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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428890/asthma-in-the-elderly-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-of-the-effect-of-montelukast
#1
Michele Columbo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about asthma in the elderly as most studies of this condition have not included this patient group. It is unclear whether leukotriene antagonists benefit older asthmatics. We studied the effect of adding montelukast to the asthma treatment of elderly subjects. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects 65 years old and older with asthma were evaluated at week 0, 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17. Each subject received montelukast 10 mg and placebo each for 8 weeks in a cross-over design...
2017: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424793/a-model-based-meta-analysis-evaluating-gender-differences-on-blood-flow-responses-to-brachial-artery-infusions-of-acetylcholine-albuterol-atp-bradykinin-estradiol-glyceryl-trinitrate-l-nmma-nevibolol-norepinephrine-sodium-nitroprusside-substance-p-and-verapamil
#2
Andy R Eugene
INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies have emerged over the course of several decades describing the properties of drugs eliciting vasodilatory or vasoconstrictor responses in the human vasculature. During drug development, decisions to move forward with testing with a new chemical entity are very costly. To fund or not to fund development, go or no-go, decisions are often limited by efficacy comparisons with the current products on the market. The primary aim of this paper is to use dose-response modeling and simulations to quantify differences in blood flow to Acetylcholine, Albuterol, ATP, Bradykinin, 17β-Estradiol, Glyceryl Trinitrate, L-NMMA, Nevibolol, Norepinephrine, Sodium Nitroprusside, Substance P, and Verapamil...
June 2016: MEDtube Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414688/ecg-of-the-month-mental-disturbance-for-4-days
#3
D Luke Glancy, Theresa Mills, Fred Lopez
A family brought their 61-year-old mother to the emergency department because for 4 days she had been confused, incoherent, and somnolent. She also had dysphagia, dysarthria, diplopia, and had fallen out of bed. She had been in the hospital 3 weeks earlier for atrial fibrillation and an exacerbation of congestive heart failure. She also carried a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and used an albuterol inhaler. She was obese (BMI of 45); and had adult-onset diabetes mellitus. She had a 43 pack-year history of cigarette smoking but had recently quit...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377880/paradoxical-bronchospasm-from-benzalkonium-chloride-bac-preservative-in-albuterol-nebulizer-solution-in-a-patient-with-acute-severe-asthma-a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-airway-effects-of-bac
#4
Mathew George, Saumya Vinod Joshi, Emily Concepcion, Haesoon Lee
Nebulized bronchodilator solutions are available in the United States as both nonsterile and sterile-filled products. Sulfites, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), or chlorobutanol are added to nonsterile products to prevent bacterial growth. Bronchoconstriction from inhaled BAC is cumulative, prolonged, and correlates directly with basal airway responsiveness. The multi-dose dropper bottle of albuterol sulfate solution contains 50 μg BAC per/2.5 mg of albuterol, which may be below or at the lower limit of the threshold dose for bronchoconstriction...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367177/bronchoscopy-for-foreign-body-aspiration-and-effects-of-nebulized-albuterol-and-budesonide-combination
#5
Bulent Akcora, Mehmet Emin Celikkaya, Cahit Ozer
OBJECTIVE: A foreign body aspiration in the tracheobronchial tree is a dangerous medical condition in the childhood period. Although rigid bronchoscopy is a safe procedure, it may cause complications. The aim of this study was to present our bronchoscopy experience and to evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative administration of nebulized albuterol and budesonide combination for reducing intra-operative complications in foreign body aspirated cases. METHODS: In this retrospective study our pediatric cases in which a foreign body was removed from tracheobronchial tree in last 8 years were analyzed...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349590/benzalkonium-chloride-a-bronchoconstricting-preservative-in-continuous-albuterol-nebulizer-solutions
#6
Sreekala Prabhakaran, Mutasim Abu-Hasan, Leslie Hendeles
BACKGROUND: For convenience, many pediatric hospitals are preparing solutions for continuous nebulized albuterol (CNA) using the 0.5% 20 mL multi-dose albuterol dropper bottle. This product contains benzalkonium chloride (BAC) which, by itself, produces bronchospasm that is dose-dependent and cumulative. The bronchoconstrictive effects of BA are greater in patients with more severe airway obstruction and increased airway responsiveness. CONCERNS: Use of BAC-containing albuterol during severe acute asthma exacerbations may antagonize the bronchodilator response to albuterol, prolong treatment, and increase the risk of albuterol-related systemic adverse effects...
