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Cardiovascular infection

Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Marc Vervloet
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone with a central role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. This regulation is accomplished by the coordinated modulation of renal phosphate handling, vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone secretion. Patients with kidney disease have increased circulating levels of FGF23 and in other patient populations and in healthy individuals, FGF23 levels also rise following an increase in dietary phosphate intake. Maladaptive increases in FGF23 have a detrimental effect on several organs and tissues and, importantly, these pathological changes most likely contribute to increased morbidity and mortality...
December 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Luca Pecoraro, Lucia Martini, Franco Antoniazzi, Giorgio Piacentini, Angelo Pietrobelli
Vitamin C is an organic compound that is almost ubiquitous in the daily diet of individuals. There are clear indications of supplementation when secondary deficiency is detected related with reduced dietary intake or reduced absorption. On the other hand, indications for supplementation concerning an increased need are controversial. Several authors have studied the role of vitamin C as an adjuvant in the treatment of diseases that may affect children and adolescents. These diseases affect all organs and systems: specifically, vitamin C supplementation could play a role in respiratory, neurological, psychiatric, oncohematological, nephrological, ophthalmological and nutritional disorders...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Violante Di Donato, Michele Carlo Schiavi, Valentina Iacobelli, Ottavia D'oria, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Tommaso Simoncini, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability and safety of ospemifene in treating dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvo- vaginal atrophy (VVA). METHODS: The literature was searched through to 31 July 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials comparing ospemifene 60 mg against placebo for the treatment of VVA. Two groups of outcomes were selected: 1) side-effects, including hot flushes, urinary tract infection (UTI), headache, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular event (CVE), discontinuation due to side-effects, serious adverse event (SAE); 2) Safety, in relation to endometrial thickness, vaginal bleeding, breast tenderness, breast and endometrial cancer...
November 28, 2018: Maturitas
Senaka Rajapakse, Milanka Wattegama, Praveen Weeratunga, P Chathurani Sigera, Sumadhya Deepika Fernando
Dengue infection classically presents with fever, thrombocytopaenia, and varying degrees of plasma leakage, giving rise to shock. However, a myriad of other manifestations, involving the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the liver, the kidneys, the gut and the haematological system have been reported in dengue. This review summarizes these varied presentations.
December 3, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
João Sérgio Neves, Vanessa Guerreiro, Davide Carvalho, Rosário Serrão, António Sarmento, Paula Freitas
Background: Life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has increased with antiretroviral treatment (ART). Chronic diseases associated with aging, including metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are becoming more prevalent in this population. We aimed to evaluate the association of obesity and aging with cardiometabolic comorbidities and metabolic health status among patients with HIV infection. Methods: We evaluated 580 HIV-1 infected patients (71.7% male, mean age of 47.7 ± 11.5 years). We analyzed the association of age and obesity (defined by and by central obesity) with gender, duration of HIV infection, and ART, anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic comorbidities, Framingham risk score (FRS), blood pressure, lipid profile, uric acid, liver biochemical tests, and glycemic profile...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sabrina Nolan, Kristian B Filion, Renee Atallah, Emmanuel Moss, Pauline Reynier, Mark J Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) has emerged as a potential alternative to complete coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, the efficacy and safety of HCR vs CABG remain unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare these interventions. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials, and the Web of Science for studies comparing HCR to CABG in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease...
December 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
En-Shao Liu, Cheng-Hung Chiang, Wang-Ting Hung, Pei-Ling Tang, Cheng Chung Hung, Shu-Hung Kuo, Chun-Peng Liu, Yao-Shen Chen, Guang-Yuan Mar, Wei-Chun Huang
OBJECTIVES: Although the association between systemic infection and cardiovascular events has been identified, an uncertainty still exists in the incidence and prognosis of sepsis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of our research was to assess the impact of sepsis on survival after first AMI. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study by analyzing the data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2012 for patients with a primary diagnosis of first AMI...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Anne-Laure Flamar, Henri Bonnabau, Sandra Zurawski, Christine Lacabaratz, Monica Montes, Laura Richert, Aurelie Wiedemann, Lindsey Galmin, Deborah Weiss, Anthony Cristillo, Lauren Hudacik, Andres Salazar, Cécile Peltekian, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Gerard Zurawski, Yves Levy
HIV-1 infection can be controlled by anti-retroviral drug therapy, but this is a lifetime treatment and the virus remains latent and rapidly rebounds if therapy is stopped. HIV-1-infected individuals under this drug regimen have increased rates of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity due to compromised immunity. A therapeutic vaccine boosting cellular immunity against HIV-1 is therefore desirable and, possibly combined with other immune modulating agents, could obviate the need for long-term drug therapies...
