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Types of abortion

K Laroucau, R Aaziz, F Vorimore, M F Menard, D Longbottom, G Denis
Chlamydia abortus is responsible for enzootic abortion (known as ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE)) in both sheep and goats and has major economic implications for the farming industry worldwide. A virulence-attenuated mutant strain of C. abortus (strain 1B) is currently commercially available as a live attenuated vaccine for immunization of sheep and goats in several European countries. Following an abortion storm in a French flock of 200 ewes that occurred two years after vaccination of 36 replacement ewes with the commercial 1B vaccine strain, the vaginal swabs of 3 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated aborted ewes and 12 of the 13 dead fetuses were found to be positive for C...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Silvia Márquez-Jurado, Aitor Nogales, Ginés Ávila-Pérez, Francisco J Iborra, Luis Martínez-Sobrido, Fernando Almazán
The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV), its association with Guillain⁻Barré syndrome and fetal abnormalities, and the lack of approved vaccines and antivirals, highlight the importance of developing countermeasures to combat ZIKV disease. In this respect, infectious clones constitute excellent tools to accomplish these goals. However, flavivirus infectious clones are often difficult to work with due to the toxicity of some flavivirus sequences in bacteria. To bypass this problem, several alternative approaches have been applied for the generation of ZIKV clones including, among others, in vitro ligation, insertions of introns and using infectious subgenomic amplicons...
October 7, 2018: Viruses
Martha Pantel Dos Santos Mota, Isabel Cristina Gomes Moura, Ricardo Mello Marinho, Eduardo Back Sternick, Alessandra Maciel Almeida
Purpose: To identify cardiovascular risk factors in women between 40 and 65 years old in two private clinic of gynecology in Minas Gerais. Methods: Cross-sectional study from January/2016 to January/2017 in 137 climacteric women. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate socio-demographic characteristics, climacteric phases, cardiovascular risk factors, menopause (age, time and type), number of pregnancies, normal births, abortions, partners and hormonal therapy...
July 2018: Journal of Mid-life Health
Zeinab Sadat Hosseiny, Parvaneh Nikpour, Abas Bakhtiary, Fatemah Sadat Mostafavi, Mohammad Matinfar, Mehrnaz Jahani, Roshanak Aboutorabi
Background: Osteopontin ( Opn ) is one of the co-factors involved in cell adhesion and invasion during the implantation process. Several reports have shown Opn expression changes in diabetic condition in several tissues. In addition, an increased incidence of spontaneous abortion is reported in diabetic women. We, therefore, designed a study to evaluate the effects of diabetes on Opn expression at implantation time after treatment with metformin and pioglitazone. Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely control, diabetic, pioglitazone-treated diabetic rats and metformin-treated diabetic rats...
January 2019: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Taek Kyu Park, Hye Bin Gwag, So Jin Park, Hyejeong Park, Danbee Kang, Jinkyeong Park, Joongbum Cho, Chi Ryang Chung, Kyeongman Jeon, Gee Young Suh, Eliseo Guallar, Juhee Cho, Jeong Hoon Yang
BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis of vasospastic angina (VSA) patients presenting with aborted sudden cardiac death (ASCD) is still unknown. We sought to compare the long-term clinical outcomes between VSA patients presenting with and without ASCD by retrospective analysis of a nationwide population-based database. METHODS: A total of 6972 patients in the Health Insurance Review and Assessment database who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit with VSA between July 1, 2007 and May 31, 2015 were enrolled...
September 27, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Esra Tara, Ariel Vitenzon, Ellen Hess, Kamran Khodakhah
Many cerebellar-induced neurological disorders, such as ataxias and cerebellar-induced dystonias, are associated with abnormal Purkinje cell activity. In tottering mice, a well-established mouse model of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), cerebellar Purkinje cells are required for the initiation of motor attacks . How Purkinje cells contribute to the initiation of attacks is not known, and to date there are no reports on the activity of Purkinje cells during motor attacks in the tottering mice. Here, we show that tottering Purkinje cells exhibit high-frequency burst firing during attacks, reminiscent of other mouse models of cerebellar-induced motor dysfunction...
September 21, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Zhaowei Wu, Limin Zhang, Dandan Qiao, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
Worldwide occurrence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses enormous challenges for both communities and healthcare settings. Cassette chromosome recombinases (Ccr) specifically exert excision and acquisition of a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in staphylococci and are responsible for the spread of methicillin resistance. This study explored the roles of CcrC2, a recently discovered Ccr, in the horizontal transfer of SCCmec and developed a potential mean to control the spread of methicillin resistance...