March 28, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336814/airway-smooth-muscle-dysfunction-in-pompe-gaa-mice
#7
Allison M Keeler, Donghai Liu, Marina Zieger, Lang Xiong, Jeffrey Salemi, Karl Bellve, Barry J Byrne, David D Fuller, Ronghua ZhuGe, Mai K ElMallah
Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing lysosomal glycogen. Deficiency of GAA leads to systemic glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of skeletal muscle, motor neurons and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle and motor neuron pathology are known to contribute to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, but the role of airway pathology has not been evaluated. Here we propose that GAA enzyme deficiency disrupts the function of the trachea and bronchi, and this lower airway pathology contributes to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332406/continuous-glucose-monitor-interference-with-commonly-prescribed-medications
#8
Ananda Basu, Michael Q Slama, Wayne T Nicholson, Loralie Langman, Thomas Peyser, Rickey Carter, Rita Basu
BACKGROUND: Reliability of continuous glucose monitors (CGM) is a prerequisite for therapeutic dosing of insulin without the need for confirmatory blood glucose meter measurements. Interference of CGMs with commonly prescribed substances has not been extensively evaluated. METHODS: We sought to undertake a novel pilot study to determine the susceptibility of FDA-approved CGM systems (Medtronic Guardian Sof-Sensor, Dexcom G4 Platinum) to erroneous readings in the presence of common medications...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302425/characteristics-of-pediatric-emergency-revisits-after-an-asthma-related-hospitalization
#9
Laurie H Johnson, Andrew F Beck, Robert S Kahn, Bin Huang, Patrick H Ryan, Kelly K Olano, Katherine A Auger
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We identify and characterize factors related to subsequent emergency revisits among children hospitalized for asthma. METHODS: This population-based, prospective, observational cohort included children aged 2 to 16 years, hospitalized for asthma at an urban pediatric facility and followed for greater than or equal to 12 months. The primary outcome was asthma-related emergency revisit within 12 months of discharge. Revisits were identified by billing codes, respiratory chief complaints, and medications administered (eg, albuterol, systemic corticosteroids), dispensed, or prescribed...
March 14, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284473/positive-expiratory-pressure-for-the-treatment-of-acute-asthma-exacerbations-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Nidhya Navanandan, Monica Federico, Rakesh D Mistry
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of brief, single administration of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy in reducing clinical severity and need for additional second-line therapies and hospitalization in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute asthma. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial of children 2-18 years of age presenting to a tertiary-care academic pediatric ED with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations from December 2014 to June 2016...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270542/effects-of-heat-and-moisture-exchangers-and-exhaled-humidity-on-aerosol-deposition-in-a-simulated-ventilator-dependent-adult-lung-model
#11
Arzu Ari, Khalid S Alwadeai, James B Fink
BACKGROUND: Many in vitro models report higher inhaled dose with dry versus heated humidity. Heat-and-moisture exchangers (HMEs) provide passive humidity in ventilator-dependent patients but act as a barrier to aerosol. The HMEs designed to allow aerosol delivery (HME-ADs) have not been well described. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact on aerosol deposition of HME-ADs with and without active exhaled humidity in a simulated ventilator-dependent adult model. METHODS: We used an in vitro lung model consisting of an intubated teaching mannequin with an endotracheal tube of 8...
