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Immune mechanics

Zhongjie Chen, Zhiqiang Wu, Wen Ning
Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a common complication in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer after receiving thoracic radiotherapy. The average incidence of RIPF is 16%-28% after radiotherapy. RIPF includes a heterogeneous group of lung disorders characterized by progressive and irreversible destruction of lung architecture and disruption of gas exchange. The clinical signs of RIPF include increasing dyspnea, deteriorating lung function, and accumulation of interstitial fluid, eventually leading to respiratory failure...
October 17, 2018: Translational Oncology
Jacint G Sanchez, Konstantin M J Sparrer, Cindy Chiang, Rebecca A Reis, Jessica J Chiang, Matthew A Zurenski, Yueping Wan, Michaela U Gack, Owen Pornillos
TRIM25 is a multi-domain, RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase of the tripartite motif family that has important roles in multiple RNA-dependent processes. In particular, TRIM25 functions as an effector of RIG-I and ZAP, which are innate immune sensors that recognize viral RNA and induce ubiquitin-dependent anti-viral response mechanisms. TRIM25 is reported to also bind RNA, but the molecular details of this interaction or its relevance to anti-viral defense have not been elucidated. Here, we characterize the RNA-binding activity of TRIM25 and find that the protein binds both single-stranded and double-stranded RNA...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Susan L Stevens, Tao Liu, Frances Rena Bahjat, Vladislav A Petyuk, Athena A Schepmoes, Ryan L Sontag, Marina A Gritsenko, Chaochao Wu, Sheng Wang, Anil K Shukla, Jon M Jacobs, Richard D Smith, Karin D Rodland, G Alexander West, Steven G Kohama, Christine Glynn, Mary P Stenzel-Poore
Each year, thousands of patients are at risk of cerebral ischemic injury, due to iatrogenic responses to surgical procedures. Prophylactic treatment of these patients as standard care could minimize potential neurological complications. We have shown that protection of brain tissue, in a non-human primate model of cerebral ischemic injury, is possible through pharmacological preconditioning using the immune activator D192935. We postulate that preconditioning with D192935 results in neuroprotective reprogramming that is evident in the brain following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia...
October 19, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Bradlee L Heckmann, Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in development, homeostasis, and both control and progression of a plethora of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies. Besides classical apoptosis, several different forms of PCD have now been recognized, including necroptosis. The way a cell dies determines the reaction of the surrounding environment, and immune activation in response to cell death proceeds in a manner dependent on which death pathways are activated. Apoptosis and necroptosis are major mechanisms of cell death that typically result in opposing immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Zhenyi Su, Slawomir A Dziedzic, Die Hu, Vica Jean Barrett, Nicole Broekema, Wanjin Li, Lihui Qian, Na Jia, Dimitry Ofengeim, Ayaz Najafov, Hong Zhu, David M Knipe, Junying Yuan
ABIN-1 (encoded by the gene Tnip1) is a ubiquitin-binding protein that can interact with ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 (encoded by the gene TNFAIP3) to restrain the activation of necroptosis and NF-κB activation. Genetic variants in the genes Tnip1 and TNFAIP3 are both strongly associated with susceptibility to autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans. Here we investigated the mechanism by which ABIN-1 regulated innate immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Dragan Milenkovic, Wim Vanden Berghe, Christine Morand, Sylvain Claude, Annette van de Sandt, Simone Gorressen, Laurent-Emmanuel Monfoulet, Chandra S Chirumamilla, Ken Declerck, Katarzyna Szarc Vel Szic, Maija Lahtela-Kakkonen, Clarissa Gerhauser, Marc W Merx, Malte Kelm
Although vasculo-protective effects of flavan-3-ols are widely accepted today, their impact on endothelial cell functions and molecular mechanisms of action involved is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the potential endothelium-protective effects of circulating epicatechin metabolites and to define underlying mechanisms of action by an integrated systems biology approach. Reduced leukocyte rolling over vascular endothelium was observed following epicatechin supplementation in a mouse model of inflammation...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaochun Xue, Jianhua Wu, Junhui Li, Jianguo Xu, Haiying Dai, Congshan Tao, Chao Li, Jinhong Hu
It was previously reported that the expression of CD274 was down-regulated in psoriatic epidermis, leading to immune disorders of psoriasis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CD274 were rarely elucidated. We aimed to explore the regulatory mechanisms of CD274.Skin samples were collected from 18 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 9 healthy participants for RNA sequencing. Candidate genes were chosen based on degree and k-core difference of genes in the co-expression network. The relations between candidate genes and CD274 were validated by flow cytometry and realtime PCR in primary human epidermal keratinocytes...
