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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326249/in-pakistan-surveillance-for-polio-reveals-a-paradox
#1
Leslie Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323639/the-polio-endgame-securing-a-world-free-of-all-polioviruses
#2
Michel Zaffran, Michael McGovern, Reza Hossaini, Rebecca Martin, Jay Wenger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314143/modeling-poliovirus-transmission-in-pakistan-and-afghanistan-to-inform-vaccination-strategies-in-undervaccinated-subpopulations
#3
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A Pallansch, Stephen L Cochi, Derek T Ehrhardt, Noha H Farag, Stephen C Hadler, Lee M Hampton, Maureen Martinez, Steve G F Wassilak, Kimberly M Thompson
Due to security, access, and programmatic challenges in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, both countries continue to sustain indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission and threaten the success of global polio eradication and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation. We fitted an existing differential-equation-based poliovirus transmission and OPV evolution model to Pakistan and Afghanistan using four subpopulations to characterize the well-vaccinated and undervaccinated subpopulations in each country. We explored retrospective and prospective scenarios for using inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization or supplemental immunization activities (SIAs)...
January 3, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309594/isolation-of-vaccine-like-poliovirus-strains-in-sewage-samples-from-the-uk
#4
Manasi Majumdar, Dimitra Klapsa, Thomas Wilton, Joyce Akello, Catherine Anscombe, David Allen, Edward T Mee, Philip D Minor, Javier Martin
Background: Environmental surveillance (ES) is a sensitive method for detecting human enterovirus (HEV) circulation and it is used worldwide to support global polio eradication. We describe a novel ES approach using next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify HEVs in sewage samples taken in London, UK, from June-2016 to May-2017. Methods and Results: Two different sewage concentration methods were used: a two-phase aqueous separation system and size-exclusion by filtration and centrifugation, in combination with virus isolation in cell cultures and NGS...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307368/measles-and-rubella-global-strategic-plan-2012-2020-midterm-review-report-background-and-summary
#5
Walter A Orenstein, Lisa Cairns, Alan Hinman, Benjamin Nkowane, Jean-Marc Olivé, Arthur L Reingold
Measles, a vaccine-preventable illness, is one of the most infectious diseases known to man. In 2015, an estimated 134,200 measles deaths occurred globally. Rubella, also vaccine-preventable, is a concern because infection during pregnancy can result in congenital defects in the baby. More than 100,000 babies with congenital rubella syndrome were estimated to have been born globally in 2010. Eradication of both measles and rubella is considered to be feasible, beneficial, and more cost-effective than high-level control...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307367/measles-and-rubella-global-strategic-plan-2012-2020-midterm-review
#6
REVIEW
W A Orenstein, A Hinman, B Nkowane, J M Olive, A Reingold
1. Measles eradication is the ultimate goal but it is premature to set a date for its accomplishment. Existing regional elimination goals should be vigorously pursued to enable setting a global target by 2020. 2. The basic strategic approaches articulated in the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan 2012-2020 are valid to achieve the goals but have not been fully implemented (or not appropriately adapted to local situations). 3. The report recommends a shift from primary reliance on supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to assure two doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) are delivered to the target population to primary reliance on ongoing services to assure administration of two doses of MCV...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304745/characteristics-of-wild-polio-virus-outbreak-investigation-and-response-in-ethiopia-in-2013-2014-implications-for-prevention-of-outbreaks-due-to-importations
#7
Ayesheshem Ademe Tegegne, Fiona Braka, Meseret Eshetu Shebeshi, Aron Kassahun Aregay, Berhane Beyene, Amare Mengistu Mersha, Mohammed Ademe, Abdulahi Muhyadin, Dadi Jima, Abyot Bekele Wyessa
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia joined the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1996, and by the end of December 2001 circulation of indigenous Wild Polio Virus (WPV) had been interrupted. Nonetheless, the country experienced multiple importations during 2004-2008, and in 2013. We characterize the 2013 outbreak investigations and response activities, and document lessons learned. METHOD: The data were pulled from different field investigation reports and from the national surveillance database for Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304199/intestinal-immune-responses-to-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-opv-challenge-in-infants-previously-immunized-with-bivalent-opv-and-either-high-dose-or-standard-inactivated-polio-vaccine
#8
Elizabeth B Brickley, Carolyn B Strauch, Wendy F Wieland-Alter, Ruth I Connor, Shu Lin, Joshua A Weiner, Margaret E Ackerman, Minetaro Arita, M Steven Oberste, William C Weldon, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Peter F Wright
Background: The impact of inactivated polio vaccines (IPVs) on intestinal mucosal immune responses to live poliovirus is poorly understood. Methods: In a 2014 phase 2 clinical trial, Panamanian infants were immunized at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age with bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and randomized to receive either a novel monovalent high-dose type 2-specific IPV (mIPV2HD) or a standard trivalent IPV at 14 weeks. Infants were challenged at 18 weeks with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302865/global-polio-eradication-way-ahead
#9
Sunil Bahl, Pankaj Bhatnagar, Roland W Sutter, Sigrun Roesel, Michel Zaffran
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012...
