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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913855/what-can-the-microstructure-of-stones-tell-us
#1
REVIEW
James C Williams, Elaine Worcester, James E Lingeman
How stones are retained within the kidney while small in size is still not fully understood. In this paper, we show two examples of how stones are retained during early growth: one is growth on Randall's (interstitial) plaque, and the other is growth on mineral that has formed as a luminal plug in a terminal collecting duct. These two mechanisms of stone retention during early growth have distinctive morphologic features that can be seen by methods that show the microscopic structure of the stones. Stones growing on Randall's plaque display an apatite region that is typically not large in size (<0...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913750/congenital-heart-block-and-immune-mediated-sensorineural-hearing-loss-possible-cross-reactivity-of-immune-response
#2
C Bason, I Pagnini, A Brucato, S Maestroni, A Puccetti, C Lunardi, R Cimaz
Immune-mediated sensorineural hearing loss may complicate systemic autoimmune diseases. We have previously reported the presence of antibodies directed against inner ear antigens in patients with Cogan syndrome, a disease characterized by sudden hearing loss and interstitial keratitis. Such autoantibodies cross-react with an epitope of SSA/Ro60 protein. Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in pregnant women cross the placenta and reach the fetal tissues inducing an immune-mediated damage of the cardiac conduction system...
December 2, 2016: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913607/autoimmune-comorbidities-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-different-patterns-of-association-in-adulthood-and-childhood-adolescence
#3
R M Ruggeri, F Trimarchi, G Giuffrida, R Certo, E Cama, A Campennì, A Alibrandi, F De Luca, M Wasniewska
OBJECTIVE: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), the most common autoimmune thyroid disease at any age, is often associated with other autoimmune diseases. The present study was aimed to describe the type and frequency of non-thyroidal autoimmune diseases (NTADs) in HT patients and to delineate the clinical pattern of diseases clustering in pediatric/adolescent and adult age. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: 1053 newly diagnosed HT patients (500 adults (467 F, mean age 40...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913222/human-liver-regeneration-in-advanced-cirrhosis-is-organized-by-the-portal-tree
#4
Katalin Dezső, András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Armanda Szücs, András Szuák, Bence Dorogi, Mátyás Kiss, Ágnes Nemeskéri, Péter Nagy, Sándor Paku
BACKGROUND&AIMS: In advanced cirrhosis new hepatocytic nodules are generated by budding of ductules in areas of parenchymal extinction. However, the vascular alterations in the areas of parenchymal extinction, the blood supply and the structure of the new hepatocytic nodules have not been analyzed in detail. METHODS: Explanted human cirrhotic livers of three different etiologies and two experimental models of cirrhosis in rats were examined thoroughly. 3D reconstruction of the immunohistochemically stained serial sections and casting of human and experimental cirrhotic livers have been used to reveal the structural organization of the regenerative buds...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912147/inhibition-of-endocan-attenuates-monocrotaline-induced-connective-tissue-disease-related-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Haiyan Zhao, Yunxin Xue, Yun Guo, Yue Sun, Dongmei Liu, Xiaofei Wang
Connective tissue disease related pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTD-PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Endocan is a novel endothelial dysfunction marker. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endocan in CTD-PAH. Monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats were used as the CTD-PAH model. Short hairpin RNA packed in a lentiviral vector used to inhibit endocan expression was intratracheally instilled in rats prior to the MCT injection. Endocan was found to be increased in the serum and lung of MCT-induced PAH rats...
November 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911810/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-reveals-copper-deficiency-in-a-murine-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Marie C Heffern, Hyo Min Park, Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Cheri M Ackerman, Andreas Stahl, Christopher J Chang
Copper is a required metal nutrient for life, but global or local alterations in its homeostasis are linked to diseases spanning genetic and metabolic disorders to cancer and neurodegeneration. Technologies that enable longitudinal in vivo monitoring of dynamic copper pools can help meet the need to study the complex interplay between copper status, health, and disease in the same living organism over time. Here, we present the synthesis, characterization, and in vivo imaging applications of Copper-Caged Luciferin-1 (CCL-1), a bioluminescent reporter for tissue-specific copper visualization in living animals...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910296/the-year-since-the-guidelines-a-concise-update-on-recent-advances-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Abhishek Mishra, Maninder Singh, Edo Kaluski
Since the updated pulmonary hypertension (PH) guidelines published in 2015, two major landmark trials have provided additional insight regarding therapeutic algorithms of PH. In this review, we concisely summarized the key findings of peer‑reviewed studies published in the last one year in the field of PH. These studies have enhanced our therapeutic abilities by introducing a new potent agent, selexipag, and by demonstrating the advantage of upfront combination therapy (endothelin receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase‑5 inhibitor) versus single agent therapy in group 1 PH...
