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Elena V Daoud, Megan Wachsmann, Timothy E Richardson, Divya Mella, Edward Pan, Anna Schwarzbach, Dwight Oliver, Kimmo J Hatanpaa
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a slow-growing neoplasm that predominantly affects the pediatric and young adult population. This neoplasm has a good prognosis, with a median 10-year survival rate of 70%. The majority of tumors are supratentorial and arise in the temporal lobe, while spinal tumors are extremely rare, with only 8 reported cases. Molecular perturbations involving the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway have been described in PXAs. The most common mutation is BRAF V600E in 60%-80% of cases. Other mechanisms activating this pathway in the absence of this mutation are rare and include CRAF (RAF1) fusion genes...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Vanessa Cristina Martins Silva, Samira Julien Calux, Marcilio Figueiredo Lemos, Adriana Parise Compri, Ana Paula de Torres Santos, Isabel Takano Oba, Maria Cássia Jacintho Mendes-Correa, Regina Célia Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have identical transmission routes, explaining the high prevalence of coinfections. The main aim of this study was to detect fluctuations in serological HCV levels in HIV patients. METHODS: We analyzed samples of 147 patients who attended an outpatient service that supports HIV/AIDS patients in São Paulo city. We also recruited 22 HCV-monoinfected patients who attended the Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory in São Paulo city, to compare the test results...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Ying Yao, Asima Zia, Łukasz Wyrożemski, Ida Lindeman, Geir Kjetil Sandve, Shuo-Wang Qiao
By offering high sequencing speed and ultra-high-throughput at a low price, Illumina next-generation sequencing platforms have been widely adopted in recent years. However, an experiment with multiplexed library could be at risk of molecular recombination, known as "index switching", which causes a proportion of the reads to be assigned to an incorrect sample. It is reported that a new advance, exclusion amplification (ExAmp) in conjunction with the patterned flow cell technology introduced on HiSeq 3000/HiSeq 4000/HiSeq X sequencing systems, potentially suffers from a higher rate of index switching than conventional bridge amplification...
2018: PloS One
Wen Huang, Hongmei Li, Chuhang Cheng, Chunhua Ren, Ting Chen, Xiao Jiang, Kaimin Cheng, Peng Luo, Chaoqun Hu
Soil salinization erodes the farmlands and poses a serious threat to human life, reuse of the saline-alkali lands as cultivated resources becomes increasingly prominent. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important farmed aquatic species for the development and utilization of the saline-alkali areas. However, little is known about the adaptation mechanism of this species in terms of high-pH stress. In the present study, a transcriptome analysis on the gill tissues of L. vannamei in response to high-pH stress (pH 9...
2018: PloS One
Charmie Godornes, Giulia Ciccarese, Francesco Drago, Lorenzo Giacani
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA and RNA were detected in a semen specimen of a syphilis patient with no genital or anal sores and no clinically evident orchitis. No nucleic acids were found in a urine sample of the same patient collected immediately before the semen sample. Exposure to the syphilis agent through semen could account for transmission episodes in the absence of direct contact with a syphilitic sore.
December 3, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Kelei Zhou, Hua Yue, Cheng Tang, Wenqiang Ruan, Qun Zhou, Bin Zhang
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) causes congenital tremor (CT) in piglets and has a wide geographical distribution. In this study, we evaluated APPV prevalence using 165 piglet sera from southwest China. Viral RNA was detectable by qRT-PCR in 43.6 % (17/39, 95 % CI 27.8-60.4 %) of piglets with CT, while viral RNA was not detected in the sera of any healthy piglets. The seven complete APPV genomes were obtained from distinct farms and were 11 269-11 459 nucleotides in length. The genomes of the seven strains shared 82...
