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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155658/building-global-epidemiology-and-response-capacity-with-field-epidemiology-training-programs
#1
Donna S Jones, Richard C Dicker, Robert E Fontaine, Amy L Boore, Jared O Omolo, Rana J Ashgar, Henry C Baggett
More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs)...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153586/non-specific-effects-of-childhood-vaccinations-a-case-control-study-nested-into-a-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-in-rural-burkina-faso
#2
G Pfeiffer, A B Fisker, E Nebié, J Hengelbrock, A Sié, H Becher, O Müller
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies in African countries have been suggestive of non-specific effects (NSE) of vaccination on child survival. Live vaccines (e.g. measles, MV) have been found to reduce child mortality while inactivated vaccines (e.g. diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, DTP) have been associated with increased mortality; NSE were often found to be sex-specific. METHODS: A case-control study nested into the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) cohort of the Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna (CRSN) was conducted in northwestern Burkina Faso...
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153127/enforcement-associated-with-higher-school-reported-immunization-rates
#3
Kylie J Hall, Molly A Howell, Rick J Jansen, Paul J Carson
INTRODUCTION: North Dakota's school-reported kindergarten immunization rates were among the lowest in the U.S. during the 2015-2016 school year. Ninety percent of kindergartners were fully immunized in accordance with state requirements, 3% had an exemption, and as many as 7% were noncompliant. School enforcement of immunization requirements has been noted as variable. This study sought to better understand the relationship between school-reported immunization rates and the enforcement of immunization requirements...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150209/exploring-the-relationship-between-polio-type-2-serum-neutralizing-antibodies-and-intestinal-immunity-using-data-from-two-randomized-controlled-trials-of-new-bopv-ipv-immunization-schedules
#4
Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Edwin J Asturias, Miguel O'Ryan, M Steven Oberste, William Weldon, Ralf Clemens, Ricardo Rüttimann, John F Modlin, Chris Gast
BACKGROUND: Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is now the only source of routine type 2 protection. The relationship, if any, between vaccine-induced type 2 humoral and intestinal immunity is poorly understood. METHODS: Two clinical trials in five Latin American countries of mixed or sequential bOPV-IPV schedules in 1640 infants provided data on serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and intestinal immunity, assessed as viral shedding following oral mOPV2 challenge. Analyses with generalized additive and quantile regression models examined the relationships between prechallenge NAb titers and proportion, duration and titers (magnitude) of viral shedding...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145357/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2016
#5
Leora R Feldstein, Stephanie Mariat, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mamadou S Diallo, Laura M Conklin, Aaron S Wallace
The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage for all vaccines in the country's routine immunization schedule by 2020. CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates to describe changes in global and regional coverage as of 2016. Global coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), the third dose of polio vaccine, and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) have ranged from 84% to 86% since 2010...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138386/reverse-less-invasive-stabilization-system-liss-plating-for-proximal-femur-fractures-in-poliomyelitis-survivors-a-report-of-two-cases
#6
Chen Yao, Dongxu Jin, Changqing Zhang
BACKGROUND Poliomyelitis is a neuromuscular disease which causes muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and disabilities. Treatment of hip fractures on polio-affect limbs is unique and difficult, since routine fixation methods like nailing may not be suitable due to abnormal skeletal structures. CASE REPORT We report one femoral neck fracture and one subtrochanteric fracture in polio survivors successfully treated with reverse less invasive stabilization system (LISS) plating technique. Both fractures were on polio-affected limbs with significant skeletal deformities and low bone density...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134178/wheelchair-services-and-use-outcomes-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-kenya-and-the-philippines
#7
Eva S Bazant, Elizabeth J Himelfarb Hurwitz, Brenda N Onguti, Emma K Williams, Jamie H Noon, Cheryl A Xavier, Ferdiliza D S Garcia, Anthony Gichangi, Mohammed Gabbow, Peter Musakhi, R Lee Kirby
Background: The World Health Organisation recommends that services accompany wheelchair distribution. This study examined the relationship of wheelchair service provision in Kenya and the Philippines and wheelchair-use-related outcomes. Method: We surveyed 852 adult basic manual wheelchair users. Participants who had received services and those who had not were sought in equal numbers from wheelchair-distribution entities. Outcomes assessed were daily wheelchair use, falls, unassisted outdoor use and performance of activities of daily living (ADL)...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132992/measuring-the-timeliness-of-childhood-vaccinations-using-cohort-data-and-routine-health-records-to-evaluate-quality-of-immunisation-services
#8
Suzanne Walton, Mario Cortina-Borja, Carol Dezateux, Lucy J Griffiths, Karen Tingay, Ashley Akbari, Amrita Bandyopadhyay, Ronan A Lyons, Helen Bedford
BACKGROUND: To achieve full benefits of vaccination programmes, high uptake and timely receipt of vaccinations are required. OBJECTIVES: To examine uptake and timeliness of infant and pre-school booster vaccines using cohort study data linked to health records. METHODS: We included 1782 children, born between 2000 and 2001, participating in the Millennium Cohort Study and resident in Wales, whose parents gave consent for linkage to National Community Child Health Database records at the age seven year contact...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126173/immunogenicity-of-different-routine-poliovirus-vaccination-schedules-a-randomized-controlled-trial-karachi-pakistan
#9
Ali F Saleem, Ondrej Mach, Mohammad T Yousafzai, Asia Khan, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Syed S Zaidi, Muhammad M Alam, Farheen Quadri, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
Background: We assessed immunity against polioviruses induced with new Pakistani immunization schedule and compared it with alternative immunization schedules. Methods: Newborns were randomized to receive one of the following vaccination schedules, administered at birth, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Arm A: 4x IPV; Arm B: 4x bOPV; Arm C and D: bOPV, bOPV, bOPV, bOPV+ inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); Arm E: 4x trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV). At 22 weeks of age, children received one challenge dose of tOPV, and children in arm D received one additional IPV dose...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#10