January 5, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302127/census-independent-population-mapping-in-northern-nigeria
#10
Eric M Weber, Vincent Y Seaman, Robert N Stewart, Tomas J Bird, Andrew J Tatem, Jacob J McKee, Budhendra L Bhaduri, Jessica J Moehl, Andrew E Reith
Although remote sensing has long been used to aid in the estimation of population, it has usually been in the context of spatial disaggregation of national census data, with the census counts serving both as observational data for specifying models and as constraints on model outputs. Here we present a framework for estimating populations from the bottom up, entirely independently of national census data, a critical need in areas without recent and reliable census data. To make observations of population density, we replace national census data with a microcensus, in which we enumerate population for a sample of small areas within the states of Kano and Kaduna in northern Nigeria...
January 2018: Remote Sensing of Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300977/schemata-consort-and-the-salk-polio-vaccine-trial
#11
Charles J Kowalski, Adam J Mrdjenovich
In this essay, we defend the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial and try to put some limits on the role schemata should play in designing clinical research studies. Our presentation is structured as a response to de Freitas and Pietrobon (de Freitas, R. S. and R. Pietrobon. 2007. Whoever could get rid of the context of discovery/context of justification dichotomy? A proposal based on recent developments in clinical research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32:25-42.) who identified the CONSORT statement as a schema that would have, had it existed at the time, ruled out the design of the Salk polio vaccine trial of 1954 in favor of a completely randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298727/mandatory-vaccination-understanding-the-common-good-in-the-midst-of-the-global-polio-eradication-campaign
#12
Lawrence O Gostin
BACKGROUND: The detection of wild poliovirus in Israeli sewage in May 2013 led the health authorities to vaccinate children with OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine). Shelly Kamin-Friedman explored the legal and ethical dimensions of this policy. This commentary makes three claims: (1) Mandatory vaccination is a valid exercise of the state's police powers to protect the common good. (2) A disease eradication campaign is a sufficient ground for the exercise of those powers. (3) The state is obliged to use the least restrictive/invasive measure to achieve community-wide vaccine coverage, but need not use less effective measures; further, determining which measure is most effective is a fact-specific determination...
January 3, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291229/environmental-surveillance-of-polioviruses-with-special-reference-to-l20b-cell-line
#13
Nirmal Kaundal, Purva Sarkate, Charu Prakash, Narayan Rishi
With the eradication of poliovirus, the focus has now shifted to environmental surveillance of poliovirus to determine the circulating polioviruses in an area. L20B and RD cell lines are used for isolation of polioviruses. It is imperative to study the efficacy of these cell line in isolating polioviruses from environmental samples. The present study was carried out to determine the sensitivity and specificity of L20B cell line for isolation of polioviruses from environmental samples. L20B and RD cell lines are used for isolation of polioviruses...
December 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289932/vaccination-marketing-by-private-healthcare-sector-glaring-malpractices
#14
Vipin Vashistha
The editorial by Jesani and Johari in this journal raises some contentious yet relevant ethical issues pertaining to vaccination practices in India. Vaccination is one of the most important preventive measures against infectious diseases. The eradication of smallpox in the 70s and near eradication of polio are testimony to this. The Government of India (GoI) has recently added a few new vaccines in its Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP), one of the largest public health programmes across the globe. The number of vaccines delivered through this public health programme has doubled from six in 1985 to twelve in 2017...