October 2, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Cara Buskmiller
Catholic bioethicists have extensively addressed extrauterine tubal pregnancies, which represent the great majority of ectopic pregnancies. However, additional management options have been developed for the other 7-10 percent of ectopic pregnancies. Using two cases of interstitial pregnancy and two cases of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) seen at a Catholic tertiary care center, this article discusses options including expectant management, systemic methotrexate, intragestational methotrexate, intragestational potassium chloride, uterine artery embolization, dilation and curettage (D&C), vasopressin use, cornuostomy, cornual wedge resection, CSP evacuation, CSP scar excision, CSP salvage, and hysterectomy...
August 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Maria Lisa Odland, Gladys Membe-Gadama, Ursula Kafulafula, Geir Wenberg Jacobsen, Jon Øyvind Odland, Elisabeth Darj
Introduction: The maternal mortality ratio is decreasing globally, although it remains high in Malawi. Unsafe abortion is a major cause and treatment of complications after abortion is a big burden on the health system. Even though manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is the recommended surgical treatment of incomplete abortions in the first trimester, many hospitals in Malawi continue to use sharp curettage. It is known to have more complications and is more expensive in the long run. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a structured MVA training programme in the treatment of incomplete abortions in Malawi...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Pratyush Routray, Tian Li, Arisa Yamasaki, Akira Yoshinari, Junpei Takano, Won-Gyu Choi, Carl E Sams, Daniel M Roberts
Boron is an essential plant micronutrient that plays a structural role in the rhamnogalacturonan II component of the pectic cell wall. To prevent boron deficiency under limiting conditions, its uptake, distribution, and homeostasis are mediated by boric acid transporters and channel proteins. Among the membrane channels that facilitate boric acid uptake are the type II nodulin intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of aquaporin-like proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses three NIP II genes (NIP5;1, NIP6;1, and NIP7;1) that show distinct tissue expression profiles (predominantly expressed in roots, stem nodes, and developing flowers, respectively)...
September 28, 2018: Plant Physiology
Katrien C K Poelaert, Jolien Van Cleemput, Kathlyn Laval, Herman W Favoreel, Gisela Soboll Hussey, Roger K Maes, Hans J Nauwynck
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) is considered as a major pathogen of Equidae , causing symptoms from mild respiratory disease to late-term abortion and neurological disorders. Different EHV1 strains circulating in the field have been characterized to be of abortigenic or neurovirulent phenotype. Both variants replicate in a plaque-wise manner in the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract (URT), where the abortigenic strains induce more prominent viral plaques, compared to the neurovirulent strains. Considering the differences in replication at the URT, we hypothesized that abortigenic strains may show an increased ability to modulate the type I IFN secretion/signaling pathway, compared to strains that display the neurovirulent phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mireille E Schnitzer, Lucie Blais
Electronic health data are routinely used for population drug studies. Due to the ethical dilemma in carrying out experimental drug studies on pregnant women, the effects of medication usage during pregnancy on fetal and maternal outcomes are largely evaluated using this data collection medium. One major limitation in this type of study is the delayed inclusion of pregnancies in the cohort. For example, in the province of Quebec, Canada, a major pregnancy cohort only captured pregnancies after 20 weeks gestation...
October 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Seung-Chai Kim, Salik Nazki, Sam Kwon, Jhung-Hyun Juhng, Kyeong-Hwan Mun, Do-Young Jeon, Chang-Gi Jeong, Amina Khatun, Seog-Jin Kang, Won-Il Kim
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD), caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), threaten the pig industry worldwide. Five genotypes of PCV2 were recently identified: PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d and PCV2e. In addition, a novel porcine circovirus from a case of a sow with dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome and reproductive failure has been identified based on metagenomic analysis and classified as porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3). Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PCV2 and PCV3 in clinical samples...
