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stem signaling pathway

Amina Metidji, Sara Omenetti, Stefania Crotta, Ying Li, Emma Nye, Ellie Ross, Vivian Li, Muralidhara R Maradana, Chris Schiering, Brigitta Stockinger
The epithelium and immune compartment in the intestine are constantly exposed to a fluctuating external environment. Defective communication between these compartments at this barrier surface underlies susceptibility to infections and chronic inflammation. Environmental factors play a significant, but mechanistically poorly understood, role in intestinal homeostasis. We found that regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) upon injury through infection or chemical insults was profoundly influenced by the environmental sensor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)...
August 1, 2018: Immunity
Byoung-San Moon, Wange Lu, Hong Ju Park
Hearing loss occurs with the loss of hair cells of the cochlea and subsequent degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Regeneration of SGNs is a potentially promising therapeutic approach to hearing loss in addition to the use of a cochlear implant (CI), because this device stimulates SGNs directly to restore hearing bypassing the missing hair cells. The presence of SGN-neural stem cells (NSCs) has been reported in adult human and mice. These cells have the potential to become SGNs and thus represent a cellular foundation for regeneration therapies for hearing loss...
August 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Abhinav Adhikari, Judith Davie
BACKGROUND: JARID2 is a non-catalytic member of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which is known to regulate developmental target genes in embryonic stem cells. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the modulation of Wnt signaling by JARID2 during murine skeletal muscle differentiation. RESULTS: We show that JARID2 is expressed in proliferating myoblasts, but downregulated upon muscle differentiation. Unexpectedly, depletion of JARID2 or the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, EZH2, inhibited differentiation, suggesting that JARID2 and the PRC2 complex are required to initiate this process...
August 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Wenbo Zhang, Chao Huang, Aijun Sun, Liang Qiao, Xi Zhang, Junlong Huang, Xuejun Sun, Xiangqun Yang, Shanquan Sun
Senescence has become a hot point issue in recent decades and requires urgent attention. As a novel and effective antioxidant, hydrogen has been proved to alleviate cellular senescence in endothelial cells in vitro. However, the effects and mechanisms of hydrogen on senescence in vivo are still unclear. In the present study, 12-month-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS, 10 ml/kg). Subsequently, bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were harvested for the detection of hydrogen antisenescence effects and mechanisms...
July 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abby Spangler, Emily Y Su, April M Craft, Patrick Cahan
Directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells provides an accessible system to model development. However, the distinct cell types that emerge, their dynamics, and their relationship to progenitors in the early embryo has been difficult to decipher because of the cellular heterogeneity inherent to differentiation. Here, we used a combination of bulk RNA-Seq, single cell RNA-Seq, and bioinformatics analyses to dissect the cell types that emerge during directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells as embryoid bodies and we compared them to spatially and temporally resolved transcriptional profiles of early embryos...
July 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Xiao Tan, Zhongqiang Zhang, Hongliang Yao, Liangfang Shen
T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-4 (Tim-4) is overexpressed in several tumors and is correlated with enhanced tumor development and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the physiological alterations and molecular events related to Tim-4 overexpression in a mouse model of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the current study, we observed that Tim-4 is upregulated in CRC tissues compared with neighboring normal tissues. In addition, statistical analysis revealed that elevated Tim-4 expression was strongly linked to distant metastasis, TNM stage and reduced overall survival duration in CRC patients...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
Xiaoli Mi, Gabriel Griffin, Winston Lee, Sanjay Patel, Robert Ohgami, Chi Young Ok, Sa Wang, Julia T Geyer, Wenbin Xiao, Mikhail Roshal, Jacqueline S Garcia, Lewis B Silverman, Stephen E Sallan, Jon C Aster, Marian H Harris, Olga K Weinberg
