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Cardiovascular infection

Qi Zheng, Luigi Di Biase, Kevin J Ferrick, Jay N Gross, Nils A Guttenplan, Soo G Kim, Andrew K Krumerman, Eugen C Palma, John D Fisher
PURPOSE: Survey the usage and application protocol of antimicrobial agent pocket irrigation for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection prophylaxis. BACKGROUND: Local antibiotic usage for CIED infection prophylaxis, in particular pocket irrigation, is a well-known strategy but with little data on its clinical effectiveness. METHODS: An anonymous voluntary online survey was sent to a total of 2092 arrhythmia-oriented cardiologists in 51 countries (1490 from the US)...
August 15, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Anselm Mak
Over the past two decades it has been increasingly recognized that vitamin D, aside from its crucial involvement in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system, exerts its influential impact on the immune system. The mechanistic roles that vitamin D plays regarding immune activation for combating infection, as well as pathologically and mediating autoimmune conditions, have been progressively unraveled. In vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated that the action of vitamin D on various immunocytes is not unidirectional...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiroyuki Ueda, Yoichi Miyazaki, Nobuo Tsuboi, Keita Hirano, Shinya Yokote, Emi Kobayashi, Makoto Ogura, Tetsuya Kawamura, Munekazu Ryuzaki, Takashi Yokoo
Objective This case series aimed to identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of elderly patients (≥60 years) with biopsy-proven IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAVN). Methods The clinical and pathological presentation and treatment outcomes were compared between two groups. Patients Patients with IgAVN who were ≥19 years old at the time of their renal biopsy were divided into elderly (≥60 years) and adult (19-59 years) groups. Results Of the 23 patients in our study, 13 were elderly. In the elderly group, the median age at the diagnosis was 68 years (range, 60-85 years), with a median follow-up period of 15 months (range, 3-80 months)...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Biplab Giri, Sananda Dey, Tanaya Das, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Jhimli Banerjee, Sandeep Kumar Dash
Chronic exposure of glucose rich environment creates several physiological and pathophysiological changes. There are several pathways by which hyperglycemia exacerbate its toxic effect on cells, tissues and organ systems. Hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress, upsurge polyol pathway, activate protein kinase C (PKC), enhance hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), promote the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and finally alters gene expressions. Prolonged hyperglycemic condition leads to severe diabetic condition by damaging the pancreatic β-cell and inducing insulin resistance...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sarah Galla, Saroj Chakraborty, Xi Cheng, Jiyoun Yeo, Blair Mell, Helen Zhang, Anna V Mathew, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Bina Joe
Gut microbiota are associated with a variety of complex polygenic diseases. The usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics by patients affected by such diseases, is an important environmental factor to consider, because antibiotics, which are widely prescribed to curb pathological bacterial infections, also indiscriminately eliminate gut commensal microbiota. However, the extent to which antibiotics reshape gut microbiota and per se contribute to these complex diseases is understudied. Because genetics play an important role in predisposing individuals to these modern diseases, we hypothesize that the extent to which antibiotics influence complex diseases depends on host genome and metagenome...
August 10, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Ewa Matuszczak, Marta Komarowska, Marzena Tylicka, Wojciech Dębek, Ewa Gorodkiewicz, Anna Tokarzewicz, Anna Sankiewicz, Adam Hermanowicz
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin B (CatB) belongs to a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases and plays an important role in intracellular proteolysis. OBJECTIVES: The concentration of CatB and 20S proteasome was evaluated in the serum of children with appendicitis, before and after surgery, on a basis of an innovative method for determining biomolecules concentration - surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two children with acute appendicitis, who were treated at the Department of Pediatric Surgery (Medical University of Bialystok, Poland), were randomly included into the study (age: 5-17 years, mean age: 11...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Antonietta Gerarda Gravina, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Cristiana De Musis, Lorenzo Romano, Carmelina Loguercio, Marco Romano
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection is very common and affects approximately half of the world population. It causes gastric diseases, but some authors have reported an association of H. pylori infection with other systemic manifestations beginning in 1994. The list of potential effects of H. pylori outside the stomach includes a number of extragastric manifestations and we focused on neurological, dermatological, hematologic, ocular, cardiovascular, metabolic, allergic, and hepatobiliary diseases. This review discusses these important reported manifestations that are not related to the gastrointestinal tract...
August 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Thomas C Mee, Julia Aepfelbacher, Rebecca Krakora, Cheryl Chairez, Nina Kvaratskhelia, Bryan Smith, Veit Sandfort, Colleen Hadigan, Caryn Morse, Dima A Hammoud
BACKGROUND: Both traditional and HIV-specific risk factors contribute to greater incidence of cardiovascular disease in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Using state-of-the-art, high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the common carotid arteries, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between carotid vessel wall thickness (c-VWT) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score in PLWH. METHODS: Cross-sectional determinations of c-VWT using MR imaging in virally suppressed PLWH without known cardiovascular disease (n=32) and matched controls (n=13) were completed...