December 5, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ying Yang, Bo Gong, Zheng-Zheng Wu, Ping Shuai, Dong-Feng Li, Ling-Lin Liu, Man Yu
Existing evidence has highlighted the effect of ultraviolet light radiation leading to corneal epithelium impairment. During this study, we aim to investigate the effect of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the wound healing process of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) induced by ultraviolet rays in mice by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). First, mouse models of ultraviolet ray-induced CEC injury were established and intrastromally injected with different mimic, inhibitor, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) to detect the effect of miR-129-5p on CEC injury...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yafan Gong, Jie Yang, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Jun Min Zhang, Ziwei Zhang
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), as an important selenoprotein, is the most crucial antioxidant defense in cardiomyocytes. However, the role of Gpx3 in Se-deficient cardiomyocyte damage still less reported. Here, we developed Gpx3 silence cardiomyocytes culture model (small interfering RNA; siRNA) for research the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis are performed to detect the expression of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes. MDC stain, flow cytometry, AO/EB stain, and electron microscope were performed to observe the changes of cell morphology...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Dong-Mei Wu, Shan Wang, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Yong-Jian Wang, Shao-Hua Fan, Zi-Feng Zhang, Qun Shan, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
AIMS: We aimed to explore the impact of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of glioma. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes were screened out from Gene Expression Omnibus data set based on the microarray analysis. The expression levels of lncRNA NEAT1, miR-139-5p, and CDK6 in glioma cells and tissues were examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein level of CDK6 in glioma cells was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Gulsah Gundogdu, Yavuz Dodurga, Levent Elmas, Seymanur Yilmaz Tasci, Esen Sezen Karaoglan
Objective: Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound extracted from plant species. The goal of this study was to determine the potential antiproliferative effects of ISO in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line in vitro , specifically on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle pathways. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of ISO isolated from E. spectabilis was measured using 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay in HT-29 cell lines...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Brad W Porter, Thara K Venkatappa
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is diagnosed immunologically using the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). While widely used, immunodiagnostics can produce false negative or false positive results. Pathogen biomarkers provide an alternative, but direct detection in LTBI and extrapulmonary TB cases is challenging. Mycobacterium tuberculosis grows slowly, has limited hematogenous movement, is protected by a lipid rich cell wall, and produces low levels of secreted factors...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Suraj Pavagada, Sylvain Ladame
The exponential improvements made in DNA sequencing technologies, together with the rapidly declining associated costs, has increasingly led to the expansion of the field of personalised genomic medicine. Changes in the sequence or copy number of specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules represent key signatures for the diagnosis, prognosis, classification and monitoring of a broad range of pathologies, most notably cancer. Technologies that can detect these changes require analytical tools that can detect DNA or RNA with high sensitivity and high specificity...
November 30, 2018: Chimia
Kohei Fukuoka, Yonehiro Kanemura, Tomoko Shofuda, Shintaro Fukushima, Satoshi Yamashita, Daichi Narushima, Mamoru Kato, Mai Honda-Kitahara, Hitoshi Ichikawa, Takashi Kohno, Atsushi Sasaki, Junko Hirato, Takanori Hirose, Takashi Komori, Kaishi Satomi, Akihiko Yoshida, Kai Yamasaki, Yoshiko Nakano, Ai Takada, Taishi Nakamura, Hirokazu Takami, Yuko Matsushita, Tomonari Suzuki, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Yukihiko Sonoda, Ryuta Saito, Teiji Tominaga, Yasuhiro Matsusaka, Keiichi Kobayashi, Motoo Nagane, Takuya Furuta, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Yoshitaka Narita, Yuichi Hirose, Shigeo Ohba, Akira Wada, Katsuyoshi Shimizu, Kazuhiko Kurozumi, Isao Date, Junya Fukai, Yousuke Miyairi, Naoki Kagawa, Atsufumi Kawamura, Makiko Yoshida, Namiko Nishida, Takafumi Wataya, Masayoshi Yamaoka, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi, Takehiro Uda, Mayu Takahashi, Yoshiteru Nakano, Takuya Akai, Shuichi Izumoto, Masahiro Nonaka, Kazuhisa Yoshifuji, Yoshinori Kodama, Masayuki Mano, Tatsuya Ozawa, Vijay Ramaswamy, Michael D Taylor, Toshikazu Ushijima, Soichiro Shibui, Mami Yamasaki, Hajime Arai, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Ryo Nishikawa, Koichi Ichimura
Extensive molecular analyses of ependymal tumors have revealed that supratentorial and posterior fossa ependymomas have distinct molecular profiles and are likely to be different diseases. The presence of C11orf95-RELA fusion genes in a subset of supratentorial ependymomas (ST-EPN) indicated the existence of molecular subgroups. However, the pathogenesis of RELA fusion-negative ependymomas remains elusive. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and validate the molecular classification of ependymal tumors, we conducted thorough molecular analyses of 113 locally diagnosed ependymal tumors from 107 patients in the Japan Pediatric Molecular Neuro-Oncology Group...
