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Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
R J Duintjer Tebbens, K M Thompson
If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Timo Vesikari, Sven Arne Silfverdal, Emilia Jordanov, Emmanuel Feroldi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2+1 schedule at 3, 5, 11-12 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multi-center study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N=275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N=275), both given in co-administration with Prevenar 13™ (PCV13). Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Julian P T Higgins, Karla Soares-Weiser, José A López-López, Artemisia Kakourou, Katherine Chaplin, Hannah Christensen, Natasha K Martin, Jonathan A C Sterne, Arthur L Reingold
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. DESIGN:  Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Laetitia Duval, François-Charles Wolff, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts
AIM: To investigate differences in vaccination coverage between Roma and otherwise comparable non-Roma children, including factors associated with the vaccination gap, health care access and discrimination faced by Roma. METHODS: We analyse data from the Roma Regional Survey 2011 implemented in twelve countries of Central and South-East Europe. Our sample comprises 8233 children aged up to 6 with 7072 Roma children and 1161 non-Roma children. Estimates of the Roma vaccination gap are estimated using Logit regressions...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Michelle S Y Ng, Alice Y W Foong, Mark J A Koh
INTRODUCTION: The development of cutaneous neoplasms at immunization sites following vaccination is uncommon, and only few have been reported in the literature worldwide. We report an unusual case of an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma that developed as a chronic nonhealing plaque in the immunization scar of a young boy after vaccination. CASE REPORT: A 13-month-old Chinese boy presented with an unusual skin reaction on the vaccination site at the right anterolateral thigh following a routine intramuscular injection of '5-in-1' (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine at 4 months of age...
May 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
Kim Tien Ng, Jack Bee Chook, Xiang Yong Oong, Yoke Fun Chan, Kok Gan Chan, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Yong Kek Pang, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Kok Keng Tee
Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the major aetiology of respiratory tract infections. HRV viral load assays are available but limitations that affect accurate quantification exist. We developed a one-step Taqman assay using oligonucleotides designed based on a comprehensive list of global HRV sequences. The new oligonucleotides targeting the 5'-UTR region showed high PCR efficiency (E = 99.6%, R(2) = 0.996), with quantifiable viral load as low as 2 viral copies/μl. Assay evaluation using an External Quality Assessment (EQA) panel yielded a detection rate of 90%...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Ahd Hamidi, Wilfried A M Bakker, Roland W Sutter
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has seen significant progress since it began in 1988, largely due to the worldwide use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In order to achieve polio eradication the global cessation of OPV is necessary because OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, which in rare circumstances could re-gain wild poliovirus (WPV) characteristics with potential to establish transmission. The GPEI endgame strategy for the period 2013-2018 recommends the globally synchronised sequential cessation of the Sabin strains contained in the OPV, starting with type 2 Sabin...
October 5, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Kimberley S M Benschop, Janette C Rahamat-Langendoen, Harrie G A M van der Avoort, Eric C J Claas, Suzan D Pas, Rob Schuurman, Jaco J Verweij, Katja C Wolthers, Hubert G M Niesters, Marion P G Koopmans
VIRO-TypeNed is a collaborative molecular surveillance platform facilitated through a web-based database. Genetic data in combination with epidemiological, clinical and patient data are shared between clinical and public health laboratories, as part of the surveillance underpinning poliovirus eradication. We analysed the combination of data submitted from 2010 to 2014 to understand circulation patterns of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) of public health relevance. Two epidemiological patterns were observed based on VIRO-TypeNed data and classical surveillance data dating back to 1996: (i) endemic cyclic, characterised by predictable upsurges/outbreaks every two to four years, and (ii) epidemic, where rare virus types caused upsurges/outbreaks...
September 29, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Isabel de de la Fuente Garcia, Léna Coïc, Jean-Marie Leclerc, Caroline Laverdière, Céline Rousseau, Philippe Ovetchkine, Bruce Tapiéro
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study was to assess protection against vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PROCEDURE: Clinical characteristics and vaccination records were collected. Antibodies against VPDs were measured after completion of chemotherapy and after a booster dose of vaccine. Immunization status of household members was evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty children were included...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Nirmal Kandel, Jaya Lamichhane, Rudolf H Tangermann, Guenael Rm Rodier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Margarita Pons-Salort, Natalie A Molodecky, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Andrew Etsano, Rui Gama Vaz, Hamid Jafari, Nicholas C Grassly, Isobel M Blake
BACKGROUND: Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Elizabeth Miller, T Jacob John
In a Perspective linked to the research article by Isobel Blake and colleagues, Elizabeth Miller and T. Jacob John discuss the path towards global polio eradication and the challenges, strategies, and necessary precautions around oral polio vaccine cessation.
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Xinjiang Lin, Xijin Xu, Xiang Zeng, Long Xu, Zhijun Zeng, Xia Huo
We explored acquired immunity resulting from vaccination in 3 to 7-year-old children, chronically exposed to multiple heavy metals and metalloids, in an e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, China). Child blood levels of ten heavy metals and metalloids, including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and seven vaccine antibodies (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, polio, measles) were measured...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Pollution
A M Moulin
Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Resistances have been linked to the political contexts and the rejection of an oppressive power, either local or foreign, as well as mistakes and scientific uncertainties...
September 29, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
P Flanagan, P O'Lorcain, S Cotter, J Connell, B Lynch, R Cunney, D O'Flanagan
Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance, including case investigation and specimen collection is a gold standard method for poliomyelitis surveillance. The expected annual non-polio AFP rate <15 years of age in Ireland is = 1/100 000 population. This study reviewed all cases of AFP reported to the Irish Paediatric Surveillance Unit and the Health Protection Surveillance Centre between January 2009 and December 2014 and compared reporting rates with the expected incidence rate annually. We assessed quality of surveillance data in terms of completeness of investigation for each case reported...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Kevin A McCarthy, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Faisal Shuaib
BACKGROUND: Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, all but three countries (Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan) have apparently interrupted all wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, and only one of three wild serotypes has been reported globally since 2012. Countrywide supplemental immunization campaigns in Nigeria produced dramatic reduction in WPV Type 1 paralysis cases since 2010 compared to the 2000's, and WPV1 has not been observed in Nigeria since July 24, 2014...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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