February 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907186/inter-tissue-gene-co-expression-networks-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-individuals
#8
Lisette J A Kogelman, Jingyuan Fu, Lude Franke, Jan Willem Greve, Marten Hofker, Sander S Rensen, Haja N Kadarmideen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10-25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906873/polyautoimmunity-a%C3%A2-significant-issue-in%C3%A2-connective-tissue-diseases
#9
Marzena Olesińska, Katarzyna Romanowska-Próchnicka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906631/mitochondrial-purine-and-pyrimidine-metabolism-and-beyond
#10
Liya Wang
Carefully balanced deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are essential for both nuclear and mitochondrial genome replication and repair. Two synthetic pathways operate in cells to produce dNTPs, e.g., the de novo and the salvage pathways. The key regulatory enzymes for de novo synthesis are ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), and this process is considered to be cytosolic. The salvage pathway operates both in the cytosol (TK1 and dCK) and the mitochondria (TK2 and dGK). Mitochondrial dNTP pools are separated from the cytosolic ones owing to the double membrane structure of the mitochondria, and are formed by the salvage enzymes TK2 and dGK together with NMPKs and NDPK in postmitotic tissues, while in proliferating cells the mitochondrial dNTPs are mainly imported from the cytosol produced by the cytosolic pathways...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905201/the-symptom-matrix-using-a-formalism-based-approach-to-address-complex-syndromes-systematically
#11
Jennifer D Skillen
Complex rheumatological syndromes such as Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's Syndrome and many connective tissue disorders can be a challenge to classify and diagnose, due to their wide-ranging signs and symptoms, not all of which will necessarily be present in all patients. This can result in difficulties for the clinician, patient and researcher if signs and symptoms are either overlooked or are incorrectly included in the nosology or classification of diseases. This article presents a formalism-based approach to describing syndromes...
December 1, 2016: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901501/identification-and-characterization-of-peptidases-secreted-by-quahog-parasite-unknown-qpx-the-protistan-parasite-of-hard-clams
#12
Ewelina Rubin, Glenn T Werneburg, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, David G Thanassi, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a protistan parasite capable of causing deadly infections in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, one of the most valuable shellfish species in the USA. QPX is an extracellular parasite found mostly in the connective tissue of clam mantle and, in more severe cases of infection, other clam organs. Histopathologic examinations revealed that QPX cells within clam tissues are typically surrounded by hollow areas that have been hypothesized to be, at least in part, a result of extracellular digestion of clam proteins by the parasite...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900293/combined-use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-micro-fat-in-sport-and-race-horses-with-degenerative-joint-disease-preliminary-clinical-study-in-eight-horses
#13
Fabrizio Bembo, Julia Eraud, Cecile Philandrianos, Baptiste Bertrand, Alain Silvestre, Julie Veran, Florence Sabatier, Guy Magalon, Jeremy Magalon
BACKGROUND: To assess the safety and potential efficacy of a standardized technique consisting of intra-articular injection of 10 cc of a homogeneous mixed product using autologous micro-fat and platelet rich plasma (PRP) (ratio 1:1) in the carpus or the fetlock joint of sport horses presenting degenerative joint disease (DJD). METHODS: Eight sport horses with DJD confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography and causing lameness and the impossibility to compete were treated...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900061/the-diagnostic-value-of-trichoscopy-in-systemic-sclerosis
#14
Małgorzata Kwiatkowska, Adriana Rakowska, Irena Walecka, Lidia Rudnicka
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease, which is characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs, presence of specific antibodies and vascular involvement. Capillaroscopy is a useful method for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with systemic sclerosis. Trichoscopy is a rapid, non-invasive technique, which has become a standard procedure in differential diagnosis of scalp and hair diseases. The aim of this study was to assess whether trichoscopy may be applied in imaging microvessels in patients with systemic sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895669/myeloproliferative-disease-an-unusual-cause-of-raynaud-s-phenomenon-and-digital-ischaemia
#15
Celia Beynon, Gwenan Huws, Tom Lawson