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104608/modelling-risk-to-us-military-populations-from-stopping-blanket-mandatory-polio-vaccination
#11
Colleen Burgess, Andrew Burgess, Kellie McMullen
Objectives: Transmission of polio poses a threat to military forces when deploying to regions where such viruses are endemic. US-born soldiers generally enter service with immunity resulting from childhood immunization against polio; moreover, new recruits are routinely vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), supplemented based upon deployment circumstances. Given residual protection from childhood vaccination, risk-based vaccination may sufficiently protect troops from polio transmission...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100706/efficacy-of-trivalent-influenza-vaccine-against-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-among-young-children-in-a-randomized-trial-in-bangladesh
#12
Melissa A Rolfes, Doli Goswami, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Sultana Yeasmin, Nasrin Parvin, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Marion Barends, Dilruba Ahmed, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Joseph Bresee, Stephen Luby, Lawrence H Moulton, Mathuram Santosham, Alicia M Fry, W Abdullah Brooks
BACKGROUND: Few trials have evaluated influenza vaccine efficacy (VE) in young children, a group particularly vulnerable to influenza complications. We aimed to estimate VE against influenza in children aged <2 years in Bangladesh; a subtropical setting, where influenza circulation can be irregular. METHODS: Children aged 6-23 months were enrolled 1:1 in a parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) versus inactivated polio vaccine (IPV); conducted August 2010-March 2014 in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
October 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100529/vaccine-related-poliovirus-shedding-in-trivalent-polio-vaccine-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status-analysis-from-under-five-children
#13
Joanne Hassan, Laura Wangai, Peter Borus, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Lucy Wanja Karani, Mercy Kithinji, Michael Kiptoo
BACKGROUND: Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by poliovirus and transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The causative agent is one of the three serotypes of poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, 3) that differ slightly in capsid protein. Prolonged vaccine-related poliovirus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals has been linked to possible reservoir for reintroduction of polioviruses after eradication. The study therefore aimed at estimating the duration for vaccine-related poliovirus shedding among potentially and HIV-infected persons...
November 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095803/update-on-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-worldwide-january-2016-june-2017
#14
Jaume Jorba, Ousmane M Diop, Jane Iber, Elizabeth Henderson, Roland W Sutter, Steven G F Wassilak, Cara C Burns
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. The >99.99% decline worldwide in polio cases since the launch of the GPEI is attributable to the extensive use of the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and comprehensive national routine immunization programs...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095688/molecular-evolution-of-types-in-non-polio-enteroviruses
#15
Alexander N Lukashev, Yulia A Vakulenko
Non-polio enteroviruses are a ubiquitous and divergent group of non-enveloped RNA viruses. Novel types are reported regularly in addition to over 100 known types; however, mechanisms of emergence of novel types remain obscure. Here, the 33 most common types represented by 35-629 non-redundant partial VP1 sequences in GenBank were studied in parallel using Bayesian coalescent molecular clock analysis to investigate common evolutionary trends among enterovirus types. Inferred substitution rates were in the range of 0...
November 2, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064356/expansion-of-vaccination-services-and-strengthening-vaccine-preventable-diseases-surveillance-in-haiti-2010-2016
#16
Rania A Tohme, Jeannot Francois, Kathleen F Cavallaro, Gilson Paluku, Idrissa Yalcouye, Ernsley Jackson, Tracie Wright, Paul Adrien, Mark A Katz, Terri B Hyde, Pape Faye, Francine Kimanuka, Vance Dietz, John Vertefeuille, David Lowrance, Benjamin Dahl, Roopal Patel
Following the 2010 earthquake, Haiti was at heightened risk for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) outbreaks due to the exacerbation of long-standing gaps in the vaccination program and subsequent risk of VPD importation from other countries. Therefore, partners supported the Haitian Ministry of Health and Population to improve vaccination services and VPD surveillance. During 2010-2016, three polio, measles, and rubella vaccination campaigns were implemented, achieving a coverage > 90% among children and maintaining Haiti free of those VPDs...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057668/modeling-subjective-well-being-in-individuals-with-chronic-pain-and-a-physical-disability-the-role-of-pain-control-and-pain-catastrophizing
#17
Angela Furrer, Gisela Michel, Alexandra L Terrill, Mark P Jensen, Rachel Müller
PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. METHODS: Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month...
October 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037978/expected-immunizations-and-health-protection-for-hajj-and-umrah-2018-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj and Umrah are one of the largest recurring religious mass gatherings across the globe drawing pilgrims from more than 185 countries. The living circumstances and activities of the pilgrims may create an environment for the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. Each year, the Health authority of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in coordination with international health authorities, updates health requirements for pilgrims. The Hajj for 2017 took place from August 24 to September 5, 2017...
October 14, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037086/measles-and-rubella-elimination-learning-from-polio-eradication-and-moving-forward-with-a-diagonal-approach
#19
James L Goodson, James P Alexander, Robert W Linkins, Walter A Orenstein
In 1988, an estimated 350,000 children were paralyzed by polio and 125 countries reported polio cases, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to achieve polio eradication by 2000, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established as a partnership focused on eradication. Today, following eradication efforts, polio cases have decreased >99% and eradication of all three types of wild polioviruses is approaching. However, since polio resources substantially support disease surveillance and other health programs, losing polio assets could reverse progress toward achieving Global Vaccine Action Plan goals...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035476/the-clinical-trials-on-gamma-globulin-for-polio-victims-of-marketing-success
#20
Stephen E Mawdsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
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