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New brain research

Christina Miskolczi, József Halász, Éva Mikics
Social adversities experienced in childhood can have a profound impact on the developing brain, leading to the emergence of psychopathologies in adulthood. Despite the burden this places on both the individual and society, the neurobiological aspects mediating this transition remain unclear. Recent advances in preclinical and clinical research have begun examining neuroplasticity-the nervous system's ability to form adaptive changes in response to new experience-in the context of early-life vulnerability to social adversities and plasticity-related alterations following such traumatic events...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Research
Zimei Wang, Brian Maunze, Yunfang Wang, Pantelis Tsoulfas, Murray G Blackmorea
The brain communicates with the spinal cord through numerous axon tracts that arise from discrete nuclei, transmit distinct functions, and often collateralize to facilitate the coordination of descending commands. This complexity presents a major challenge to interpreting functional outcomes from therapies that target supraspinal connectivity after injury or disease, while the wide distribution of supraspinal nuclei complicates the delivery of therapeutics. Here we harness retrograde viral vectors to overcome these challenges...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
H-G Chen, M Wang, A-H Jiao, G-T Tang, W Zhu, P Zou, T Li, G-Q Cui, P-Y Gong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes as well as the related mechanism in cognitive function and levels of serum β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in stroke patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients with acute stroke treated in our hospital from June 2015 to September 2016 were selected as stroke group, while 30 volunteers during the same period were enrolled as control group. Changes in cognitive function of patients were evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) before and after the treatment...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
P Ramachandran, R Morcus, M Tahir, I Onukogu, B Spinowitz, Jen C Wang
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is among the top causes of cancer-related mortality in men and is the second most common cancer after breast cancer in women. There are approximately 234,030 new cases of lung cancer and 154,050 deaths from lung cancer in 2018 as per the latest American Cancer Society's report. Alectinib, a more potent orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor which was approved by the US Food & Drug Administration for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lung adenocarcinoma, has been shown to have a reasonable safety profile when compared with other anaplastic lymphoma kinase-targeted therapy...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Katie Hoemann, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Theories of emotion have often maintained artificial boundaries: for instance, that cognition and emotion are separable, and that an emotion concept is separable from the emotional events that comprise its category (e.g. "fear" is distinct from instances of fear). Over the past several years, research has dissolved these artificial boundaries, suggesting instead that conceptual construction is a domain-general process-a process by which the brain makes meaning of the world. The brain constructs emotion concepts, but also cognitions and perceptions, all in the service of guiding action...
October 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Marta Maschio, Alessia Zarabla, Andrea Maialetti, Francesca Sperati, Loredana Dinapoli, Sabrina Dispenza, Gianluca Petreri, Tonino Cantelmi
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic doses of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter EEG background activity, which is considered an index of the functional state of the brain. Quantitative analysis (qEEG) of EEG background activity is a valid instrument to assess the effects of many centrally active drugs on the central nervous system, including AEDs. Lacosamide (LCM) is a new AED that could be a valid therapeutic choice in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE). METHODS: We used qEEG to analyze the possible effect of LCM as an add-on, on background EEG activity after 4 months in patients with BTRE...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yuri I Alexandrov, Alexey A Sozinov, Olga E Svarnik, Alexander G Gorkin, Evgeniya A Kuzina, Vladimir V Gavrilov
Despite the years of studies in the field of systems neuroscience, functions of neural circuits and behavior-related systems are still not entirely clear. The systems description of brain activity has recently been associated with cognitive concepts, e.g. a cognitive map, reconstructed via place-cell activity analysis and the like, and a cognitive schema, modeled in consolidation research. The issue we find of importance is that a cognitive unit reconstructed in neuroscience research is mainly formulated in terms of environment...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Junling Li, Ran Yang, Kai Xia, Tian Wang, Binbin Nie, Kuo Gao, Jianxin Chen, Huihui Zhao, Yubo Li, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: The etiology of depression and its effective therapeutic treatment have not been clearly identified. Using behavioral phenotyping and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (r-fMRI), we investigated the behavioral impact and cerebral alterations of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in the rat. We also evaluated the efficacy of telmisartan therapy in this rodent model of depression. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group(C group), a stress group(S group), a stress + telmisartan(0...
October 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Laura Llorach-Pares, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Conxita Avila, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming one of the most disturbing health and socioeconomic problems nowadays, as it is a neurodegenerative pathology with no treatment, which is expected to grow further due to population ageing. Actual treatments for AD produce only a modest amelioration of symptoms, although there is a constant ongoing research of new therapeutic strategies oriented to improve the amelioration of the symptoms, and even to completely cure the disease. A principal feature of AD is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) induced by the aberrant phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau in the brains of affected individuals...
October 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
Christina Precht, Gaëlle Diserens, Martina Vermathen, Anna Oevermann, Josiane Lauper, Peter Vermathen
Listeria rhombencephalitis is caused by infection with Listeria monocytogenes and is associated with a high mortality rate in humans and ruminants. Little is known about the metabolic changes associated with neurolisteriosis in particular and infectious central nervous system (CNS) diseases in general. The purpose of our study was to investigate the metabolic changes associated with listeria rhombencephalitis in small ruminants (goats and sheep) as a model for inflammatory CNS disease by 1 H high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy of brain biopsies obtained from the brainstem and thalamus...