October 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Tiantian Wang, Chengqi He
Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by joint malfunction and chronic disability, is the most common form of arthritis. Clinical and animal experiments reveal that age-related OA is associated with many factors such as age, sex, trauma, and obesity. One of the most influential and modifiable risk factors is obesity. Obesity not only increases mechanical stress on the tibiofemoral cartilage, but also leads to a higher prevalence of OA in non-weight-bearing areas. There is a link between obesity and inflammation...
October 11, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Xia Zhang, Ming-Chao Zhang, Chun-Tian Wang
Despite advances in therapeutic strategies, heart failure-associated mortality rates remain high. Thus, understanding the pathophysiological molecular mechanisms involved in the remodeling process is essential for developing new and effective therapies. LRRs are present various prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins and important for the innate immune system via regulating protein-protein interactions. LRRC25 is a member of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing protein family. LRRC25 has been shown to negatively modulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, a crucial factor related to cardiac hypertrophy...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hong-Di Ma, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Wen-Tao Ma, Qing-Zhi Liu, Cai-Yue Gao, Liang Li, Jinjun Wang, Koichi Tsuneyama, Bin Liu, Weici Zhang, Yongjian Zhou, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Gut microbiota and bacterial translocation have been implicated as significant contributors to mucosal immune responses and tolerance; alteration of microbial molecules, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and bacterial translocation are associated with immune pathology. However, the mechanisms by which dysregulated gut microbiota promotes autoimmunity is unclear. We have taken advantage of a well-characterized murine model of primary biliary cholangitis, dnTGFβRII mice, and an additional unique construct, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-deficient dnTGFβRII mice coined dnTGFβRIITLR2-/- mice to investigate the influences of gut microbiota on autoimmune cholangitis...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Jan Dudeck, Julia Froebel, Johanna Kotrba, Christian H K Lehmann, Diana Dudziak, Stephan Speier, Sergei A Nedospasov, Burkhart Schraven, Anne Dudeck
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are best known as key effector cells of allergic reactions but they also play an important role in host defense against pathogens. Despite increasing evidence for a critical impact of MCs on adaptive immunity, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Here, we monitored MC intercellular communication with dendritic cells (DCs), MC activation and degranulation and tracked the fate of exocytosed MC granules during skin inflammation...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Chen Huang, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins in animal feed worldwide and causes significant threats to the animal production. The intestine is an important mucosal immune organ in teleost, and it is also the first target for feed-borne toxicants in animal. However, studies concerning the effect of DON on fish intestine are scarce. This study explored the effects of DON on intestinal immune function in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1440 juvenile grass carp (12.17 ± 0...
October 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Diana Pietrowski, Laura Donner, Jana Kromer, Alexander H Schmidt, Jürgen Sauter, Thomas Hummel, Ilona Croy
The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene complex that encodes important elements of the human immune system. HLA profile is communicated via olfaction and interindividual diversity is assumed to be advantageous for mate choice. Additionally, HLA diversity appears to enhance satisfaction and sexual attraction in existing romantic partnerships. However, whether this effect is transmitted via body odors and whether it results in an attraction towards HLA-dissimilar individuals and/or an avoidance of HLA-similar ones remains unclear...
