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Stefan Rutkowski, Piergiorgio Modena, Daniel Williamson, Kornelius Kerl, Karsten Nysom, Barry Pizer, Ute Bartels, Stephanie Puget, François Doz, Antony Michalski, Katja von Hoff, Mathilde Chevignard, Shivaram Avula, Matthew J Murray, Stefan Schönberger, Thomas Czech, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Uwe Kordes, Christof M Kramm, Dannis G van Vuurden, Esther Hulleman, Geert O Janssens, Guirish A Solanki, Marie-Luise C van Veelen, Ulrich Thomale, Martin U Schuhmann, Chris Jones, Felice Giangaspero, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Torsten Pietsch, Steve C Clifford, Stefan M Pfister, Stefaan W Van Gool
Paediatric CNS tumours are the most common cause of childhood cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and improvements in their diagnosis and treatment are needed. New genetic and epigenetic information about paediatric CNS tumours is transforming the field dramatically. For most paediatric CNS tumour entities, subgroups with distinct biological characteristics have been identified, and these characteristics are increasingly used to facilitate accurate diagnoses and therapeutic recommendations. Future treatments will be further tailored to specific molecular subtypes of disease, specific tumour predisposition syndromes, and other biological criteria...
August 2018: Lancet Oncology
Yuri Utkin
INTRODUCTION: The brain is the most complicated organ in a vertebrate's organism. In a human, it contains about two hundred billions of neurons and non-neuronal cells. To understand the mechanisms of the brain functions is the great challenge for the researchers. Much is already done on this way; however, it remains a lot to do still, and to get deeper knowledge, new approaches should be developed. One of this is to use benefits that nanotechnology brings in this area. Nanotechnology opens up unique opportunities, not only for material science research, but also for biology, medicine, and many other disciplines...
August 13, 2018: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Sara Merlo, Simona Federica Spampinato, Maria Angela Sortino
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive neurodegeneration and inflammation in selective brain areas, linked to severely disabling cognitive deficits. Before full manifestation, different stages appear with progressively increased brain pathology and cognitive impairment. This significantly extends the time lag between initial molecular triggers and appearance of detectable symptoms. Notably, a number of studies in the last decade have revealed that in the early stage of mild cognitive impairment, events that appear in contrast with neuronal distress may occur...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Louis Bherer, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Susan Muir-Hunter, Karen Z H Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, William McIlroy, Laura Middleton, José A Morais, Ryota Sakurai, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, Olivier Beauchet, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Caterina Rosano, Stephanie Studenski, Joe Verghese
Background: A new paradigm is emerging in which mobility and cognitive impairments, previously studied, diagnosed, and managed separately in older adults, are in fact regulated by shared brain resources. Deterioration in these shared brain mechanisms by normal aging and neurodegeneration increases the risk of developing dementia, falls, and fractures. This new paradigm requires an integrated approach to measuring both domains. We aim to identify a complementary battery of existing tests of mobility and cognition in community-dwelling older adults that enable assessment of motor-cognitive interactions...
June 21, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Lorenzo Lorusso, Marco Piccolino, Saba Motta, Anna Gasparello, Jean-Gaël Barbara, Laura Bossi-Régnier, Gordon M Shepherd, Larry Swanson, Pierre Magistretti, Barry Everitt, Zoltán Molnár, Richard Brown
Over the last 50 years neuroscience has enjoyed a spectacular development, with many discoveries greatly expanding our knowledge of brain function. Despite this progress, there has been a disregard for preserving the history of these discoveries. In many European countries, historic objects, instruments, and archives are neglected, while libraries and museums specifically focusing on neuroscience have been closed or drastically cut back. To reverse this trend, the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS) has organized a number of projects, including (1) the History of Neuroscience on-line projects, (2) the European Brain Museum Project (EBM), (3) the History on-line library, (4) the FENS meeting History Corner, (5) history lectures in historic venues, and (6) a series of history seminars in various European venues...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kevin A Caulfield, Mark S George
Trends in brain stimulation include becoming less invasive, more focal, and more durable with less toxicity. Several of the more interesting new potentially disruptive technologies that are just making their way through basic and sometimes clinical research studies include low-intensity focused ultrasound and temporally interfering electric fields. It is possible, and even likely, that noninvasive brain stimulation may become the dominant form of brain treatments over the next 20 years. The future of brain stimulation therapeutics is bright...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Paul Bowary, Benjamin D Greenberg
