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Laura Lema Perez, Jose Garcia-Tirado, Carlos Builes-Montaño, Hernan Alvarez
The stomach is a segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract which receives food from the esophagus, mixes it, breaks it down, and then passes it on to the small intestine in smaller portions. In the stomach, the main secretory functions and digestion process begin. However, the most critical and important function of the stomach in digestive physiology is perhaps gastric motility. In this way, the functions of the stomach are mainly three: (i) the storage of large quantities of food to be further processed in the duodenum, and lower intestinal tract, (ii) the mixing of this food with gastric secretions to form a semi-fluid mixture, and (iii) to slow down the emptying of that semi-fluid mixture into the small intestine at a rate suitable for proper digestion and absorption...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Christopher Martin Sauer, Jinghui Dong, Leo Anthony Celi, Daniele Ramazzotti
Purpose: Cancer patients are at increased risk of treatment- or disease-related admission to the intensive care unit [1]. Over the past decades, both critical care and cancer care have improved substantially. Due to increased cancer-specific survival [2], we hypothesized that the number of cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and survival have increased. Materials and Methods: MIMIC-III [3] was used to study trends and outcomes of cancer patients admitted to the ICU between 2002 and 2011...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Vasilios G Athyros, Niki Katsiki, Aikaterini Dimakopoulou, Dimitrios Patoulias, Sofia Alataki, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Drugs mimicking natural beneficial mutations, including that for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), might represent the future of hypolipidemic drug treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to review the properties and the effects of these drugs, which are either already commercially available or are in the process to be approved for the treatment of dyslipidemia. RESULTS: More than a decade ago, it was accidentally discovered that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) loss-of-function mutations resulted in marked lifelong reduction of LDL-C and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
October 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jin Ma, Jun Zhang, Yuan-Chi Weng, Jian-Cheng Wang
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive cancers presenting with high rates of invasion and metastasis, and unfavorable prognoses. The current study aims to investigate whether EZH2/miR-139-5p axis affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) in PC, and the mechanism how EZH2 regulates miR-139-5p. Human PC and adjacent normal tissues were collected to determine expression of EZH2 and miR-139-5p, and their relationship with clinicopathological features of PC. Human PC cell line was selected, and treated with miR-139-5p mimics/inhibitors, EZH2 vector or shEZH2 in order to validate the regulation of EZH2-mediated miR-139-5p in PC cells ...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ary Serpa Neto, Rodrigo Octavio Deliberato, Alistair E W Johnson, Lieuwe D Bos, Pedro Amorim, Silvio Moreto Pereira, Denise Carnieli Cazati, Ricardo L Cordioli, Thiago Domingos Correa, Tom J Pollard, Guilherme P P Schettino, Karina T Timenetsky, Leo A Celi, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J Schultz
PURPOSE: Mechanical power (MP) may unify variables known to be related to development of ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this study is to examine the association between MP and mortality in critically ill patients receiving invasive ventilation for at least 48 h. METHODS: This is an analysis of data stored in the databases of the MIMIC-III and eICU. Critically ill patients receiving invasive ventilation for at least 48 h were included. The exposure of interest was MP...
October 5, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Alexander Meyer, Dina Zverinski, Boris Pfahringer, Jörg Kempfert, Titus Kuehne, Simon H Sündermann, Christof Stamm, Thomas Hofmann, Volkmar Falk, Carsten Eickhoff
BACKGROUND: The large amount of clinical signals in intensive care units can easily overwhelm health-care personnel and can lead to treatment delays, suboptimal care, or clinical errors. The aim of this study was to apply deep machine learning methods to predict severe complications during critical care in real time after cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS: We used deep learning methods (recurrent neural networks) to predict several severe complications (mortality, renal failure with a need for renal replacement therapy, and postoperative bleeding leading to operative revision) in post cardiosurgical care in real time...
September 28, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Manoj Saxena, Sergio A Loza-Rosas, Kavita Gaur, Shweta Sharma, Sofia C Pérez Otero, Arthur D Tinoco
Despite its natural abundance and widespread use as food, paint additive, and in bone implants, no specific biological function of titanium is known in the human body. High concentrations of Ti(IV) could result in cellular toxicity, however, the absence of Ti toxicity in the blood of patients with titanium bone implants indicates the presence of one or more biological mechanisms to mitigate toxicity. Similar to Fe(III), Ti(IV) in blood binds to the iron transport protein serum transferrin (sTf), which gives credence to the possibility of its cellular uptake mechanism by transferrin-directed endocytosis...
May 15, 2018: Coordination Chemistry Reviews
Gyles E Cozier, K Ravi Acharya
Bacterial pathogens use several strategies to infect host cells, one of which involves blocking host defenses. During infection, the bacterial effector proteins GtgA, GogA, PipA, and NleC are injected into host cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS), where they suppress the proinflammatory NF-κB signaling pathway to dampen immune responses. The authors demonstrate that these effectors bind NF-κB via their DNA-mimicking regions and uncover differences in effector sequences and structures explaining the individual specificities of these effectors for distinct NF-κB subunits...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ragnhildur I Bjarnadottir, Robert J Lucero
Introduction: Hospital falls are a continuing clinical concern, with over one million falls occurring each year in the United States. Annually, hospital-acquired falls result in an estimated $34 billion in direct medical costs. Falls are considered largely preventable and, as a result, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that fall-related injuries are no longer a reimbursable hospital cost. While policies and practices have been implemented to reduce falls, little sustained reduction has been achieved...