September 26, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Paola Brun, Melania Scarpa, Chiara Marchiori, Jessica Conti, Andromachi Kotsafti, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Marco Scarpa, Arianna Calistri, Ignazio Castagliuolo
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread neurotropic pathogen responsible for a range of clinical manifestations. Inflammatory cell infiltrate is a common feature of HSV-1 infections and has been implicated in neurodegeneration. Therefore, viral recognition by innate immune receptors (i.e., TLR2) and the subsequent inflammatory response are now deemed key players in HSV-1 pathogenesis. In this study we infected with HSV-1 the enteric nervous system (ENS) of wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knock-out (TLR2ko ) mice to investigate whether and how TLR2 participates in HSV-1 induced neuromuscular dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giuseppina Grieco, Virginie Janssens, Héloïse P Gaide Chevronnay, Francisca N'Kuli, Patrick Van Der Smissen, Tongsong Wang, Jingdong Shan, Seppo Vainio, Benoit Bilanges, François Jouret, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Christophe E Pierreux, Pierre J Courtoy
Kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs) are highly specialized for ultrafiltrate reabsorption and serve as paradigm of apical epithelial differentiation. Vps34/PI3-kinase type III (PI3KC3) regulates endosomal dynamics, macroautophagy and lysosomal function. However, its in vivo role in PTCs has not been evaluated. Conditional deletion of Vps34/PI3KC3 in PTCs by Pax8-Cre resulted in early (P7) PTC dysfunction, manifested by Fanconi-like syndrome, followed by kidney failure (P14) and death. By confocal microscopy, Vps34∆/∆ PTCs showed preserved apico-basal specification (brush border, NHERF-1 versus Na+ /K+ -ATPase, ankyrin-G) but basal redistribution of late-endosomes/lysosomes (LAMP-1) and mis-localization to lysosomes of apical recycling endocytic receptors (megalin, cubilin) and apical non-recycling solute carriers (NaPi-IIa, SGLT-2)...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julie C Antvorskov, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Knud Josefsen, Jannet Svensson, Charlotta Granström, Bart O Roep, Trine H Olesen, Laufey Hrolfsdottir, Karsten Buschard, Sjudur F Olsen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prenatal gluten exposure and offspring risk of type 1 diabetes in humans. DESIGN: National prospective cohort study. SETTING: National health information registries in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant Danish women enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort, between January 1996 and October 2002, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal gluten intake, based on maternal consumption of gluten containing foods, was reported in a 360 item food frequency questionnaire at week 25 of pregnancy...
September 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Victoria A Jefferson, Kaley A Barber, Fouad S El-Mayet, Clinton Jones, Bindu Nanduri, Florencia Meyer
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is one of several microbes that contributes to the development of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and can also induce abortions in cattle. As other alpha- herpesvirinae subfamily members, BoHV-1 efficiently replicates in many cell types and subsequently establishes a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. BoHV-1 encodes more than 70 proteins that are expressed in a well-defined manner during productive infection. However, in silico open reading frame (ORF) prediction of the BoHV-1 genome suggests that the virus may encode more than one hundred proteins...
September 14, 2018: Viruses
Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Douglas A Wright, Marsha J Weil, Christopher H Gottschalk, Brian P Pittman, Jason J Sico
OBJECTIVE: In this secondary analysis of the Clusterbusters® Medication Use survey, the use, effectiveness, and tolerability of inhaled oxygen were investigated and compared with injectable sumatriptan. We also sought to understand the predictors of medication response. BACKGROUND: Inhaled oxygen is a mainstay abortive intervention in cluster headache but is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Unlike injectable sumatriptan, the only FDA-approved pharmacologic intervention for cluster headache, oxygen can be used multiple times a day, which is highly relevant for a condition with numerous daily attacks...
September 17, 2018: Headache
Elina Pohjoranta, Maarit Mentula, Satu P Suhonen, Oskari Heikinheimo
BACKGROUND: Attendance at post-abortion follow-up visits is poor, but little is known about factors affecting it. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors associated with non-compliance with post-abortion services and to evaluate differences in rates of attendance and intrauterine device (IUD) insertion according to the type of service provision. METHODS: 605 women undergoing a first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) and planning to use intrauterine contraception were randomised into two groups...
September 15, 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Muhammad Mudasser Nazir, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Atif Nisar Ahmed, Imran Rasheed, Asim Faraz, Qaisar Akram, Saleem Akhtar, Azhar Maqbool, Shahida Tabassum, Yadong Zheng, David S Lindsay
Equine hosts suffer from neurological disease, congenital infection, and reproductive problems associated with Neospora spp. infection. We conducted a cross sectional study using sera from 631 equids (324 horses, 218 donkeys and 89 mules) from the southern region of Punjab province, Pakistan to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. in this diverse group of equines. Fisk factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated statistically based on equine type, breed, age, husbandry, breeding methods, and reproductive history...
December 2018: Acta Tropica
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