This article covers noninvasive focused ultrasound (FUS) and its potential for neuromodulation. Although diagnostic uses of ultrasound are well known, its potential to noninvasively alter brain activity is a relatively new subject of research. Low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) is a potential future alternative modality to other noninvasive neuromodulation techniques. This article aims at providing an updated review of the literature related to the role of LIFU in neuromodulation and the progress of animal as well as human research done on this topic...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Martijn Constantijn de Koning, Gabriele Horn, Franz Worek, Marco van Grol
Organophosphorous (OP) compounds (such as nerve agents) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by covalent phosphylation of a key serine residue in the active site of the enzyme resulting in severe symptoms and ultimately death. OP intoxications are currently treated by administration of certain oxime compounds. The presently fielded oximes reactivate OP-inhibited AChE by liberating the phosphylated serine. Recent research towards new reactivators was predominantly devoted to design, synthesis and evaluation of new oxime-based compounds dedicated to overcoming some of the major limitations such as their intrinsic toxicity, their permanent charge which thwarts penetration of brain tissues and their inability to effectively reactivate all types of nerve agent inhibited AChEs...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Graham MacKenzie, Georgia Alexandrou, Peter J B Hancock, David I Donaldson
Are all faces recognized in the same way, or does previous experience with a face change how it is retrieved? Previous research using human scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) demonstrates that recognition memory can produce dissociable brain signals under a variety of circumstances. While many studies have reported dissociations between the putative 'dual processes' of familiarity and recollection, a growing number of reports demonstrate that recollection itself may be fractionated into component processes...
August 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jolanda Derks, Pieter Wesseling, Ellen W S Carbo, Arjan Hillebrand, Edwin van Dellen, Philip C de Witt Hamer, Martin Klein, Geert J Schenk, Jeroen J G Geurts, Jaap C Reijneveld, Linda Douw
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse gliomas have local and global effects on neurophysiological brain functioning, which are often seen as 'passive' consequences of the tumor. However, seminal preclinical work has shown a prominent role for neuronal activity in glioma growth: mediated by neuroligin-3 (NLGN3), increased neuronal activity causes faster glioma growth. It is unclear whether the same holds true in patients. Here, we investigate whether lower levels of oscillatory brain activity relate to lower NLGN3 expression and predict longer progression free survival (PFS) in diffuse glioma patients...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Geraldine Rodriguez, Alexander T Sack, Marieke Dewitte, Teresa Schuhmann
Sexual behaviour is the result of an interplay between distinct neural inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms. Individual differences in sexual excitation and sexual inhibition are proposed to play an important role in the processes sustaining the regulation of sexual behaviour. While much research has focused on the neural correlates of response inhibition, highlighting a prominent role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), very little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying different aspects of sexual inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aurore Marie, Johann Meunier, Emilie Brun, Susanna Malmstrom, Veronique Baudoux, Elodie Flaszka, Gaëlle Naert, François Roman, Sylvie Cosnier-Pucheu, Sergio Gonzalez-Gonzalez
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. SAMP8 mouse model presents accelerated senescence and has been identified as a model of gerontological research. SAMP8 displays a progressive age-related decline in brain function associated with a progressive hearing loss mimicking human aging memory deficits and ARHL. The molecular mechanisms associated with SAMP8 senescence process involve oxidative stress leading to chronic inflammation and apoptosis. Here, we studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on SAMP8 hearing loss and memory to determine the potential interest of this model in the study of new antioxidant therapies...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Xia-An Bi, Qian Xu, Xianhao Luo, Qi Sun, Zhigang Wang
The identification of abnormal cognitive decline at an early stage becomes an increasingly significant conundrum to physicians and is of major interest in the studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Support vector machine (SVM) as a high-dimensional pattern classification technique is widely employed in neuroimaging research. However, the application of a single SVM classifier may be difficult to achieve the excellent classification performance because of the small-sample size and noise of imaging data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Tetsuya Asakawa, Tetsuro Sameshima, Schinichiro Koizumi, Hisaya Hiramatsu, Hiroki Namba
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat symptoms by modulating the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop in the central nervous system (CNS), and attempts to research loop circuit disorders have been globally initiated among the intractable neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS treatment has been evaluated for all these newly found CNS loop circuit disorders. In 2011, neurosurgical treatments for psychiatric disorders were renamed from "psychosurgery" to "neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders (NPD)" by the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (WSSFN)...