September 20, 2018: EGEMS
Zhongheng Zhang, Carlie Zhu, Lei Mo, Yucai Hong
OBJECTIVE: Although sodium bicarbonate (SB) solution has been widely used in clinical practice, its effect on mortality when administered to a large population of patients with acidosis is not known. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of SB infusion in septic patients with metabolic acidosis. METHODS: Septic patients with metabolic acidosis were identified from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC)-III database. Propensity score (PS) was used to account for the baseline differences in the probability to receive SB or not...
September 25, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Ganesh K Jaganathan, Kirsty J Yule, Matthew Biddick
Dormancy caused by impermeable seed coats, i.e. physical dormancy (PY), regulates the timing of seed germination in species of several genera belonging to 18 angiosperm families. Physical dormancy also occurs in some mimetic species whose seeds mimic brightly coloured, fleshy fruits or arilled seeds. However, the conditions that break dormancy, as well as the location of water gaps in mimetic seeds, remain unclear. Here, we investigated the adaptive role of impermeable coats in the mimetic seeds of Adenanthera pavonina (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae)...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Cheng-Kuan Su, Jo-Chin Chen
To substantially simplify the fabrication of analytical devices for rapid screening tests, in this study we employed multi-material fused deposition modeling-type three-dimensional printing (3DP) and two functionalized thermoplastic filaments-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) incorporating peroxidase-mimicking iron oxide (Fe3 O4 ) nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) infiltrated with the chromogenic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD)-for the one-step manufacture of enzyme/substrate-incorporated multi-well plates...
December 7, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sarah Hijazi, Daniela Visaggio, Mattia Pirolo, Emanuela Frangipani, Lawrence Bernstein, Paolo Visca
ESKAPE bacteria are a major cause of multidrug-resistant infections, and new drugs are urgently needed to combat these pathogens. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial drugs. In this scenario, the FDA-approved iron mimetic metal Gallium [Ga(III)] has been successfully repurposed as an antimicrobial drug. Ga(III) disrupts ferric iron-dependent metabolic pathways, thereby inhibiting microbial growth...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sophia Davidson
Influenza viruses (IVs) are a continual threat to global health. The high mutation rate of the IV genome makes this virus incredibly successful, genetic drift allows for annual epidemics which result in thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations. Moreover, the emergence of new strains through genetic shift (e.g., swine-origin influenza A) can cause devastating global outbreaks of infection. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently used to treat IV infection and act directly on viral proteins to halt IV spread...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
J E García-Gallo, N J Fonseca-Ruiz, L A Celi, J F Duitama-Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is associated to a high mortality rate, and its severity must be evaluated quickly. The severity of illness scores used are intended to be applicable to all patient populations, and generally evaluate in-hospital mortality. However, patients with sepsis continue to be at risk of death after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVE: To develop a model for predicting 1-year mortality in critical patients diagnosed with sepsis. PATIENTS: The data corresponding to 5650 admissions of patients with sepsis from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) database were evaluated, randomly divided as follows: 70% for training and 30% for validation...
September 20, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Ya-Se Zhuang, Ying-Ying Liao, Bo-Yi Liu, Zhi-Cheng Fang, Li Chen, Li Min, Wei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of MicroRNA-27a (miR-27a)-mediated Wnt/β-catenin pathway on the myocardial fibrosis in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: The CHF rat models were constructed and randomly divided into four groups (Sham, Model, AntagomiR-27a, and NC antagomiR-27a groups). Echocardiography was used to test the cardiac function indexes, HE (haematoxylin-eosin) staining to observe the pathological injury of myocardium, Masson staining to analyze the collagen volume fraction (CVF), and qRT-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR) and Western blotting to detect the expressions of miR-27a and Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related proteins...
September 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
G Chen, H Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The functions of miRNA-708 for various diseases have been confirmed. However, its roles in osteosarcoma are unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of miRNA-708 in osteosarcoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Detection of the expression of miRNA-708 and CUL4B was used by quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Cells were transfected with miRNA-708 mimics (mimics group) and miRNA negative control (NC group). Detection of cell growth curve at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h was made by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8)...
September 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yan-Qiu Han, Lei Zhang, Li Yan, Peng Li, Pei-Heng Ouyang, Giuseppe Lippi, Zhi-De Hu
BACKGROUND: Although some underpowered studies have proven that increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW) may be associated with short-term prognosis of sepsis, the long-term prognostic value of RDW remains largely unknown. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was based on the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III), a large critical care database. Baseline RDW and conventional disease severity scores were extracted along with data on 4-year mortality, of adult patients with severe sepsis upon first admission to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
September 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Sameer Abdallah Dhayat, Max Michael Traeger, Jan Rehkaemper, Anda Jana Stroese, Konrad Steinestel, Eva Wardelmann, Iyad Kabar, Norbert Senninger
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive carcinoma entities worldwide with early and rapid dissemination. Recently, we discussed the role of microRNAs as epigenetic regulators of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in PDAC. In this study, we investigated their value as diagnostic and prognostic markers in tissue and blood samples of 185 patients including PDAC, non-malignant pancreatic disorders, and age-matched healthy controls. Expression of the microRNA-200-family (microRNAs -141, -200a, -200b, -200c, -429) and microRNA-148a was significantly downregulated in tissue of PDAC Union internationale contre le cancer (UICC) Stage II...
September 13, 2018: Cancers
Xiaoli Wu, Xiaoqiang Ding, Zhishan Ding, Ping Jia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the most common pathway of progressive kidney injury, leading to end-stage renal disease. At present, no effective prophylactic treatment method is available. This study investigated the anti-fibrotic effects of total flavonoids (TFs) extracted from leaves of Carya Cathayensis in vivo and in vitro, and explored the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Anti-fibrotic effects of TFs were measured using a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated mouse tubular epithelial cells (mTECs)...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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