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Multiple methods research

Ming Yi, Ruoqing Zhu, Robert M Stephens
Accurate assessment of the association between continuous variables such as gene expression and survival is a critical aspect of precision medicine. In this report, we provide a review of some of the available survival analysis and validation tools by referencing published studies that have utilized these tools. We have identified pitfalls associated with the assumptions inherent in those applications that have the potential to impact scientific research through their potential bias. In order to overcome these pitfalls, we have developed a novel method that enables the logrank test method to handle continuous variables that comprehensively evaluates survival association with derived aggregate statistics...
2018: PloS One
Jing Qian, Evan Ray, Regina L Brecha, Muredach P Reilly, Andrea S Foulkes
Elucidating the mechanistic underpinnings of genetic associations with complex traits requires formally characterizing and testing associated cell and tissue-specific expression profiles. New opportunities exist to bolster this investigation with the growing numbers of large publicly available omics level data resources. Herein, we describe a fully likelihood-based strategy to leveraging external resources in the setting that expression profiles are partially or fully unobserved in a genetic association study...
December 4, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Thomas M Atkinson, Bryce B Reeve, Amylou C Dueck, Antonia V Bennett, Tito R Mendoza, Lauren J Rogak, Ethan Basch, Yuelin Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional concordance metrics have shortcomings based on dataset characteristics (e.g., multiple attributes rated, missing data); therefore it is necessary to explore supplemental approaches to quantifying agreement between independent assessments. The purpose of this methodological paper is to apply an Item Response Theory (IRT) -based framework to an existing dataset that included unidimensional clinician and multiple attribute patient ratings of symptomatic adverse events (AEs), and explore the utility of this method in patient-reported outcome (PRO) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research...
December 4, 2018: Journal of patient-reported outcomes
Tomoyuki Miyamoto, Masayuki Miyamoto
Background: The conversion rate and estimated risk of neurodegenerative diseases vary with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (IRBD). Methods: This retrospective cohort study examined 273 patients (213 men, 60 women) with polysomnographic-confirmed IRBD (192 and 81 patients in the Sleep Center [SC] cohort and Neurological Center [NC] cohort, respectively) who were followed longitudinally. The date of diagnosis was determined as the onset of an overt neurological syndrome...
September 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Irene Bighelli, Maximilian Huhn, Johannes Schneider-Thoma, Marc Krause, Cornelia Reitmeir, Sofia Wallis, Felicitas Schwermann, Gabi Pitschel-Walz, Corrado Barbui, Toshi A Furukawa, Stefan Leucht
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy has been used for schizophrenia, but to which extent it is effective is still controversial. Results of existing meta-analyses are of difficult interpretation, because they mainly present effect sizes in the form of standardized mean differences between intervention and control groups based on rating scales, which are of unclear clinical meaning. No meta-analysis has considered the number of patients responding to treatment yet. Based on this ground, we present the first meta-analysis examining the response rates of patients with schizophrenia and positive symptoms to cognitive behavioural therapy...
December 4, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Claire Bamford, Richard Lee, Emma McLellan, Marie Poole, Karen Harrison-Dening, Julian Hughes, Louise Robinson, Catherine Exley
BACKGROUND: People with advanced dementia often experience suboptimal end of life care (EoLC) with inadequate pain control, increased hospitalisation, and fewer palliative care interventions compared to those with cancer. Existing policy, guidance and recommendations are based largely on expert opinion because of a shortage of high quality, empirical research. Previous studies have tended to consider the views and experience of particular groups. Whilst providing important evidence, they do not take into account the diversity of perspectives of different stakeholders...
December 4, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Xiaoqiang Zhang, Boli Xiong, Ganggang Dong, Gangyao Kuang
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been widely used in ocean surveillance. As an important part of shipping management and military applications, ship monitoring is a study hotspot in SAR image interpretation; hence, many researches focus on ship targets. Among these studies, ship segmentation is a basic work, but still remains challenging due to the speckle noise and the complicated backscattering phenomenology in SAR images. To solve the problems, this paper proposes a new method for ship segmentation by nonlocal processing...
December 1, 2018: Sensors
Danielle Munford, Hilary Gunn
PURPOSE: To explore the perceptions and experiences of people with stroke living in the community with regard to the perceived causes, impact and solutions to minimise falls. METHODS: A qualitative research approach underpinned by a constructivist paradigm utilising a phenomenological methodology. Twelve people with stroke participated in focus groups; the data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes and one foundation theme were identified...
December 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Peter Sona, Jong Hui Hong, Sunho Lee, Byong Joon Kim, Woon-Young Hong, Jongcheol Jung, Han-Na Kim, Hyung-Lae Kim, David Christopher, Laurent Herviou, Young Hwan Im, Kwee-Yum Lee, Tae Soon Kim, Jongsun Jung
BACKGROUND: The use of whole genome sequence has increased recently with rapid progression of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. However, storing raw sequence reads to perform large-scale genome analysis pose hardware challenges. Despite advancement in genome analytic platforms, efficient approaches remain relevant especially as applied to the human genome. In this study, an Integrated Genome Sizing (IGS) approach is adopted to speed up multiple whole genome analysis in high-performance computing (HPC) environment...
December 3, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Sheryl Kubiak, Daria Shamrova, Erin Comartin
This study explores the feasibility, acceptability, fidelity, and outcomes of a youth version of the Crisis Intervention Team training (CIT-Y). This intervention is designed to keep youth with a mental health problem out of the criminal/legal system by equipping police officers with developmentally appropriate information and techniques. Whereas much is known about the adult-focused CIT training, little is known about the youth-focused training. This preliminary investigation uses multiple methods (training observations, officer interviews, and pre/post-tests) to assesses the implementation of CIT-Y in two Midwest counties...
