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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081056/guidance-for-assessment-of-poliovirus-vaccination-status-and-vaccination-of-children-who-have-received-poliovirus-vaccine-outside-the-united-states
#1
Mona Marin, Manisha Patel, Steve Oberste, Mark A Pallansch
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to 74 cases in two countries in 2015 (1). This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which contains all three poliovirus types (2,3)...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077878/pla2g16-represents-a-switch-between-entry-and-clearance-of-picornaviridae
#2
Jacqueline Staring, Eleonore von Castelmur, Vincent A Blomen, Lisa G van den Hengel, Markus Brockmann, Jim Baggen, Hendrik Jan Thibaut, Joppe Nieuwenhuis, Hans Janssen, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Anastassis Perrakis, Jan E Carette, Thijn R Brummelkamp
Picornaviruses are a leading cause of human and veterinary infections that result in various diseases, including polio and the common cold. As archetypical non-enveloped viruses, their biology has been extensively studied. Although a range of different cell-surface receptors are bound by different picornaviruses, it is unclear whether common host factors are needed for them to reach the cytoplasm. Using genome-wide haploid genetic screens, here we identify the lipid-modifying enzyme PLA2G16 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) as a picornavirus host factor that is required for a previously unknown event in the viral life cycle...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077864/knowledge-and-perceptions-of-polio-and-polio-immunization-in-polio-high-risk-areas-of-pakistan
#3
Muhammad Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Noshad Ali, Imtiaz Hussain, Farhana Tabassum, Zamir Suhag, Saeed Anwar, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only countries where polio is endemic, and Pakistan reports the most cases in the world. Although the rate is lower than in previous years, the situation remains alarming. We conducted a mixed methods study in high-risk areas of Pakistan to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of target populations about polio vaccine and its eradication, and to estimate coverage of routine immunization and oral polio vaccine. We surveyed 10,685 households in Karachi, 2522 in Pishin, and 2005 in Bajaur...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067718/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-booster-injection-of-dtap-ipv-hib-pentaxim%C3%A2-administered-concomitantly-with-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-in-healthy-toddlers-aged-15-to-18-months-in-mexico-a-randomized-trial
#4
Flor Irene Rodriguez Melo, José Juan Renteria Morales, Abiel Homero Mascareñas De Los Santos, Enrique Rivas, Claire Vigne, Fernando Noriega
BACKGROUND: The live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed in a number of dengue endemic countries for individuals ≥9 years old. Before integration of any vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules, a lack of immune interference and acceptable safety when co-administered with other recommended vaccines should be demonstrated. METHODS: This randomized, multi-center, Phase III trial was conducted in Mexico. Healthy toddlers (n=732) received a booster dose of a licensed pentavalent combination vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b [DTaP-IPV//Hib]) either concomitantly or sequentially with the second dose of CYD-TDV administered as a 3-dose schedule...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059613/seroprevalence-of-poliovirus-antibodies-in-the-kansas-city-metropolitan-area-2012-2013
#5
Gregory S Wallace, Barbara A Pahud, William C Weldon, Aaron T Curns, M Steven Oberste, Christopher J Harrison
No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the U.S. since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the U.S. are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the U...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058663/vaccination-coverage-and-timelines-among-children-0-6-months-in-kinshasa-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Paul N Zivich, Landry Kiketa, Bienvenu Kawende, Bruno Lapika, Marcel Yotebieng
Objectives The Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) is one of the ten countries, which accounts for 60% of unvaccinated children worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess predictors of incomplete and untimely immunization among a cohort of infants recruited at birth and followed up through 24 weeks in Kinshasa. Methods Complete immunization for each vaccine was defined as receiving all the recommended doses. Untimely immunization was defined as receiving the given dose before (early) or after (delayed) the recommended time window...
January 5, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057194/budget-impact-of-polio-immunization-strategy-for-india-introduction-of-one-dose-of-inactivated-poliomyelitis-vaccine-and-reductions-in-supplemental-polio-immunization
#7
M M Khan, S Sharma, B Tripathi, F P Alvarez
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a budget impact analysis (BIA) of introducing the immunization recommendations of India Expert Advisory Group (IEAG) for the years 2015-2017. The recommendations include introduction of one inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) dose in the regular child immunization programme along with reductions in oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses in supplemental programmes. STUDY DESIGN: This is a national level analysis of budget impact of new polio immunization recommendations...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057104/-the-role-of-sabin-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-in-the-final-phase-of-global-polio-eradication
#8
S Z Dong, W B Zhu
Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057103/-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccines-an-inevitable-choice-for-eliminating-poliomyelitis
#9
J D Vidor, Shu Jean-Denis
The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056481/-polio-vaccination-in-return-to-the-comment-from-the-robert-koch-institut
#10
Hans E Müller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053366/acute-flaccid-paralysis-incidence-and-zika-virus-surveillance-pacific-islands
#11
Adam T Craig, Michelle T Butler, Roberta Pastore, Beverley J Paterson, David N Durrheim
PROBLEM: The emergence of Zika virus has challenged outbreak surveillance systems in many at-risk, low-resource countries. As the virus has been linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome, routine data on the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) may provide a useful early warning system for the emergence of Zika virus. APPROACH: We documented all Zika virus outbreaks and cases in 21 Pacific Islands and territories for the years 2007 to 2015. We extracted data from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative database on the reported and expected annual incidence of AFP in children younger than 15 years...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051034/a-pneumonia-case-associated-with-type-2-polio-vaccine-strains