December 21, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288818/re-vaccination-following-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-is-safe-and-effective-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-receiving-lenalidomide-maintenance
#15
Meighan Palazzo, Gunjan L Shah, Olivia Copelan, Kenneth Seier, Sean M Devlin, Molly Maloy, Sheila Kenny, Hani Hassoun, Neha S Korde, Nikoletta Lendvai, Alexander M Lesokhin, Sham Mailankody, David J Chung, Guenther Koehne, C Ola Landgren, Heather Landau, Sergio A Giralt, Miguel-Angel Perales
Guidelines recommend vaccination starting 12 months after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (aHCT), but there is varying practice for patients on maintenance therapy, with some centers not immunizing at all. Due to decreased vaccine rates among the general population causing loss of herd immunity, we aimed to establish the safety and efficacy of revaccinating multiple myeloma patients on lenalidomide maintenance (LM). Of the 122 patients who were vaccinated after aHCT between 2010-2014 at MSKCC, 91 (75%) were on LM...
December 27, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288471/chemokines-cxcl10-cxcl11-and-cxcl13-in-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-non-polio-enterovirus-aseptic-meningitis-and-neuroborreliosis-cxcl10-as-initial-discriminator-in-diagnostic-algorithm
#16
Lorna Stemberger Maric, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej, Lana Gorenec, Ivana Grgic, Vladimir Trkulja, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Srdan Roglic, Tonci Grmoja, Nina Barisic, Goran Tesovic
We investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls, n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CXCL10 levels showed a high discriminative potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC, 0...
December 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285631/factors-associated-with-vaccination-status-of-children-aged-12-48-months-in-india-2012-2013
#17
Luke M Shenton, Abram L Wagner, Deepti Bettampadi, Nina B Masters, Bradley F Carlson, Matthew L Boulton
Objectives India has more unvaccinated children than any other country despite provision of free vaccines through the government's Universal Immunization Program. In this study, we calculated the proportion of children aged 12-48 months who were fully vaccinated, under-vaccinated, or who had not received any vaccines. Childhood, household, and sociocultural factors associated with under-vaccination and non-vaccination were evaluated. Methods Using data from India's 4th District-level Health and Facility Survey, 2012-2013 (DLHS-4) and the 2012-2013 Annual Health Survey (AHS), we calculated the proportion of children who were non-vaccinated, under-vaccinated, or fully vaccinated with 1 dose of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, 3 doses of oral polio vaccine, 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, and 1 dose of measles-containing vaccine...
December 28, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279133/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-treatment-of-post-polio-syndrome
#18
Żanna Pastuszak, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Adam Stępień, Zbigniew Czernicki
BACKGROUND: Post polio syndrome is a rare disease that occurs decades after polio virus infection. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a treatment option with proved effectiveness in drug resistant depression. Possibly it can be helpful in therapy of other neurological diseases including post polio syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of patient diagnosed with post polio syndrome who was treated with rTMS stimulation with a good effect. METHODS: Patient had rTMS stimulation of left prefrontal cortex twice a week for an eight weeks...
November 5, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277353/immunologic-non-inferiority-and-safety-of-the-investigational-pneumococcal-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-4-dose-vial-presentation-compared-to-the-licensed-phid-cv-1-dose-vial-presentation-in-infants-a-phase-iii-randomized
#19
Khalequ Zaman, Sheikh Farzana Zaman, Farzana Zaman, Asma Aziz, Sayeed-Bin Faisal, Magali Traskine, Md Ahsan Habib, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: To support vaccination programs in developing countries, a 4-dose vial presentation of pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was developed. This study assessed immunologic non-inferiority and safety of the investigational PHiD-CV 4-dose versus licensed 1-dose vial presentation in infants. METHODS: In this phase III, mono-center, observer-blind study in Bangladesh, 6-10-week-old infants were randomized 1:1 to receive PHiD-CV primary vaccination (at ages 6, 10, 18 weeks) and a booster dose (at age 9 months) with a 4-dose vial (with preservative, 4DV group) or 1-dose vial (preservative-free, 1DV group)...
December 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260690/emergence-of-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-during-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-guinea-2014-2015
#20
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Manasi Majumdar, Ousmane Kebe, Aichatou D Fall, Moussa Kone, Mouctar Kande, Moustapha Dabo, Mohamed Salif Sylla, Djenou Sompare, Wayne Howard, Ousmane Faye, Javier Martin, Kader Ndiaye
During the 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts. To clarify the genetic properties of cVDPVs and their emergence, we combined epidemiologic and virologic data for polio cases in Guinea. Deviation of public health resources to the Ebola outbreak disrupted polio vaccination programs and surveillance activities, which fueled the spread of neurovirulent VDPVs in an area of low vaccination coverage and immunity...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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