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Multiple methods research

Linda J Resnik, Frantzy Acluche, Matthew Borgia, Jill Cancio, Gail Latlief, Samuel Phillips, Nicole Sasson
INTRODUCTION: EMG pattern recognition control (EMG-PR) is a promising option for control of upper limb prostheses with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). The purposes of this study were to 1) evaluate outcomes of EMG-PR and inertial measurement units (IMU) control of the DEKA Arm as compared to personal prosthesis; and 2) compare outcomes of EMG-PR to IMU control of DEKA Arm. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental, multi-site study with repeated measures that compared non-randomized groups using two types of controls: EMG-PR and IMUs...
2018: PloS One
Marc S Karver, Alessandro S De Nadai, Maureen Monahan, Stephen R Shirk
In the youth treatment literature, the alliance has been defined and measured as a consensual or collaborative bond. In this article, we review varied definitions of the alliance, enumerate its frequent measures, and present clinical examples. We provide a meta-analytic review on the relation between the therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychotherapy. In particular, this review only includes prospective studies of youth therapy that used an explicit measure of alliance. The meta-analysis of 28 studies revealed a weighted random effect size of r = ...
December 2018: Psychotherapy
Tünde Csépány
The revolutionary progress of research in neuroimmu-nology has led to the introduction of disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis at the end of the last century. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis originally proposed the 2001 McDonald criteria to facilitate the diagnosis of MS in patients with the first objective neurological symptom(s) suggesting demyelinating event, when magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with clinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. New terms have been introduced to substitute clinical information by MRI: dissemination in space - indicating a multifocal central demyelinating process and dissemination in time - indicating the development of new CNS lesions over time...
September 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Kazuto Masamoto, Alberto Vazquez
The cerebral microvasculature consists of pial vascular networks, parenchymal descending arterioles, ascending venules and parenchymal capillaries. This vascular compartmentalization is vital to precisely deliver blood to balance continuously varying neural demands in multiple brain regions. Optical imaging techniques have facilitated the investigation of dynamic spatial and temporal properties of microvascular functions in real time. Their combination with transgenic animal models encoding specific genetic targets have further strengthened the importance of optical methods for neurovascular research by allowing for the modulation and monitoring of neuro vascular function...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Shraddha Sapkota, Tao Huan, Tran Tran, Jiamin Zheng, Richard Camicioli, Liang Li, Roger A Dixon
Background : Among the neurodegenerative diseases of aging, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent and perhaps the most feared. With virtually no success at finding pharmaceutical therapeutics for altering progressive AD after diagnosis, research attention is increasingly directed at discovering biological and other markers that detect AD risk in the long asymptomatic phase. Both early detection and precision preclinical intervention require systematic investigation of multiple modalities and combinations of AD-related biomarkers and risk factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Michael Nute, Ehsan Saleh, Tandy Warnow
The estimation of multiple sequence alignments of protein sequences is a basic step in many bioinformatics pipelines, including protein structure prediction, protein family identification, and phylogeny estimation. Statistical co-estimation of alignments and trees under stochastic models of sequence evolution has long been considered the most rigorous technique for estimating alignments and trees, but little is known about the accuracy of such methods on biological benchmarks. We report the results of an extensive study evaluating the most popular protein alignment methods as well as the statistical co-estimation method BAli-Phy on 1192 protein data sets from established benchmarks as well as on 120 simulated data sets...
October 17, 2018: Systematic Biology
Tra My Pham, James R Carpenter, Tim P Morris, Angela M Wood, Irene Petersen
Multiple imputation (MI) has become popular for analyses with missing data in medical research. The standard implementation of MI is based on the assumption of data being missing at random (MAR). However, for missing data generated by missing not at random mechanisms, MI performed assuming MAR might not be satisfactory. For an incomplete variable in a given data set, its corresponding population marginal distribution might also be available in an external data source. We show how this information can be readily utilised in the imputation model to calibrate inference to the population by incorporating an appropriately calculated offset termed the "calibrated-δ adjustment...
October 16, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Stefan Braune, Sarah Grimm, Philip van Hövell, Ulrich Freudensprung, Fabio Pellegrini, Robert Hyde, Arnfin Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Comparative effectiveness (CE) research allows real-world treatment comparisons using outcome measurements important to physicians/patients. This German NeuroTransData registry-based analysis compared delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) effectiveness with interferons (IFN), glatiramer acetate (GA), teriflunomide (TERI), or fingolimod (FTY) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) using propensity score matching (PSM). METHODS: Data from registry patients aged ≥ 18 years with RRMS, ≥ 1 relapse, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) assessment(s) after index therapy initiation underwent 1:1 PSM to match DMF with comparator populations baseline characteristics...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Xi Chen, Jing-Na Jin, Fang Xiang, Zhi-Peng Liu, Tao Yin
An object can have multiple attributes, and visual feature-based attention (FBA) is the process of focusing on a specific one of them. During visual FBA, the frontal eye field (FEF) is considered to be an important brain area related to the choice of attribute. However, the study of the FEF in FBA remains inadequate. We applied single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right FEF (rFEF), and designed two independent experimental FBA tasks that each involved two attributes (color and motion), to explore the action time of FEF and the spatial transmission of the FEF signal, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yan Niu, Bin Wang, Mengni Zhou, Jiayue Xue, Habib Shapour, Rui Cao, Xiaohong Cui, Jinglong Wu, Jie Xiang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive deterioration of brain function among elderly people. Studies revealed aberrant correlations in spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) over a wide range of temporal scales. However, the study of the temporal dynamics of BOLD signals in subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains largely unexplored. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is a method for estimating the complexity of finite time series over multiple time scales...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Isabelle Vedel, Melanie Le Berre, Nadia Sourial, Geneviève Arsenault-Lapierre, Howard Bergman, Liette Lapointe
BACKGROUND: Passive dissemination of information in healthcare refers to the publication or mailing of newly established guidelines or recommendations. It is one of the least costly knowledge translation activities. This approach is generally considered to be ineffective or to result in only small changes in practice. Recent research, however, suggests that passive dissemination could, under certain conditions, result in modifications of practice, similar to more active dissemination approaches...
