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Communication science disorders

Erin Relyea, Brooke MacDonald, Christina Cattaruzza, Denise Marshall
Schizophrenia is a serious chronic mental illness that results in marginalization and stigma for sufferers. It is the seventh leading cause for disability worldwide. The symptoms of the illness, including hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior, may also introduce barriers to accessing treatment, education, housing, and employment. Little is known about end-of-life care for individuals with schizophrenia. To address this gap, a scoping review was conducted to enhance understanding of hospice and palliative care for patients with schizophrenia...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
Elisabeth Björk Brämberg, Irene Jensen, Lydia Kwak
AIM: The aim is to assess whether the national policy for evidence-based rehabilitation with a focus on facilitating return-to-work is being implemented in health-care units in Sweden and which factors influence its implementation. METHODS: A survey design was used to investigate the implementation. Data were collected at county council management level (process leaders) and clinical level (clinicians in primary and secondary care) using web surveys. Data were analyzed using SPSS, presented as descriptive statistics...
October 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Shin-Ichi Kano, Eisuke Dohi, Indigo V L Rose
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained increasing attention as underexplored intercellular communication mechanisms in basic science and as potential diagnostic tools in translational studies, particularly those related to cancers and neurological disorders. This article summarizes accumulated findings in the basic biology of EVs, EV research methodology, and the roles of EVs in brain cell function and dysfunction, as well as emerging EV studies in human brain disorders. Further research on EVs in neurobiology and psychiatry may open the door to a better understanding of intercellular communications in healthy and diseased brains, and the discovery of novel biomarkers and new therapeutic strategies in psychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Heide Schatten, Maureen O Ripple
The significant role of centrosomes in cancer cell proliferation has been well recognized (reviewed in Schatten H, Histochem Cell Biol 129:667-86 (2008); Schatten H, Sun Q-Y, Microsc Microanal 17(4):506-512 (2011); Schatten H, Sun Q-Y, Reprod Fertil Dev. (2015a); Schatten H, Sun Q-Y, Centrosome-microtubule interactions in health, disease, and disorders. In: Schatten H (ed) The cytoskeleton in health and disease. Springer Science+Business Media, New York (2015b)) and new research has generated new interest and new insights into centrosomes as potential targets for cancer-specific therapies...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fernando Estévez-López, Jesus Castro-Marrero, Xia Wang, Inger Johanne Bakken, Andrejs Ivanovs, Luis Nacul, Nuno Sepúlveda, Elin B Strand, Derek Pheby, Jose Alegre, Carmen Scheibenbogen, Evelina Shikova, Lorenzo Lorusso, Enrica Capelli, Slobodan Sekulic, Eliana Lacerda, Modra Murovska
INTRODUCTION: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic disease involving central nervous system and immune system disorders, as well as cardiovascular abnormalities. ME/CFS is characterised by severe chronic fatigue lasting for at least 6 months, including clinical symptoms such as tender cervical or axillary lymph nodes, muscle pain, joint pain without swelling or redness, post-exertional malaise for more than 24 hours and unrefreshing sleep. Studies on the epidemiology of ME/CFS in Europe only include single countries and, therefore, the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in Europe (as a whole) is unknown...
September 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Alex M Pagnozzi, Eugenia Conti, Sara Calderoni, Jurgen Fripp, Stephen E Rose
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% of the population and leads to impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted, repetitive behaviours. Establishing robust neuroimaging biomarkers of ASD using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important step for diagnosing and tailoring treatment, particularly early in life when interventions can have the greatest effect. However currently, there is mixed findings on the structural brain changes associated with autism. Therefore in this systematic review, recent (post-2007), high-resolution (3 T) MRI studies investigating brain morphology associated with ASD have been collated to identify robust neuroimaging biomarkers of ASD...
August 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Andrea Shin, Geoffrey A Preidis, Robert Shulman, Purna Kashyap
The importance of gut microbiota in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology was well described, but our ability to study gut microbial ecosystems in their entirety was limited by culture-based methods prior to the sequencing revolution. The advent of high-throughput sequencing opened new avenues, allowing us to study gut microbial communities as an aggregate, independent of our ability to culture individual microbes. Early studies focused on association of changes in gut microbiota with different disease states, which was necessary to identify a potential role for microbes and generate novel hypotheses...
August 25, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Paulo de Sousa, William Sellwood, Martin Griffiths, Richard P Bentall
BACKGROUND: Poor social cognition is prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Some authors argue that these effects are symptom-specific and that socio-cognitive difficulties (e.g. theory of mind) are strongly associated with thought disorder and symptoms of disorganisation.AimsThe current review tests the strength of this association. METHOD: We meta-analysed studies published between 1980 and 2016 that tested the association between social cognition and these symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
August 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Patricia Mesa-Gresa, Hermenegildo Gil-Gómez, José-Antonio Lozano-Quilis, José-Antonio Gil-Gómez
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease that is specially characterized by impairments in social communication and social skills. ASD has a high prevalence in children, affecting 1 in 160 subjects. Virtual reality (VR) has emerged as an effective tool for intervention in the health field. Different recent papers have reviewed the VR-based treatments in ASD, but they have an important limitation because they only use clinical databases and do not include important technical indexes such as the Web of Science index or the Scimago Journal & Country Rank...
August 1, 2018: Sensors
J Bernardo Barahona-Corrêa, Ana Velosa, Ana Chainho, Ricardo Lopes, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting as lifelong deficits in social communication and interaction, as well as restricted repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. While there are no specific pharmacological or other physical treatments for autism, in recent years repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), a technique for non-invasive neuromodulation, has attracted interest due to potential therapeutic value. Here we report the results of a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the use of rTMS to treat ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Borros M Arneth
BACKGROUND: The gut-brain axis facilitates a critical bidirectional link and communication between the brain and the gut. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of interactions in the gut-brain axis, with a particular focus on intestinal functions, the nervous system and the brain. Furthermore, researchers have examined the effects of the gut microbiome on mental health and psychiatric well-being.The present study reviewed published evidence to explore the concept of the gut-brain axis...