2018: PloS One
Jashin Wu, April Armstrong, Rakesh Singh, Martin Cloutier, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, Patrick Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Dilek Arikan, Alan Fleischer, Annie Guérin, Arijit Ganguli
Objective: To assess the real-world risk of developing adverse medical conditions (AMCs) among patients with psoriasis treated with biologic therapies or conventional systemic/topical therapies (CST/topical). Methods: Adult patients with psoriasis were identified from the Truven MarketScan US claims database (2008 Q3–2015 Q3) and classified into cohorts based on treatment initiated on the index date (adalimumab [ADA], etanercept [ETN], ustekinumab [UST], infliximab [IFX], or CST/topical). Incident AMCs were identified while on treatment from diagnoses recorded in medical claims and included abnormal test results, infections, mental disorders, cardiovascular disease, malignancies (skin and non-skin), and respiratory disease...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
L Tron, F Lert, B Spire, R Dray-Spira
BACKGROUND: Among people living with HIV, cardiovascular risk could be markedly reduced through lifestyle improvement. However, to date behavioral cardiovascular risk factors (other than tobacco smoking) have been poorly investigated among them. Additionally, although co-occurrence of risk factors might amplify the deleterious effects of each risk factor, little is known about such risk factors clustering in this population. We aimed to examine levels, determinants and clustering of the major behavioral cardiovascular risk factors in the French HIV-infected population, in order to better target individuals with high risk profiles...
November 26, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Rokeya Siddiqui, Shinya Suzu, Mikinori Ueno, Hesham Nasser, Ryota Koba, Farzana Bhuyan, Osamu Noyori, Sofiane Hamidi, Guojun Sheng, Mariko Yasuda-Inoue, Takayuki Hishiki, Sayaka Sukegawa, Eri Miyagi, Klaus Strebel, Shuzo Matsushita, Kunitada Shimotohno, Yasuo Ariumi
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) belongs to a class of cellular proteins involved in lipid metabolism. ApoE is a polymorphic protein produced primarily in macrophages and astrocytes. Different isoforms of ApoE have been associated with susceptibility to various diseases including Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. ApoE expression has also been found to affect susceptibility to several viral diseases, including Hepatitis C and E, but its effect on the life cycle of HIV-1 remains obscure. In this study, we initially found that HIV-1 infection selectively up-regulated ApoE in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
November 29, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
M Siddika, S Sen, M N Islam, M K Bhuiyan
The cross sectional study was done to estimate the prevalence of various congenital malformations among the patients delivered in Community Based Medical College Hospital (CBMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh and corresponding risk factors were also studied from July 2014 to December 2015. A total of 2560 babies who were born at Community Based Medical College Hospital (CBMCH) were enrolled in this study. The newborn babies were examined and assessed for detection of congenital malformation, system wise distribution and risk factors attributable...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Payam Akhyari, Hug Aubin, Maximilian Lühr, Ardawan Julian Rastan, Andreas Beckmann, Martin Misfeld
BACKGROUND:  Surgical treatment of infective aortic valve endocarditis (AVE) remains a therapeutic challenge, necessitating interdisciplinary approach to limit morbidity and mortality in this high-risk cohort. With a considerable spectrum of available laboratory testings, imaging techniques, as well as operative strategies developed in recent years, there is a lack of standardization across cardiac surgical departments in Germany. Thus, the optimal treatment strategy of AVE has yet to be defined...
November 28, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Mark B Stephens, Joseph P Wiedemer, George M Kushner
Oral health directly affects overall health and quality of life. More Americans lack dental insurance than medical insurance. Patients with poor oral health are more likely to have respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and diabetes mellitus. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic condition in American children. Certain illicit and prescription drugs increase the risk of enamel erosion and caries formation in adults. Incision and drainage is the treatment of choice for dental abscess...
December 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Shoko Kasai, Ryoko Sakai, Ryuji Koike, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Nobuyuki Miyasaka, Masayoshi Harigai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of hospitalized infection (HI), cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared with non-RA patients using the Japanese health insurance database. METHOD: Among individuals aged ≥18 years, RA cases were defined to have one RA diagnostic code and receiving ≥1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug between 2005 and 2013 (n = 6,712). Age-, sex-, calendar year of the observation start-, and observation length-matched non-RA cases were selected at 1:5 (n = 33,560)...
November 28, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Zaid Al-Bayati, Henry Charles Mwandumba, Tom Solomon, Stephen E Christmas, Laura A Benjamin
BACKGROUND: Studies in high-income settings have shown association between Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and adverse cardiovascular outcome, especially in HIV infection. We aimed to study the association between serum concentration of anti-CMV IgG and ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected Malawians. METHODS: Our sample was derived from a case-control stroke study in Malawi. Serum concentration of anti-CMV IgG was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between high concentrations of anti-CMV IgG (above the third tertile) and ischaemic stroke while adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors...
2018: PloS One
Andrzej S Tarnawski, Amrita Ahluwalia
In this editorial we comment on the article by Fukushi K et al published in the recent issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology 2018; 24(34): 3908-3918. We focus specifically on the mechanisms of the anti-thrombotic action of aspirin, gastric mucosal injury and aging-related increased susceptibility of gastric mucosa to injury. Aspirin is widely used not only for the management of acute and chronic pain and arthritis, but also importantly for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarcts and strokes...
November 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
William J Sandborn, Julián Panés, Geert R D'Haens, Bruce E Sands, Chinyu Su, Michele Moscariello, Thomas Jones, Ron Pedersen, Gary S Friedman, Nervin Lawendy, Gary Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tofacitinib is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of JAK approved in several countries for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). We report integrated safety analyses of tofacitinib-treated patients with moderate to severe UC. METHODS: Patients receiving placebo or tofacitinib (5 or 10 mg) twice daily were analyzed as 3 cohorts: induction (phase 2 and 3 induction studies, n=1220), maintenance (phase 3 maintenance study, n=592), and overall (patients receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily in phase 2, phase 3, or open-label, long-term extension studies, n=1157; 1613 patient-years' exposure)...
November 23, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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