#12
Mao-Zhong Li, Tie-Gang Zhang, Ai-Hua Li, Ming Luo, Yang Jiao, Mei Dong, Cheng Gong, Fang Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050469/interference-of-vaccine-derived-polio-viruses-with-diagnosis-of-enteroviral-diseases-in-neonatal-period
#13
Mohammad Saeed Sasan, Alireza Ataei Nakhaei, Abdolvahab Alborzi, Mazyar Ziyaeyan
INTRODUCTION: Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of neonatal sepsis especially at the junction of summer and fall. AIM: This study was planned to find the frequency of Enteroviral (EV) sepsis among neonates with clinical sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective descriptive study. Rectal and pharyngeal swab samples were taken from all neonates with clinical sepsis and a control group of neonates with simple jaundice. EV was confirmed by both cell culture and RT-PCR...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039136/laboratory-surveillance-of-polio-and-other-enteroviruses-in-high-risk-populations-and-environmental-samples
#14
Vasiliki Pogka, Stavroula Labropoulou, Mary Emmanouil, Androniki Voulgari-Kokota, Alexandra Vernardaki, Theano Georgakopoulou, Andreas F Mentis
: In the context of poliomyelitis eradication, a reinforced supplementary laboratory surveillance of enteroviruses was implemented in Greece. From 2008 to 2014, the Hellenic Polioviruses/Enteroviruses Reference Laboratory performed detailed supplementary surveillance of circulating enteroviruses among healthy individuals in high-risk population groups, among immigrants from poliovirus endemic countries as well as in environmental samples. In total, 722 stool samples and 179 sewage water samples were included in the study...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034372/public-health-response-to-the-silent-reintroduction-of-wild-poliovirus-to-israel-2013-2014
#15
REVIEW
J Moran-Gilad, E Kaliner, M Gdalevich, I Grotto
During 2013/14, Israel witnessed the silent reintroduction and sustained transmission of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) detected through routine environmental surveillance performed on sewage samples. The public health response to silent poliovirus transmission in a population with high inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) coverage poses an emerging challenge towards the 'End Game' of global poliovirus eradication. This paper reviews the risk assessment, risk management and risk communication aspects of this poliovirus incident...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017441/extensive-swelling-of-the-limb-and-systemic-symptoms-after-a-fourth-dose-of-acellular-pertussis-containing-vaccines-in-england-in-children-aged-3-6years
#16
Jo Southern, Pauline A Waight, Nick Andrews, Elizabeth Miller
Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling >100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or high dose diphtheria (DTaP/IPV) vaccine; 2 of the 3 DTaP/IPV vaccines also contained Haemophilus influenza b conjugate vaccine (Hib)...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011813/does-oral-polio-vaccine-have-non-specific-effects-on-all-cause-mortality-natural-experiments-within-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-early-measles-vaccine
#17
Peter Aaby, Andreas Andersen, Cesário L Martins, Ane B Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Hilton C Whittle, Christine S Benn
BACKGROUND: BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral polio vaccine (OPV). METHODS: During an RCT of 2 doses of MV at 4.5 and 9 months versus 1 dose of MV at 9 months of age, we experienced 2 natural experiments with OPV...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011278/molecular-characterization-of-echovirus-13-uncovering-high-genetic-diversity-and-identification-of-new-genotypes-in-pakistan
#18
Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Adnan Khurshid, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Echovirus 13 (E-13) is reported worldwide and is mostly related to aseptic meningitis but it is also isolated from cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Unfortunately, all studies conducted on non polio enterovirus in Pakistan only confirm E-13 isolation based on microneutralization assay but there is lack of molecular epidemiological data on this serotype. In this study, 113 stool samples were collected from AFP patients during 2008-2010. An enterovirus primer mediated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, a standard microneutralization assay and sequencing of viral protein 1 gene (VP1) identified the predominant serotype E-13...
December 20, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003352/the-duration-of-intestinal-immunity-after-an-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-booster-dose-in-children-immunized-with-oral-vaccine-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Jacob John, Sidhartha Giri, Arun S Karthikeyan, Dipti Lata, Shalini Jeyapaul, Anand K Rajan, Nirmal Kumar, Pavithra Dhanapal, V Jayalakshmi, M Mohanraj, J Hanusha, Uma Raman, Prabhakar D Moses, Asha Abraham, Sunil Bahl, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Mohammad Ahmad, Nicholas C Grassly, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: In 2014 two studies showed that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) boosts intestinal immunity in children previously immunized with oral vaccine (OPV). As a result IPV was introduced in mass campaigns to help achieve polio eradication. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial to assess the duration of the boost in intestinal immunity following a dose of IPV given to OPV-immunized children. 900 healthy children aged 1-4 years in Vellore, India, were randomized (1:1:1) to receive IPV at 5 months (arm A), at enrolment (arm B) or no vaccine (arm C)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999213/poliomyelitis-residual-hurdles-to-global-eradication-commentary
#20
Paola Stefanelli, Gabriele Buttinelli, Giovanni Rezza
The global eradication of polio is close to achieving success. However, transmission of wild poliovirus persists in countries where the disease is endemic, and outbreaks may also occur in previously polio-free countries where population immunity is not maintained. To achieve polio eradication, several key actions are required: (1) to detect any poliovirus transmission, (2) to strengthen immunization systems and withdraw all oral polio vaccines from use, (3) to contain polioviruses and certify interruption of transmission, and (4) to sustain ongoing public health programs...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
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