August 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Sophia Achab, Joël Billieux, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Natacha Carragher, Zsolt Demetrovics, Susumu Higuchi, Daniel L King, Karl Mann, Marc Potenza, John B Saunders, Max Abbott, Atul Ambekar, Osman Tolga Aricak, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Norharlina Bahar, Guilherme Borges, Matthias Brand, Elda Mei-Lo Chan, Thomas Chung, Jeff Derevensky, Ahmad El Kashef, Michael Farrell, Naomi A Fineberg, Claudia Gandin, Douglas A Gentile, Mark D Griffiths, Anna E Goudriaan, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Wei Hao, David C Hodgins, Patrick Ip, Orsolya Király, Hae Kook Lee, Daria Kuss, Jeroen S Lemmens, Jiang Long, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Satoko Mihara, Nancy M Petry, Halley M Pontes, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Florian Rehbein, Jürgen Rehm, Emanuele Scafato, Manoi Sharma, Daniel Spritzer, Dan J Stein, Philip Tam, Aviv Weinstein, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Klaus Wölfling, Daniele Zullino, Vladimir Poznyak
The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Yimin Xu, Dhavalkumar N Patel, Suet-Leng P Ng, Siew-Har Tan, Dorothy Toh, Jalene Poh, Adena Theen Lim, Cheng-Leng Chan, Min-Yong Low, Hwee-Ling Koh
The objective of this study is to collate and analyse adverse event reports associated with the use of complementary health products (CHP) submitted to the Health Sciences Authority (HSA) of Singapore for the period 2010-2016 to identify various trends and signals for pharmacovigilance purposes. A total of 147,215 adverse event reports suspected to be associated with pharmaceutical products and CHP were received by HSA between 2010 and 2016. Of these, 143,191 (97.3%) were associated with chemical drugs, 1,807 (1...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Sanjiban Chakrabarty, Shama Prasada Kabekkodu, Rana P Singh, K Thangaraj, Keshav K Singh, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Mitochondrial biology has become an area of intense research owing to the unique physiology of the organelle and its role in several types of cancers and other disorders. It has been found that mitochondria-encoded proteins, mitochondrial DNA and even RNA influence the functioning of the cell in more ways than were previously imagined. This may contribute to disease phenotypes which require detailed investigation and communication to the community health care providers. Additionally, this provides several novel avenues in drug designing against various cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other metabolic disorders...
June 23, 2018: Mitochondrion
Deborah Theodoros, Danielle Aldridge, Anne J Hill, Trevor Russell
BACKGROUND: Communication and swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of functional communication and swallowing over time is challenging for the person with PD and their families and may lead to social isolation and reduced quality of life if not addressed. Speech and language therapists (SLTs) face the conundrum of providing sustainable and flexible services to meet the changing needs of people with PD. Motor, cognitive and psychological issues associated with PD, medication regimens and dependency on others often impede attendance at a centre-based service...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
John F Stins, Claudia Emck
Children with autism not only have limited social and communicative skills but also have motor abnormalities, such as poor timing and coordination of balance. Moreover, impaired gross motor skills hamper participation with peers. Balance control is interesting from a cognitive science perspective, since it involves a complex interplay between information processing, motor planning, and timing and sequencing of muscle movements. In this paper, we discuss the background of motor problems in children with autism, focusing on how posture is informed by sensory information processing...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura S DeThorne, Stephanie Ceman
This tutorial provides professionals in communication sciences and disorders with an overview of the molecular basis and parental perceptions of genetic testing as associated with autism. The introduction notes the prominence of genetic testing within present-day medical practices and highlights related limitations and concerns through the lens of disability critique. The body of the tutorial provides an overview of four different forms of genetic variation, highlighting the potential associations with autism and available genetic testing...
July 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Hanna Putter-Katz, Aviah Gvion, Deena Wechsler-Kashi, Limor A-B Said, Hadas Yaacobi, Irit Feldman, Orit Shalomson, Amitai Ziv
The current study aimed to evaluate simulation-based medical education (SBME) training and its contribution to the learning process of students in a communication sciences and disorders (CSD) program. The training was integrated in different stages of the program, over 4 years, with different students. The content and complexity of each of the simulation activities targeted specific skills, tailored to the students' learning phase. Students completed a nine-item survey at the end of the first and second semesters of the second year, evaluating the simulation training program structure and students' self-efficacy relating to the building of relationships between care givers and patients...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Shohre Kaviani, Afshin Samaei, Masoomeh Salmani, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Farnaz Dehnavi, Ehsan Shahverdi
Background and aim: Aphasia as a common consequence of stroke, is an acquired neurologic communication disorder that can affect symbol language processing. Different types of intervention approaches have been introduced. Multimodal Communication Program (MCP) is a new augmentative alternative communication approach in chronic aphasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MCP on communication skills of patients with chronic aphasia. Methods: This prospective, single subject, A-B-A design study was done during 2016 in Semnan, Iran...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
Nicole S Carlson, Sharon Lynn Leslie, Alexis Dunn
INTRODUCTION: Nearly 40% of US women of childbearing age are obese. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with multiple risks for both the woman and fetus, yet clinicians often feel unprepared to provide optimal antepartum care for this group of women. We collected and reviewed current evidence concerning antepartum care of women who are obese during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Current evidence relating to the pregnancy care of women with a prepregnancy body mass index of 30kg/m2 or higher was identified using MEDLINE databases via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science Core Collection between January 2012 and February 2018...
May 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
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