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Cardiovascular infection

Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Claudia Martinez, Rishi Rikhi, Tahir Haque, Amara Fazal, Michael Kolber, Barry E Hurwitz, Neil Schneiderman, Todd T Brown
Transgender individuals represent a medically underserved and under researched population. There is a growing number of studies illustrating the importance of hormone therapy treatments in transgender men and women to assist ameliorating gender dysphoria and promoting well-being. However, the cardiovascular effects of these hormones are controversial. Large longitudinal epidemiological studies of cardiovascular event outcomes in these populations do not exist. In addition, studies of cardiovascular complications of transgender hormone therapy are limited in number and complicated by poor control of medication regimen, presence of gender confirming surgery, use of prescribed medications for prevailing conditions, and alcohol, smoking or illicit substance use, and comorbidities, such as HIV infection...
September 20, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
Monika Sarkar, Jennifer C Lai, Deirdre Sawinski, Toni E Zeigler, Marcelle Cedars, Kimberly A Forde
Cirrhosis is associated with hormonal dysregulation, as evidenced by secondary amenorrhea in reproductive-aged women, and feminization of cirrhotic men. Whether hormone levels vary by severity of cirrhosis in women is not known. If identified, such changes may have important clinical relevance, particularly as low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are known to promote metabolic and cardiovascular disease in women. In a cohort of post-menopausal women with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we compared comprehensive sex hormone levels by presence of cirrhosis, as well as across Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ciro Romano, Giovanna Cuomo, Roberta Ferrara, Andrea Del Mastro, Sergio Esposito, Ausilia Sellitto, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with myriad extrahepatic manifestations, often resulting from aberrant immune responses. Among the most common immune-mediated manifestations of HCV infection, mixed cryoglobulinemia is the best known extra-hepatic complication. Areas covered: Here we review less common extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, with ascertained or presumed immune pathogenesis and the role of the new all oral direct-acting antiviral agents. Rheumatologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, renal, pulmonary, hematologic, cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric manifestations of HCV infection have been considered...
October 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Vanessa Ocampo-Piraquive, Ivana Nieto-Aristizábal, Carlos A Cañas, Gabriel J Tobón
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by organ damage, flare-remission pattern and increased mortality when compared with the general population. SLE mortality depends on epidemiological, sociodemographic, genetic and clinical factors. Mortality causes have been mainly grouped in disease activity, infections and cardiovascular complications. Lupus nephritis and neuropsychiatric lupus are the main manifestations associated to mortality. Bacterial infection remains an important cause of death, and cardiovascular mortality is almost double when compared to age - and sex- matched comparisons...
October 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Peter Libby, Joseph Loscalzo, Paul M Ridker, Michael E Farkouh, Priscilla Y Hsue, Valentin Fuster, Ahmed A Hasan, Salomon Amar
Observations on human and experimental atherosclerosis, biomarker studies, and now a large-scale clinical trial support the operation of immune and inflammatory pathways in this disease. The factors that incite innate and adaptive immune responses implicated in atherogenesis and in lesion complication include traditional risk factors such as protein and lipid components of native and modified low-density lipoprotein, angiotensin II, smoking, visceral adipose tissue, and dysmetabolism. Infectious processes and products of the endogenous microbiome might also modulate atherosclerosis and its complications either directly, or indirectly by eliciting local and systemic responses that potentiate disease expression...
October 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Hongyu Kuang, Xue Zhou, Li Li, Qijian Yi, Weinian Shou, Tiewei Lu
RATIONALE: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common inherited cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) and premature death in an early age. Nevertheless, an ischemic heart failure (IHF) associated with FH seems to be rare, and an early diagnosis and therapy could influence the prognosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this 13-year-old girl, multiple xanthomas began to develop from the first day of birth. Until June, 2017, she was admitted to our center due to edema, oliguria, and dyspnea during exertion, which was attributed to a recent respiratory infection...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jason P Burnham, Rebecca P Rojek, Marin H Kollef
Central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are responsible for ∼1/3 of all deaths from healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Of these, multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are responsible for 20% to 67%. However, whether catheter removal affects clinical outcomes for MDRO CLABSIs has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the relationship between failure to remove a central venous catheter (CVC) and 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with MDRO CLABSIs. We used a retrospective cohort from Barnes-Jewish Hospital (1/1/2009-10/1/2015) to study patients with a multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa CLABSI...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maria Mazzitelli, Carlo Torti, Jolanda Sabatino, Greta Luana D'Ascoli, Chiara Costa, Vincenzo Pisani, Elena Raffetti, Salvatore De Rosa, Alessio Strazzulla, Alfredo Focà, Maria Carla Liberto, Ciro Indolfi
BACKGROUND: Possible cardiotoxicity of sofosbuvir in humans has not been demonstrated yet. Also, since HCV can exert deleterious effects on hearth function, it is of interest to know whether HCV eradication provides any benefits using global longitudinal strain (GLS), a measure of left ventricular function more reliable than ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: Patients eligible for treatment with the combination therapy for HCV were invited to perform a transthoracic cardiac ultrasound at four different time points: before starting treatment, after one month, at the end of treatment and, after six month...