November 8, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Nancy J Burke, Kristine Phung, Filmer Yu, Ching Wong, Khanh Le, Isabel Nguyen, Long Nguyen, Alice Guan, Tung T Nguyen, Janice Y Tsoh
Prior studies have supported the effectiveness of the use of Lay Health Workers (LHWs) as an intervention model for managing chronic health conditions, yet few have documented the mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of the interventions. This study provides a first look into how LHWs delivered a family-based intervention and the challenges encountered. We utilize observation data from LHW-led educational sessions delivered as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test a LHW outreach family-based intervention to promote smoking cessation among Vietnamese American smokers...
December 1, 2018: Health Promotion International
Nicholas A Bokulich, Matthew R Dillon, Yilong Zhang, Jai Ram Rideout, Evan Bolyen, Huilin Li, Paul S Albert, J Gregory Caporaso
Studies of host-associated and environmental microbiomes often incorporate longitudinal sampling or paired samples in their experimental design. Longitudinal sampling provides valuable information about temporal trends and subject/population heterogeneity, offering advantages over cross-sectional and pre-post study designs. To support the needs of microbiome researchers performing longitudinal studies, we developed q2-longitudinal, a software plugin for the QIIME 2 microbiome analysis platform (https://qiime2...
November 2018: MSystems
C Sahanaa, Amit Kumar Mishra
INTRODUCTION: In communication process, feedback plays a major role. Usually, a formal/informal feedback is collected from students on their experience and understanding about the tasks given by the mentor to assess the learning process. Receiving high-quality feedback (positive or negative) is valuable from multiple perspectives. Students may or may not enjoy sessions on innovative teaching-learning methods; in that case, feedback helps to modify it into a more effective and acceptable method of teaching...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Ralph Stewart
BACKGROUND: In aging populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and frailty are common and often coexist. It is possible that common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways increase the risk of both CVD and frailty. CONTENT: Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple causes and contributing factors. It is characterized by multisystem impairment that decreases physiological reserve and increases vulnerability to stress. Diverse methods have been used to evaluate frailty...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Blazej Palat, Guillaume Saint Pierre, Patricia Delhomme
Vehicle-dynamics data, now more readily available thanks to moderate-cost, embedded data logging solutions, have been used to study drivers' behavior (acceleration, braking, and yaw rate) through naturalistic driving research aimed at detecting critical safety events. In addition, self-reported measures have been developed to describe these events and to assess various individual risk factors such as sensation seeking, lack of experience, anger expression while driving, and sensitivity to distraction. In the present study, we apply both of these methods of gathering driving data in order to assess risk proneness as accurately as possible...
November 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ben Kelcey
Structural equation modeling with full information maximum likelihood estimation is the predominant method to empirically assess complex theories involving multiple latent variables in addiction research. Although full information estimators have many desirable properties including consistency, a major limitation in structural equation models is that they often sustain significant bias when implemented in small to moderate size studies (e.g., fewer than 100 or 200). Recent literature has developed a limited information estimator designed to address this limitation-conceptually implemented through a bias-corrected factor score path analysis approach-that has been shown to produce unbiased and efficient estimates in small to moderate sample settings...
October 27, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Sarni Maniar Berliana, Putu Arry Novelina Kristinadewi, Praba Diyan Rachmawati, Rista Fauziningtyas, Ferry Efendi, Angeline Bushy
Background While studies on reproductive health issues are discussed widely, until recently early marriage among adolescent has not received enough attention across stakeholders in Indonesia. This research aims to analyze the determinants of early marriage among female adolescents in Indonesia. Methods This study employs data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2012 on females aged 15-19 years (n = 7207). The analytical methods used to determine factors of early marriage were chi-square and multiple logistic regression...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Shuang Wang, Shasha Lu, Jiahui Zhao, Jing Ye, Jianshe Huang, Xiurong Yang
MicroRNAs serve as a new type of biomarker for multifarious diseases due to its critical roles in post transcriptional gene regulation. Herein, we firstly integrate the catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) and rolling circle amplification (RCA) into an electrochemical biosensor for sensitive and specific detection of miR-21. Meanwhile, an electric potential was employed to modulate the efficiency of CHA occurred on the electrode, which offer a simple but effective method to surmount the accessibility problem of probes...
September 28, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
S Yu Lukin, Yu P Soldatov, M V Stogov
Experimental and clinical studies have shown that a skeletal trauma causes a whole complex of pathophysiological disorders, both local and systemic. The main factors determining the severity of the trauma, as well as the nature of the course of the post-traumatic period, are the degree of hypoxia (acidosis), hypercoagulation and immune disorders. To influence these pathophysiological disorders in the patients presenting the with skeletal traumas, various approaches have been proposed, including the use of antihypoxants and antioxidants, the methods and means for the stimulation and support of the immune system, medications to regulate hemostasis...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Amna Umer, Candice Hamilton, Roger A Edwards, Lesley Cottrell, Peter Giacobbi, Kim Innes, Collin John, George A Kelley, William Neal, Christa Lilly
Introduction The immediate benefits of breastfeeding are well-established but the long-term health benefits are less well-known. West Virginia (WV) has a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lower breastfeeding rates compared to national averages. There is a paucity of research examining the relationship between breastfeeding and subsequent childhood CVD risk factors, an issue of particular relevance in WV. Methods This study used longitudinally linked data from three cross-sectional datasets in WV (N = 11,980)...
November 29, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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