We describe a 59-year-old female who presented with ischaemic digits, preceded by a 6-month history of Raynaud's phenomenon affecting her fingers and toes. There were no clinical or laboratory features of primary vasculitis or connective tissue disease, Doppler imaging was normal, and bloods were unremarkable aside from a platelet count of 786 × 109/L (150-400) and white cells of 16 × 109/L (4-11). In view of the thrombocytosis a JAK2 mutation assay was requested which confirmed a JAK2 V617F mutation, suggesting essential thrombocytosis (ET) as the cause...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894999/matched-comparative-modeling-of-normal-and-diseased-human-airway-responses-using-a-microengineered-breathing-lung-chip
#16
Kambez H Benam, Richard Novak, Janna Nawroth, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Thomas C Ferrante, Youngjae Choe, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, James C Weaver, Anthony Bahinski, Kevin K Parker, Donald E Ingber
Smoking represents a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is difficult to characterize smoke-induced injury responses under physiological breathing conditions in humans due to patient-to-patient variability. Here, we show that a small airway-on-a-chip device lined by living human bronchiolar epithelium from normal or COPD patients can be connected to an instrument that "breathes" whole cigarette smoke in and out of the chips to study smoke-induced pathophysiology in vitro...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894310/monitoring-change-in-volume-of-calcifications-in-juvenile-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy-a-pilot-study-using-low-dose-computed-tomography
#17
Maria Ibarra, Cynthia Rigsby, Gabrielle A Morgan, Christina L Sammet, Chiang-Ching Huang, Dong Xu, Ira N Targoff, Lauren M Pachman
BACKGROUND: Dystrophic calcifications may occur in patients with J uvenile Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy (JIIM) as well as other connective tissue and metabolic diseases, but a reliable method of measuring the volume of these calcifications has not been established. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of low dose, limited slice, Computed Tomography (CT) to measure objectively in-situ calcification volumes in patients with JIIM over time. METHODS: Ten JIIM patients (eight JDM, two Overlap) with calcifications were prospectively recruited over a 2-year period to undergo two limited, low dose, four-slice CT scans...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890843/total-endovascular-aortic-repair-in-a-patient-with-marfan-syndrome
#18
Mau Amako, Rafaëlle Spear, Rachel E Clough, Adrien Hertault, Richard Azzaoui, Teresa Martin Gonzalez, Jonathan Sobocinski, Stéphan Haulon
OBJECTIVE: To describe a total endovascular aortic repair with branched and fenestrated endografts in a young patient with Marfan syndrome and a chronic aortic dissection. Open surgery is the gold standard to treat aortic dissections in patients with aortic disease and Marfan syndrome. METHODS: In 2000, a 38-year-old man with Marfan syndrome underwent open ascending aorta repair for an acute type A aortic dissection. One year later, a redo sternotomy was performed for aortic valve replacement...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889928/elucidating-the-role-of-cyclooxygenase-2-in-the-pathogenesis-of-oral-lichen-planus-an-immunohistochemical-study-with-supportive-histochemical-analysis
#19
Pratyush Singh, Jasleen Grover, Aditi Amit Byatnal, Vasudeva Guddattu, Raghu Radhakrishnan, Monica Charlotte Solomon
OBJECTIVE: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the oral mucous membrane. During an inflammatory response, several chemokines and cytokines are released by the cells of the immune system. Activation of MMPs, along with mast cell-derived chymase and tryptase, degrades the basement membrane structural proteins, resulting in basement membrane breaks. AIM: To investigate the association between the COX-2 expressions, presence of intact or degranulating mast cells within the connective tissue and the extent of basement membrane discontinuity in OLP cases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889671/european-journal-of-cancer-s-biennial-report-on-soft-tissue-and-visceral-sarcomas-or-the-rapid-evolution-of-treatment-concepts-in-sarcomas
#20
Jean-Yves Blay, Mehdi Brahmi, Isabelle Ray-Coquard
Soft tissue and visceral sarcoma gather a large group of rare to very rare cancers and locally aggressive connective tissue tumours. Novel concepts on histological and molecular classification, optimal management of patients, systemic adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment have been emerging in the last 5 years. In the present publication, we review and summarise significant changes which impact on disease management in this group of rare cancers.
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
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