The B/T subtype of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (B/T MPAL) is defined by co-expression of antigens of both B- and T-cell lineages on leukemic blasts. Although it has been suggested that multilineage antigen expression portends poor response to chemotherapy, the clinical characteristics and driver mutations that underlie the pathogenesis of this rare subtype of acute leukemia are scarcely known. We identified 9 cases of B/T MPAL from multiple institutions and correlated clinical and immunophenotypic findings with next-generation sequencing data...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Praveen Koganti, Gal Levy-Cohen, Michael Blank
Protein ubiquitination is an evolutionary conserved highly-orchestrated enzymatic cascade essential for normal cellular functions and homeostasis maintenance. This pathway relies on a defined set of cellular enzymes, among them, substrate-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3s). These ligases are the most critical players, as they define the spatiotemporal nature of ubiquitination and confer specificity to this cascade. Smurf1 and Smurf2 (Smurfs) are the C2-WW-HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligases, which recently emerged as important determinants of pivotal cellular processes...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yifan Wang, Guangdong Chen, Jinku Yan, Xi Chen, Fan He, Caihong Zhu, Junxin Zhang, Jun Lin, Guoqing Pan, Jia Yu, Ming Pei, Huilin Yang, Tao Liu
Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative joint disease involving both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Kartogenin (KGN) was recently identified to improve in vivo cartilage repair; however, its effect on bone formation is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of KGN on antioxidant properties and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Human BM-MSCs were treated with KGN at concentrations ranging from 10-8  M to 10-6  M. Our results indicated that KGN improved cell proliferation and attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Dan Wang, Xinhao Jiang, Aiqing Lu, Min Tu, Wei Huang, Ping Huang
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are pluripotent cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into various types of mesenchymal cell phenotypes, including osteoblasts, chondroblasts, myoblasts and tendon fibroblasts (TFs). The molecular mechanism for tenogenic differentiation of BMSCs is still unknown. The present study investigated the effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 14 on BMSC differentiation in vitro . It was revealed that BMP14 significantly increased the expression of tendon markers (scleraxis and tenomodulin) at the mRNA and protein level, which led to the upregulation of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) expression...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yonghua Bao, Yongchen Guo, Yiqiong Yang, Xiaonan Wei, Shanshan Zhang, Yongmeng Zhang, Kai Li, Ming Yuan, Dongli Guo, Virgilia Macias, Xiangdong Zhu, Wei Zhang, Wancai Yang
The serine protease PRSS8 has shown important physiological and pathological functions, but its roles in cancer initiation and progression are unclear. We developed and dynamically characterized a conditional knockout Prss8fl/fl , p-Villin-Cre+ mouse model. We found that genetic deficiency of the Prss8 gene caused spontaneous colitis and an inflamed rectum at an early age and caused intestinal tumors at a late age, which were linked to increased intestinal cell proliferation and migration but decreased cell differentiation...
August 16, 2018: Oncogene
Eithne M Maguire, Stuart W A Pearce, Qingzhong Xiao
During atherosclerosis, the gradual accumulation of lipids into the subendothelial space of damaged arteries results in several lipid modification processes followed by macrophage uptake in the arterial wall. The way in which these modified lipoproteins are dealt with determines the likelihood of cholesterol accumulation within the monocyte-derived macrophage and thus its transformation into the foam cell that makes up the characteristic fatty streak observed in the early stages of atherosclerosis. The unique expression of chemokine receptors and cellular adhesion molecules expressed on the cell surface of monocytes points to a particular extravasation route that they can take to gain entry into atherosclerotic site, in order to undergo differentiation into the phagocytic macrophage...
August 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Zhihua Han, Jiandong Wang, Liang Gao, Qiugen Wang, Jianhong Wu
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is considered as a promising alternative to treat intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Extensive work had been done on identifying and comparing different types of candidate stem cells, both in vivo and in vitro. However, few studies have shed light on degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), especially their biological behavior under the influence of exogenous stem cells, specifically the gene expression and regulation pattern. In the present study, we aimed to determine messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are differentially expressed during the co-culturing process with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and to explore the involved signaling pathways and the regulatory networks...