March 7, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224093/pediatric-asthma-severity-score-is-associated-with-critical-care-interventions
#12
Danielle K Maue, Nadia Krupp, Courtney M Rowan
AIM: To determine if a standardized asthma severity scoring system (PASS) was associated with the time spent on continuous albuterol and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective chart review study at a major children's hospital in an urban location. To qualify for this study, participants must have been admitted to the PICU with a diagnosis of status asthmaticus. There were a total of 188 participants between the ages of two and nineteen, excluding patients receiving antibiotics for pneumonia...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223976/plant-growth-promotion-by-volatile-organic-compounds-produced-by-bacillus-subtilis-syst2
#13
Hafiz A S Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Waseem Raza, Alwina Hanif, Liming Wu, Massawe V Colman, Xuewen Gao
Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213470/higher-mini-bal-total-protein-concentration-in-early-ards-predicts-faster-resolution-of-lung-injury-measured-by-more-ventilator-free-days
#14
Carolyn M Hendrickson, Jason Abbott, Hanjing Zhuo, Kathleen D Liu, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
The protein concentration of alveolar edema fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is dynamic. It reflects alveolar flooding during acute injury as well as fluid and protein clearance over time. We hypothesized that among ARDS patients treated with low tidal volume ventilation, higher concentrations of protein in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) samples would predict slower resolution of lung injury and worse clinical outcomes. Total protein and IgM concentrations in Day 0 mBAL samples from 79 subjects enrolled in the aerosolized albuterol (ALTA) ARDS Network Albuterol trial were measured by colorimetric assay and ELISA respectively...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210808/change-in-oxygen-consumption-following-inhalation-of-albuterol-in-comparison-with-levalbuterol-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#15
Manpreet K Virk, Justin Hotz, Robinder G Khemani, Christopher J L Newth, Patrick A Ross
BACKGROUND: Albuterol is the most commonly used β agonist to treat reversible lower airway obstruction. Albuterol contains a racemic mixture of two enantiomers. Levalbuterol contains the single R form enantiomer. Levalbuterol is frequently prescribed to limit cardiovascular toxicity. OBJECTIVE: We examined changes in oxygen consumption (V'O2) and heart rate (HR) following administration of albuterol and levalbuterol. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, controlled study of healthy adult volunteers...
February 16, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187115/clinical-course-of-enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children
#16
Jennifer E Schuster, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Ferdaus Hassan, Kayla B Briggs, Lindsay Hays, Jenna O Miller, Barbara Pahud, Henry T Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Marita T Thompson, Gina Weddle, Mary Anne Jackson
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1, 2014, to September 15, 2014, with positive multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for EV/rhinovirus (RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187065/clinical-course-of-enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children
#17
Jennifer E Schuster, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Ferdaus Hassan, Kayla B Briggs, Lindsay Hays, Jenna O Miller, Barbara Pahud, Henry T Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Marita T Thompson, Gina Weddle, Mary Anne Jackson
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1-September 15, 2014 with positive multiplex PCR testing for enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169982/effect-of-an-asthma-guideline-in-2-pediatric-emergency-departments-and-an-urgent-care-center
#18
Jennifer J Dilts, Sharon G Humiston, Brian R Lee, Nancy H Allen, Jeffrey G Michael
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate ordering of albuterol via metered-dose inhaler with spacer (MDI-spacer), length of stay (LOS), and 72-hour return rates before and after publication of an internally developed pediatric asthma clinical practice guideline (CPG). METHODS: The internally developed CPG reflected national recommendations. It was explained at faculty meetings by a respected clinician and published on the intranet on February 6, 2012...
February 4, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157430/factors-determining-in-vitro-lung-deposition-of-albuterol-aerosol-delivered-by-ventolin-metered-dose-inhaler
#19
Rajoshi Biswas, Nicola A Hanania, Ashutosh Sabharwal
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) in delivering medication to the lungs highly depends on its correct usage technique. Current guidelines state optimal technique for high lung deposition should include a slow inhalation (>5 seconds) at an inspiratory flow rate of 30 L/min and inhaler actuation at the start of inhalation. However, these recommendations were based on clinical studies using CFC (chlorofluorocarbon)-MDIs and in vitro studies of HFA (hydrofluoroalkane)-MDIs using idealized MDI techniques of uniform inhalation and actuation, disregarding the nonuniform techniques of actual patients...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141723/anxiety-associated-with-asthma-exacerbations-and-overuse-of-medication-the-role-of-cultural-competency
#20
Yousuke T Horikawa, Tina Y Udaka, Janet K Crow, John I Takayama, Martin T Stein
Toshi, a 14-year-old Japanese boy, had uncontrolled asthma after relocating from Japan with his family 1 year ago. In Japan, he was diagnosed with moderate, persistent asthma, which was controlled with salmeterol and albuterol on an as needed basis. Since moving to the United States, Toshi complained of frequent dyspnea.Initially, he was seen by a Japanese physician who prescribed 200 mg of fluticasone 3 times a day and albuterol nebulization as needed. When Toshi came to the Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, he reported using his nebulizer up to 25 times daily...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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