jae Lee
Immune-metabolic interactions are evolutionarily conserved phenomena observed in all metazoans, from invertebrates to vertebrates. Although it is believed that immune activation drives chronic metabolic diseases, clear conclusions about the reasons and mechanisms of cross-talk between immune and metabolic signaling cannot be drawn. The Drosophila insect model equipped with genetically well-defined immune and metabolic signaling pathways is suitable in understanding the molecular codes underlying immune-metabolic interactions...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Michelle M Lissner, David S Schneider
Immunology textbooks teach us about the ways hosts can recognize and kill microbes but leave out something important: the mechanisms used to survive infections. Survival depends on more than simply detecting and eliminating microbes; it requires that we prevent and repair the damage caused by pathogens and the immune response. Recent work in insects is helping to build our understanding of this aspect of pathology, called disease tolerance. Here we discuss papers that explore disease tolerance using theoretical, population genetics, and mechanistic approaches...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
William J Liu, Rongrong Zou, Yongfei Hu, Min Zhao, Chuansong Quan, Shuguang Tan, Kai Luo, Jing Yuan, Haixia Zheng, Jue Liu, Min Liu, Yuhai Bi, Jinghua Yan, Baoli Zhu, Dayan Wang, Guizhen Wu, Lei Liu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, George F Gao, Yingxia Liu
BACKGROUND: Bacterial co-infection of patients suffering from influenza pneumonia is a key element that increases morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii co-infection in patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection has been described as one of the most prevalent bacterial co-infections. However, the clinical and laboratory features of this entity of H7N9 and A. baumannii co-infection have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: We collected clinical and laboratory data from laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases co-infected by A...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xing Su, Yueping Li, Meng Jiang, Jinglin Zhu, Chunli Zheng, Xuetong Chen, Jun Zhou, Yan Li, Wei Xiao, Yonghua Wang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become one of the most general malignancies in the world and has been shown to be the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is considered to be a useful medicine for survival, and has been used in Asia for thousands of years. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is an important folk herb that is used in clinical treatment of various cancers in various Chinese medicine prescriptions. However, its underlying mechanism of action remains unclear...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lei Shi, Juanli Xi, Ximing Xu, Bo Peng, Binghong Zhang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are suggested to be responsible for high recurrence rate and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Identifying novel targets that can suppress CSCs proliferation and metastasis may provide novel approach to combat against CRC. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-148a in cisplatin-resistant CRC cells with enhanced stem cell marker expression and explored the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we used cisplatin to selectively enrich cisplatin-resistant CRC cells from SW480 cell line, and these selected cisplatin-resistant SW480 cells were with significantly enhanced expression of stem cell markers and increased chemoresistance...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Meng Xu, Xue-Yun Duan, Qian-Yun Chen, Heng Fan, Zong-Chao Hong, Shuang-Jiao Deng, Zhen Nan, Hui Wu, Ya-Lan Dong, Yu-Jin Liu, Cheng-Zhi Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Compound sophorae decoction, a Chinese medicinal formulae composed of six Chinese herbs, is effective for the clinical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Some of its effective monomers had been proven to have suppressive effect on UC models. The aim of this study is to further explore the mechanism whether compound sophorae decoction ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mice colitis by regulating the balance between T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, prevalent, debilitating joint disease characterized by progressive cartilage degradation, subchondral bone remodeling, bone marrow lesions, meniscal damage, and synovitis. Innate immune cells (natural killer cells, macrophages, and mast cells) play the most important pathogenic role in the early inflammatory response, while cells of adaptive immunity (CD4 + Th1 lymphocytes and antibody producing B cells) significantly contribute to the development of chronic, relapsing course of inflammation in OA patients...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhenhuan Li, Furong Wu, Dafeng Xu, Zhongzheng Zhi, Guanghui Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event, leading to the progression of chronic neuropathic pain syndrome. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) is an innate immune receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. TREM1 enhances inflammatory response in various models of diseases, but its significance in SCI remains unclear. In the present study, we attempted to explore the effects of TREM1 on the regulation of SCI. Spinal cord contusion injury was performed in wild type (WT) and TREM1-knockout (TREM1KO ) mice, and real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot, and immunofluorescent (IF) staining were used to calculate TREM1, inflammation and oxidative stress in spinal cord tissues 42 days after SPII...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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