December 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Xi Sun, Yue Hu, Jing Wu, Liang Shi, Lei Zhu, Pei-Wen Xi, Ji-Fu Wei, Qiang Ding
BACKGROUND: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in regulating the metabolism of target RNAs. Aberrant expression of RBPs plays a vital role in the initiation and development of many cancers. The RBM family, which has the conserved RNA binding motif RNP1 and RNP2, shares the similar function in RNA processing and RBMS2 is a member of them. P21, also named CDKN1A, promotes cell cycle arrest and plays an important role in halting cell proliferation. In our study, we identified RBMS2 as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Lisa Dähnert, Martin Eiden, Josephine Schlosser, Christine Fast, Charlotte Schröder, Elke Lange, Albrecht Gröner, Wolfram Schäfer, Martin H Groschup
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one major cause of acute clinical hepatitis among humans throughout the world. In industrialized countries an increasing number of autochthonous HEV infections have been identified over the last years triggered by food borne as well as - to a much lower degree - by human to human transmission via blood transfusion. Pigs have been recognised as main reservoir for HEV genotype 3 (HEV-3), and zoonotic transmission to humans through undercooked/raw meat is reported repeatedly...
December 4, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Truong Tam Nguyen, Véronique Lemee, Karine Bollore, Hai Vinh Vu, Karine Lacombe, Xuan Lien Truong Thi, Que Anh Luong, Charline Dubos, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Huong Duong Thi, Didier Laureillard, Maud Lemoine, Edouard Tuaillon
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid tests performed on blood samples collected on Dried Blood Spot (DBS) and detection of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) are two approaches that may facilitate access to HCV diagnosis in low and middle incomes countries. In this study we evaluate HCV RNA and HCV antigen testing on DBS in HIV/HCV co-infected peoples who inject drugs in Vietnam. METHOD: One hundred and four HIV/HCV seropositive patients managed in outpatient care at the Haiphong Viet Tiep hospital were included in this study from February to March, 2014 (ANRS 12262 study)...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
István Prazsák, Norbert Moldován, Zsolt Balázs, Dóra Tombácz, Klára Megyeri, Attila Szűcs, Zsolt Csabai, Zsolt Boldogkői
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human pathogenic alphaherpesvirus harboring a relatively large DNA molecule. The VZV transcriptome has already been analyzed by microarray and short-read sequencing analyses. However, both approaches have substantial limitations when used for structural characterization of transcript isoforms, even if supplemented with primer extension or other techniques. Among others, they are inefficient in distinguishing between embedded RNA molecules, transcript isoforms, including splice and length variants, as well as between alternative polycistronic transcripts...
December 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
Peng Pang, Bin Yu, Yucong Shi, Li Deng, Huachong Xu, Sizhi Wu, Xiaoyin Chen
The intestinal flora may be an important and modifiable factor that contributes to the immune response in influenza. To investigate the effect of intestinal flora alteration induced by antibiotic interference on microRNA (miRNA) communication in antiviral immunity, BALB/c mice received two weeks of antibiotic treatment before infection with the influenza A virus. The changes in intestinal flora and pulmonary flora were detected and analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The amplification of the influenza virus in the lungs was measured by RT-PCR...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
C P Devatha, N Pavithra
Triclosan (TCS) is a well-known emerging contaminant got wide use in daily use products of domestic purpose, which provides the way to enter the ecological cycle, and is preferably detected in sewage treatment plants. In this study, TCS degrading bacteria (TDB) was isolated and identified from a wastewater treatment plant at the National Institute of Technology-Karnataka, Surathkal (NITK), India. The isolate was reported as Pseudomonas strain by performing 16S RNA Sequencing using BLAST analysis. Bacterial growth depends upon several environmental factors...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Regina Juanbeltz, Alejandra Pérez-García, Aitziber Aguinaga, Iván Martínez-Baz, Itziar Casado, Cristina Burgui, Silvia Goñi-Esarte, Jesús Repáraz, José Manuel Zozaya, Ramón San Miguel, Carmen Ezpeleta, Jesús Castilla
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization set targets to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through detection and treatment of all cases by 2030. This study aimed to describe the progress and difficulties in the elimination of HCV infection in Navarra, Spain. METHODS: Using electronic healthcare databases, we performed a population-based prospective cohort study to describe changes in the prevalence of diagnosed active HCV infection at the beginning of 2015 and the end of 2017, the rate of new diagnoses and the rate of post-treatment viral clearance (PTVC) during this period...
2018: PloS One
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