October 16, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Antonios Danelakis, Theoharis Theoharis, Dimitrios A Verganelakis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease. It affects the central nervous system and its clinical manifestation can variate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often used to detect, characterize and quantify MS lesions in the brain, due to the detailed structural information that it can provide. Manual detection and measurement of MS lesions in MRI data is time-consuming, subjective and prone to errors. Therefore, multiple automated methodologies for MRI-based MS lesion segmentation have been proposed. Here, a review of the state-of-the-art of automatic methods available in the literature is presented...
October 5, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Rainer Kiss, Simon Schedler, Thomas Muehlbauer
Background: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify and statistically compare correlations between types of balance performance in healthy individuals across the lifespan. Methods: Literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Studies were included if they investigated healthy individuals aged ≥6 years and reported measures of static/dynamic steady-state, proactive, and/or reactive balance. The included studies were coded as follows: age group, gender, and balance type, test, parameter...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tülay Yavan, Aslı Güleşen, Hatice Bebiş
OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to conduct a validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the abstinence-related motivational engagement (ARME) scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 122 people and was administered in a smoking cessation clinic. The sociodemographic-smoking status characteristics questionnaire and the ARME scale were used for data collection. A psycholinguistic language adaptation was performed. In the validity, analyses, content, construct, and criterion-related validities were used...
September 13, 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Piedad Martin-Olmedo, Rebecca Hams, Michele Santoro, Andrea Ranzi, Gerard Hoek, Kees de Hoogh, Giovanni S Leonardi
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Public health surveillance (PHS) of industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) is likely to play a role in supporting the monitoring of harmful aspects of ICSs and related interventions. Environmental public health tracking (EPHT) has been proposed and developed as an approach to PHS when environmental factors affecting health are involved. OBJECTIVES: to identify existing arrangements for continuous collection and analysis of environmental and health data to guide the development of an optimal EPHT approach which would support the characterization of the impact on health of ICS...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Raf L A Widdershoven, Marieke Wichers, Peter Kuppens, Jessica A Hartmann, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Claudia J P Simons, Jojanneke A Bastiaansen
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder has been linked to an inability to differentiate between negative emotions. The current study investigates whether emotion differentiation improves when individuals with major depressive disorder are required to report on specific emotions multiple times a day through the experience sampling method (ESM) - a structured self-report diary technique. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder participated in this study, of whom 55 used ESM for 6 weeks (3 days a week, 10 times a day)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Dmitry S Novikov, Els Fieremans, Sune N Jespersen, Valerij G Kiselev
We review, systematize and discuss models of diffusion in neuronal tissue, by putting them into an overarching physical context of coarse-graining over an increasing diffusion length scale. From this perspective, we view research on quantifying brain microstructure as occurring along three major avenues. The first avenue focusses on transient, or time-dependent, effects in diffusion. These effects signify the gradual coarse-graining of tissue structure, which occurs qualitatively differently in different brain tissue compartments...
October 15, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
William H Rogers, William B Bunn, Debra Lerner
OBJECTIVE: Methods for assessing the costs and benefits of administering vaccines to international business/occupational travelers, assignees and expatriates have neglected the impact of health and treatment on work productivity. The research objective is to evaluate the benefit to cost ratio of the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine for international business /occupational travelers to Asia and other endemic areas incorporating a health and productivity approach. METHODS: Costs and benefits were estimated using actuarial methods with data obtained from secondary sources describing, prevalence of infection risk and health outcomes, and business traveler demographic and travel characteristics...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Ho Nhu Y Nguyen, Altaf Hussain, Wiendelt Steenbergen
Photoacoustic imaging has been a focus of research for clinical applications owing to its ability for deep visualization with optical absorption contrast. However, there are various technical challenges remaining for this technique to find its place in clinics. One of the challenges is the occurrence of reflection artifacts. The reflection artifacts may lead to image misinterpretation. Here we propose a new method using multiple wavelengths for identifying and removing the reflection artifacts. By imaging the sample with multiple wavelengths, the spectral response of the features in the photoacoustic image is obtained...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Franca Wagner, Lorenz Grunder, Arsany Hakim, Nicole Kamber, Michael P Horn, Julia Muellner, Robert Hoepner, Roland Wiest, Imke Metz, Andrew Chan, Anke Salmen
Objective: Differential diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) or mimics can be challenging, especially in patients with atypical presentations and negative serostatus for aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab). This brief research report describes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings focusing on quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis as a potential tool to differentiate NMOSD from MS. Methods: Longitudinal MRI data obtained during routine clinical examinations were retrospectively analyzed in a patient with histologically determined cerebral NMOSD, a patient with an acute tumefactive MS lesion, and a patient with ischemic stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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