October 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Shirinsadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Ali Boroumand
Background and Purpose: Catheter-related blood circulation infection is the most dangerous and serious side-effects of vascular catheters, which leads to the enhancement of the costs, mortality, and hospital stay duration, especially in the Intensive Care Unit. Regarding this, the aim of the current study was to identify the prevalence of catheter-induced candidemia in the Tehran Heart Center, a heart hospital in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center for a minimum of 7 days during 18 months...
June 2018: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Hind J Jawad, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Alexandru S Biris, Vladimir P Zharov
In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has great clinical potential for early, noninvasive diagnosis of cancer, infections (e.g., malaria and bacteremia), sickle anemia, and cardiovascular disorders, including stroke prevention through detection of circulating white clots with negative PA contrast. For clinical applications, this diagnostic platform still requires optimization and calibration. We have already demonstrated that this need can be partially addressed by in vivo examination of large mouse blood vessels, which are similar to human vessels used...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Barbara J Boucher
Vitamin D deficiency is common, world-wide, but vitamin D repletion throughout life, and into older age, has accepted health benefits for bone. Many mechanisms through which vitamin D also benefits soft tissues are understood, and clinical evidence of such benefits is now accumulating, especially following re-analyses of trial data, which are revealing previously missed health benefits with correction of deficiency. Areas covered: The sources of vitamin D, its activation, mechanistic effects; problems of trials of supplementation for reducing health risks, the benefits shown for mortality, cardiovascular disease, infection and cancer; the global problem of vitamin D deficiency; age-related reductions in vitamin D efficacy, and currently recommended intakes...
October 5, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Thibaud Chazal, Raphael Lhote, Grégoire Rey, Julien Haroche, Mireille Eb, Zahir Amoura, Fleur Cohen Aubart
OBJECTIVES: Giant---cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel vasculitis. Data regarding mortality are controversial. We describe the mortality data of the French death certificates for the period of 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Using multiple---cause---of---death (MCOD) analysis, we calculated age---adjusted mortality rates for GCA, examined differences in mortality rates according to age and gender and analyzed the underlying causes of death (UCD). Results We analyzed 4628 death certificates listing a diagnosis of GCA as UCD or non-underlying cause of death (NUCD)...
October 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Carolyne Ghobrial, Rodina Sobhy, Engy Mogahed, Hala Abdullatif, Hanaa El-Karaksy
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic bradycardia has been reported in adults treated for chronic hepatitis C using sofosbuvir based regimens. AIM: We studied the cardiac safety of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir in Egyptian children, treated for chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: The study included 40 hepatitis C virus infected children and adolescents 12-17 years old, using the combination of sofosbuvir (400 mg)/ledipasvir (90 mg) in a single oral tablet (Harvoni) taken daily for 12 weeks...
September 21, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Edgar A Rivera-Leon, Iris M Llamas-Covarrubias, Raul A Soria-Rodriguez, Sergio Sanchez-Enriquez, Luz A González-Hernández, Jaime F Andrade-Villanueva, Mara A Llamas-Covarrubias
INTRODUCTION: Patients with HIV+ often present lipid disturbances. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in these lipid disturbances is not clear. The effect of antiretroviral (ART) drugs on those molecules is also unknown. This study measured ghrelin and obestatin levels, as well as metabolic markers, in patients with HIV+ before and after 36 weeks of ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty HIV-positive, ART-naïve patients who started a scheme consisting of tenofovir/emtricitabine+lopinavir/ritonavir were enrolled...
October 10, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Scott R Steele, Justin T Brady, Zhun Cao, Dorothy L Baumer, Scott B Robinson, H Keri Yang, Conor P Delaney
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus is a significant complication after bowel resection surgeries. Alvimopan is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for accelerating the return of bowel function after large- and small-bowel resection. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the healthcare use and in-hospital morbidities associated with on-label use of alvimopan in patients undergoing bowel resection surgeries. DESIGN: A retrospective observational propensity-matched cohort study was conducted using a large hospital administrative database...
October 11, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Suguru Ohira, Hiroaki Miyata, Sachiko Yamazaki, Satoshi Numata, Noboru Motomura, Shinichi Takamoto, Hitoshi Yaku
OBJECTIVES: Despite its survival benefits, bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting is not commonly utilized due to concerns over deep sternal wound infection (DSWI). The present study investigated the early outcome of BITA grafting and analyzed the risk of DSWI using a Japanese national database (the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database). METHODS: Data from 560 hospitals were used. Between April 2012 and December 2015, BITA was harvested in 14,249 patients, corresponding to 32...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Bryan G Schwartz, Robert A Kloner, Morteza Naghavi
Inability to predict short-term cardiovascular (CV) events and take immediate preemptive actions has long been the Achilles heel of cardiology. However, certain triggers of these events have come to light. Although these triggers are nonspecific and are part of normal life, studying their temporal relationship with the onset of CV events provides an opportunity to alert high-risk atherosclerotic patients who may be most vulnerable to such triggers, the "vulnerable patient". Herein, we review the literature and shed light on the epidemiology and underlying pathophysiology of different triggers...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Fabrizio Fabrizi, Piergiorgio Messa
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to important morbidity and mortality through liver disease and extra-hepatic manifestations. Recent evidence suggests the role of HCV in developing chronic kidney disease (CKD); also, HCV adversely affects cardiovascular (CV) disease both in the general population and in patients with CKD. Areas covered: All-oral, interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are currently available; anti-HCV regimens based on DAAs are provided with high efficacy and safety and short treatment duration...
October 12, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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