August 8, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Michelle L D'Antoni, Brooks I Mitchell, Sara McCurdy, Mary Margaret Byron, Debra Ogata-Arakaki, Dominic Chow, Nehal N Mehta, William A Boisvert, Eric Lefebvre, Cecilia M Shikuma, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Yvonne Baumer
Incidences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are high among virologically suppressed HIV-infected individuals. Monocyte activation and trafficking are key mechanisms in the evolution of CVD. We studied the ability of cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) and CCR5 antagonist, to influence the migration of monocytes from HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Monocytes were derived from 23 ART-suppressed HIV-infected and 16 HIV-uninfected donors. In a trans-endothelial migration model, monocytes, and human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were exposed to cenicriviroc and migrated monocytes, quantified...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Franco Salvati
The main aim of this critical review on the pulmonary sequestration is to focus the attention of pneumologists, thoracic surgeons and oncologists on some features concerning the heart, vessels, lungs, pleura, diaphragm as well as unusual infections and neoplasms, closely related to such rare disease. The Author emphasizes the importance of these aforementioned peculiarities with reference to the diagnosis timelines as well as to treatment appropriateness. He believes that the new advanced tools to day available makes to achieve this target: it is a must to take in more greater account the rare and insidious pulmonary sequestration at least in the context of post-graduate specialty courses...
July 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
L Quéro, A Gobert, J-P Spano
Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, cancer incidence is still 2 to 3-fold higher in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the general population, with an increased incidence of malignancies not associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-infected patients cancer treatment does not differ from that in the general population. However, the management of those patients have some particularities due to preexisting comorbid conditions, including metabolic, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic complications and the risk for potential drug - drug interactions in HIV-infected patients...
August 4, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Marina V Malovichko, Iris Zeller, Tatiana V Krivokhizhina, Zhengzhi Xie, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Abhinav Agarwal, Nalinie Wickramasinghe, Srinivas D Sithu, Jasmit Shah, Timothy O'Toole, Shesh N Rai, Aruni Bhatnagar, Daniel J Conklin, Sanjay Srivastava
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco products such as snuff and snus are used worldwide. However, little is known about the systemic and cardiovascular toxicity of smokeless tobacco exposure. Methods: Biomarkers of endothelial activation and injury, immune functions, platelet activation and insulin resistance were measured in 8-week old male C57BL/6 mice exposed to commercial snuff, CRP-2 reference snuff, commercial snus, CRP-1 reference snus, and nicotine in drinking water (100 µg/mL) for 4, 12, and 24 weeks...
October 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Carlos A Mestres, Eduard Quintana, Tomislav Kopjar, Juan Ambrosioni, Manuel Almela, David Fuster, Salvador Ninot, José M Miró
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse outcomes over 2 decades using cryopreserved vascular allografts to treat vascular infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients identified from our institutional database who were treated for primary or secondary vascular infection using implanted allografts. RESULTS: Between October 1992 and May 2014, 54 patients underwent surgery for vascular infection out of 118 patients implanted with cryopreserved vascular allografts...
August 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
N Killi, G L Mariottini
Cnidarians play an important role in ecosystem functioning, in the competition among species, and for possible utilization of several active compounds against cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine, immune, infective, and inflammatory disorders or having antitumoral properties, which have been extracted from these organisms. Nevertheless, notwithstanding these promising features, the main reason for which cnidarians are known is due to their venomousness as they have a serious impact on public health as well as in economy being able to affect some human activities...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Julie Contenti, Celine Occelli, Fabien Lemoel, Patricia Ferrari, Jacques Levraut
We evaluate in this retrospective cohort, the clinical situations leading emergency physicians to take a blood lactate sample, the prevalence of hyperlactatemia and its impact on short-term adverse outcome. ED patients requiring a blood lactate measurement (BLM) during a two-year period were included. Early patients' outcomes were extracted and discharge diagnoses were classified into 12 diagnostic categories. A total of 118,737 patients were analyzed. A BLM was carried out in 13,089 of them. Surprisingly, the proportion of patients having a BLM was higher in those admitted for seizure (31...
June 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Akira Mukai, Koichi Suehiro, Yohei Fujimoto, Tadashi Matsuura, Katsuaki Tanaka, Tomoharu Funao, Tokuhiro Yamada, Takashi Mori, Kiyonobu Nishikawa
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-based parameter consisting of the sum of early diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus (Me') and tricuspid annulus (Te') can serve as a predictor of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 100 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Jeffrey B Kopp, Cheryl A Winkler
Recent advances in genetics of renal disease have deepened our understanding of progressive kidney disease. Here, we review genetic variants that are of particular importance to progressive glomerular disease that result in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Some of the most striking findings relate to APOL1 genetic variants, seen exclusively in individuals of sub-Saharan African descent, that create a predisposition to particular renal disorders, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and arterionephrosclerosis...
July 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
Magda Opsomer, Dessislava Dimitrova, Johan Verspeelt, Amy Purrington, Abdul Mehbob, Scott Chavers, Helen Pai, Simon Vanveggel, Donghan Luo, Kimberley Brown, Christiane Moecklinghoff, Richard E Nettles, Katia Boven
In the original publication of the article, Table 2 has been published incorrectly.
August 6, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Anita Aminoshariae, James C Kulild, Ashraf F Fouad
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether endodontic infections had an impact on the pathogenesis of systemic disease. METHODS: Two reviewers independently conducted a comprehensive literature search. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and PubMed databases were searched. In addition, the bibliographies, gray literature of all relevant articles, and textbooks were manually searched. There was no disagreement between the 2 reviewers...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
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