August 16, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Kazuyo Ando, Ryo Kunimatsu, Tetsuya Awada, Yuki Yoshimi, Yuji Tsuka, Keisuke Sumi, Kayo Horie, Takaharu Abe, Kengo Nakajima, Kotaro Tanimoto
Amelogenins are enamel matrix proteins that play crucial roles in enamel formation. Previous studies have indicated that amelogenin and amelogenin C-terminal peptide have cell-signaling functions. Recently, adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have received attention as a potential source of stem cells for use in regeneration therapy. In this study, we examined the effects of human full-length amelogenin (rh174) and amelogenin C-terminal peptide (amgCP) on the proliferation of ADSCs. ADSCs were cultured in the presence of amgCP or rh174...
August 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Emmanuel N Kontomanolis, Sofia Kalagasidou, Stamatia Pouliliou, Xanthoula Anthoulaki, Nikolaos Georgiou, Valentinos Papamanolis, Zacharias N Fasoulakis
Objective: Notch signaling pathway is a vital parameter of the mammalian vascular system. In this review, the authors summarize the current knowledge about the impact of the Notch signaling pathway in breast cancer progression and the therapeutic role of Notch's inhibition. Methods: The available literature in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus, regarding the role of the Notch pathway in breast cancer progression was searched for related articles from about 1973 to 2017 including terms such as "Notch," "Breast Cancer," and "Angiogenesis...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Aidan S Hancock, Christopher J Stairiker, Alina C Boesteanu, Elisa Monzón-Casanova, Sebastian Lukasiak, Yvonne M Mueller, Andrew P Stubbs, Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Martin Turner, Peter D Katsikis
Influenza virus outbreaks remain a serious threat to public health. Greater understanding of how cells targeted by the virus respond to the infection can provide insight into the pathogenesis of disease. Here we examined the transcriptional profile of in vivo infected and uninfected type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lungs of influenza virus infected mice. We show for the first time the unique gene expression profiles induced by the in vivo infection of AEC as well as the transcriptional response of uninfected bystander cells...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Minjiang Chen, Liming Wu, Jianfei Tu, Zhongwei Zhao, Xiaoxi Fan, Jianting Mao, Qiaoyou Weng, Xulu Wu, Li Huang, Min Xu, Jiansong Ji
BACKGROUND: Resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment is a common phenomenon in cancers, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Hippo signaling pathway has been demonstrated to play a role in tumor initiation, development, and progression. However, little is known about its roles in the HCC chemoresistance. METHODS: In this study, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to identify the expression profile of key components of Hippo signaling pathway between chemoresistant and chemosensitive HCC cell lines...
August 13, 2018: EBioMedicine
Ken Shirato, Tomoko Koda, Jun Takanari, Junetsu Ogasawara, Takuya Sakurai, Hideki Ohno, Takako Kizaki
We recently reported that ETAS 50, a standardized extract from the Asparagus officinalis stem, exerted anti-inflammatory effects on ultraviolet-B- (UV-B-) irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) by inhibiting nuclear factor- κ B p65 nuclear import and the resulting interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ) expression. To further elucidate the antiphotoaging potency of ETAS 50, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects on UV-B-irradiated NHDFs by focusing on the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt signaling pathways...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ye Jin, Xue Meng, Zhidong Qiu, Yanping Su, Peng Yu, Peng Qu
Public interest in complementary and alternative medicine has been increased worldwide, due to its wide applications in cancer prevention and treatment. Cordycepin is one of the most common and crucial types of complementary and alternative medicine. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a derivative of adenosine, was first isolated from medicine drug Cordyceps militaris . Cordycepin has been widely used as one compound for antitumor, which has been found to exert antiangiogenic, anti-metastatic, and antiproliferative effects, as well as inducing apoptosis...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Tianli Chen, Bowen Li, Ye Qiu, Zhidong Qiu, Peng Qu
Ginsengs, has long been used as one medicinal herb in China for more than two thousand years. Many studies have shown that ginsengs have preventive and therapeutic roles for cancer, and play a good complementary role in cancer treatment. Ginsenosides, as most important constituents of ginseng, have been extensively investigated and emphasized in cancer chemoprevention and therapeutics. However, the functional mechanism of Ginsenosides on cancer is not well known. This review will focus on introducing the functional mechanisms of ginsenosides and their metabolites, which regulate signaling pathways related with tumor growth and metastasis...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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