August 9, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Kilian Horatz, Marco Giampà, Yevhen Karpov, Karin Sahre, Hanna Bednarz, Anton Kiriy, Brigitte Voit, Karsten Niehaus, Nikos Hadjichristidis, Dominik L Michels, Franziska Lissel
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry MALDI MS and MALDI MS Imaging are ubiquitous analytical methods in medical, pharmaceutical, biological and environmental research. Currently, there is a strong interest in the investigation of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs), especially to trace and understand metabolic pathways, requiring the development of new matrix systems which have favorable optical properties, a high ionization efficiency, and are MALDI silent in the LMWC area. In this paper, five conjugated polymers, poly[naphthalene-diimide-bithiophene] (PNDI(T2)), poly[3-dodecylthiophene] (P3DDT), poly[2,3-bis-(3-octyloxyphenyl)quinoxaline-5,8-diyl-alt-thiophene-2,5-diyl] (PTQ1), poly[isoindigo-bithiophene] (PII(T2)), and poly[9,9-octylfluorene] (P9OFl) are investigated as matrices...
August 8, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gaoyu Chen, Fenghua Weng, Xiang Hong, Weijie Tao, Zhixiang Zhao, Qiyu Peng, Qiu Huang
This work modified the commonly used Monte Carlo tool package GATE by developing a new "multiPatchPET" system so that GATE users will be able to easily simulate PET systems with irregular geometries. The motivation was to design a brain PET scanner with high sensitivity. It is known that the compact PET scanner with a large solid coverage angle achieves high sensitivity, and thus is potential to provide better image quality in brain PET imaging than the conventional ring PET, even with fewer scintillation detectors...
August 8, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Giacomo Maddaloni, Sara Migliarini, Francesco Napolitano, Andrea Giorgi, Serena Nazzi, Daniele Biasci, Alessia De Felice, Marta Gritti, Anna Cavaccini, Alberto Galbusera, Sara Franceschi, Francesca Lessi, Marco La Ferla, Paolo Aretini, Chiara Maria Mazzanti, Raffaella Tonini, Alessandro Gozzi, Alessandro Usiello, Massimo Pasqualetti
Abnormal hippocampal neural plasticity has been implicated in behavioural abnormalities and complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including bipolar disorder (BD). However, the determinants of this neural alteration remain unknown. This work tests the hypothesis that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is a key determinant of hippocampal neuroplasticity, and its absence leads to maladaptive behaviour relevant for BD. Depletion of brain 5-HT in Tph2 mutant mice resulted in reduced behavioural despair, reduced anxiety, marked aggression and lower habituation in novel environments, reminiscent of bipolar-associated manic behaviour...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wolf-Julian Neumann, Henning Schroll, Ana Luisa de Almeida Marcelino, Andreas Horn, Siobhan Ewert, Friederike Irmen, Patricia Krause, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Fred Hamker, Andrea A Kühn
Dopamine exerts modulatory signals on cortex-basal ganglia circuits to enable flexible motor control. Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic innervation in the basal ganglia leading to complex motor and non-motor symptoms. Clinical symptom alleviation through dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus likely depends on a complex interplay between converging basal ganglia pathways. As a unique translational research platform, deep brain stimulation allows instantaneous investigation of functional effects of subthalamic neuromodulation in human patients with Parkinson's disease...
August 6, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ruo-Yang Feng, Qian Chen, Wei-Jian Yang, Xiao-Guang Tong, Zhi-Ming Sun, Hua Yan
Objective: Due to the special anatomical structure and pathophysiological mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS), there is a big difference between the repair of brain injury and other systems of the body. More and more evidence shows that targetedly reducing the autoimmune response of brain tissue without affecting the immune function in other parts of the body will be the best optimized treatment for brain injury. Data Sources: This review was based on data in articles published in PubMed up to June 5, 2017, with the following keywords: "immune tolerance", "traumatic brain injury", and "central nervous system"...
August 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Roberta Parolisi, Bruno Cozzi, Luca Bonfanti
Pre-clinical research is carried out on animal models, mostly laboratory rodents, with the ultimate aim of translating the acquired knowledge to humans. In the last decades, adult neurogenesis (AN) has been intensively studied since it is viewed as a tool for fostering brain plasticity, possibly repair. Yet, occurrence, location, and rate of AN vary among mammals: the capability for constitutive neuronal production is substantially reduced when comparing small-brained, short living (laboratory rodents) and large-brained, long-living species (humans, dolphins)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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