October 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Youming Zhang, Saffron A G Willis-Owen, Sarah Spiegel, Clare M Lloyd, Miriam F Moffatt, William O C M Cookson
RATIONALE: Polymorphisms on chromosome 17q21 confer the major genetic susceptibility to childhood-onset asthma. Risk alleles positively correlate with ORMDL3 expression. The locus influences disease severity and the frequency of human rhinovirus (HRV) initiated exacerbations. ORMDL3 is known to regulate sphingolipid synthesis by binding serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), but its role in inflammation is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of ORMDL3 in cellular inflammation...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Fang Geng, Yunxiao Xie, Jinqiu Wang, Kaustav Majumder, Ning Qiu, Meihu Ma
Posttranslational N-glycosylation of food proteins plays a critical role in their structure and function. However, the N-glycoproteome of chicken egg yolk (CEY) has not been studied yet. Glycopeptides hydrolyzed from CEY proteins were enriched, with deglycosylation occurring using PNGase F, and then were identified using a shotgun glycoproteomics strategy. A total of 217 N-glycosylation sites and 86 glycoproteins were identified in CEY, and these glycoproteins are mainly involved in the binding, biological regulation, catalytic activity, and metabolic processes...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kuanhou Mou, Wei Liu, Yi Miao, Fang Cao, Pan Li
Oxidative stress leads to melanocyte death and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. The nuclear factor, E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a critical transcription factor in protecting cells from oxidative damage. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin-associated nuclear protein and an extracellular damage-associated molecular pattern molecule. Extracellular HMGB1 released from activated immune cells, necrotic or injured cells, becomes a proinflammatory mediator through binding to cell-surface receptors of responding cells...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Xin Yang, Caiji Zhang, Guozhen Chen, Chengming Sun, Jinming Li
The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in maternal-fetal immune tolerance. We searched the related literatures and overviewed the major antibodies associated with pregnancy and described in details their possible roles in mediating maternal-fetal interactions. Antibodies classified into different types based on their functional or structural characteristics were summarized, including immunoglobulin G, blocking antibody, nonprecipitating asymmetric antibody, antiphospholipid antibody, antitrophoblast antibody and antipaternal antibody...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Ciro Romano, Giovanna Cuomo, Roberta Ferrara, Andrea Del Mastro, Sergio Esposito, Ausilia Sellitto, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with myriad extrahepatic manifestations, often resulting from aberrant immune responses. Among the most common immune-mediated manifestations of HCV infection, mixed cryoglobulinemia is the best known extra-hepatic complication. Areas covered: Here we review less common extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, with ascertained or presumed immune pathogenesis and the role of the new all oral direct-acting antiviral agents. Rheumatologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, renal, pulmonary, hematologic, cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric manifestations of HCV infection have been considered...
October 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Jing Chen, Yue Tang, Yun Liu, Yushun Dou
Nucleic acid-based therapeutics present huge potential in the treatment of pulmonary diseases ranging from lung cancer to asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases, which are often fatal and widely prevalent. The susceptibility of nucleic acids to degradation and the complex structure of lungs retard the effective pulmonary delivery of nucleic acid drug. To overcome these barriers, different strategies have been exploited to increase the delivery efficiency using chemically synthesized nucleic acids, vector encapsulation, proper formulation, and administration route...
October 18, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Sauri Hernández-Reséndiz, Mónica Muñoz-Vega, Whendy E Contreras, Gustavo E Crespo-Avilan, Julian Rodriguez-Montesinos, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Oscar Pérez-Méndez, William A Boisvert, Klaus T Preissner, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes
One of the primary therapeutic goals of modern cardiology is to design strategies aimed at minimizing myocardial infarct size and optimizing cardiac function following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients with AMI who underwent reperfusion therapy display dysfunction of the coronary endothelium. Consequently, ischemic endothelial cells become more permeable and weaken their natural anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory potential. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with activation of the humoral and cellular components of the hemostatic and innate immune system, and also with excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase, and with inflammatory processes...
August 2018: Conditioning medicine
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