October 17, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Aydin Anic, Kirk N Olsen, William Forde Thompson
Neuroscientific research has revealed interconnected brain networks implicated in musical creativity, such as the executive control network, the default mode network, and premotor cortices. The present study employed brain stimulation to evaluate the role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in creative and technically fluent jazz piano improvisations. We implemented transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to alter the neural activation patterns of the left hemispheric M1 whilst pianists performed improvisations with their right hand...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andreas Becke, Patrick Müller, Milos Dordevic, Volkmar Lessmann, Tanja Brigadski, Notger G Müller
Background: The results from animal and human research indicate that acute intermittent hypoxia can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels and gene expression. As BDNF is known to promote the differentiation of new neurons and the formation of synapses, it has been proposed to mediate adult neuroplasticity. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the long-term effects of daily intermittent exposure to normobaric hypoxia (simulating high altitude exposure at approximately 4000-5000 m) over 2 weeks on BDNF levels in young adults...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ingmar Blümcke, Roland Coras, Annika K Wefers, David Capper, Eleonora Aronica, Albert Becker, Mrinalini Honavar, Thomas J Stone, Thomas S Jacques, Hajime Miyata, Angelika Mühlebner, Jose Pimentel, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Maria Thom
Low-grade epilepsy-associated brain tumours (LEAT) are the second most common cause for drug-resistant, focal epilepsy, i.e. ganglioglioma (GG) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNT). However, molecular pathogenesis, risk factors for malignant progression, and their frequent association with drug-resistant focal seizures remain poorly understood. This contrasts recent progress in understanding the molecular-genetic basis and targeted treatment options in diffuse gliomas. The Neuropathology Task Force of the International League against Epilepsy examined available literature to identify common obstacles in diagnosis and research of LEAT...
October 16, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Saghir Abbas, Sumera Zaib, Shafiq Ur Rahman, Saqib Ali, Shahid Hameed, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Khurram Shahzad Munawar, Farzana Shaheen, Syed Mustansar Abbas, Jamshed Iqbal
BACKGROUND: The over-expression of the carbonic anhydrases results in some specific carcinomas including pancreatic, gastric and brain tumor. Tumors are distinguished under hypoxic conditions and various investigations are being carried out to target the known hypoxic areas of the tumors to increase the sensitivity towards standard therapeutic treatment. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we have designed and synthesized some biologically important esters, hydrazides, thiocarbamates, 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and Schiff bases...
October 12, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Laura Woods, Vicente Perez-Garcia, Myriam Hemberger
The placenta is the chief regulator of nutrient supply to the growing embryo during gestation. As such, adequate placental function is instrumental for developmental progression throughout intrauterine development. One of the most common complications during pregnancy is insufficient growth of the fetus, a problem termed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that is most frequently rooted in a malfunctional placenta. Together with conventional gene targeting approaches, recent advances in screening mouse mutants for placental defects, combined with the ability to rapidly induce mutations in vitro and in vivo by CRISPR-Cas9 technology, has provided new insights into the contribution of the genome to normal placental development...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhe Tu, Yuan Yuan Jia, Tao Wang, Hang Qu, Jun Xi Pan, Jie Jie, Xiao Yan Xu, Hai Yang Wang, Peng Xie
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is mediated by chronic dysregulation of complex neural circuits, particularly the specific neurotransmitters or other neural substrates. Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been observed in patients with MDD. However, previous research has only assessed the functional connectivity within a specific network or some regions of interests, without considering the modulatory effects of the entire brain regions...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Jonathan Dodd, Samantha Murphy, Meghan Doherty
The present study introduces the Verbal Associated Pairs Screen (VAPS) as a new measure for assessing performance validity in pediatric populations. This study presents initial data on psychometric properties and establishes construct validity for the VAPS in a sample of 30 adolescent healthy controls and 206 youths with traumatic brain injury (TBI: moderate/severe, N = 30; mild, N = 176). The control group's age (M = 14.93, SD = 1.8) was significantly higher than the moderate/severe TBI (M = 13.9, SD = 2...
October 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
R Peyron, C Fauchon
Brain functional imaging has been applied to the study of pain since 1991. Then, a plethora of studies around the world looking at pain sensations and their brain correlates was published. Four kinds of studies can be distinguished: i) A first set investigated brain responses to noxious heat stimulations (above the pain threshold) relative to an equivalent warm innocuous stimulation (below the pain threshold). The aim of these studies was to identify the pattern of brain regions involved in the nociceptive processes and they may be considered as descriptive studies rather than explanative studies...
October 11, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Bo Chen
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a predominant product of pathological alterations distributed throughout interconnected neural systems. Designing new objectively diagnostic methods are burning questions. Dynamical functional connectivity (DFCs) methodology based on fMRI data is an effective lever to investigate changeability evolution in macroscopic neural activity patterns underlying critical aspects of cognition and behavior. However, region properties of brain architecture have been less investigated by special indexes of dynamical graph in general mental disorders...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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