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Cancer prevent

Yang Yang, Meng Wang, Bao Liu
Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignant tumors and the main reason for cancer-related death around the world, whereas nonsmall cell lung cancer that consists two subtypes: lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is responsible for an estimated 85% of all lung cancers. The current study aimed to explore gene expression and methylation differences between LUAD and LUSC. EdgeR was used to identify differentially regulated genes between normal and cancer in the LUAD and LUSC extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), respectively, whereas SAM was used to find genes with differential methylation between normal and cancer in the LUAD and LUSC, respectively...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rie Makuuchi, Tomoyuki Irino, Yutaka Tanizawa, Etsuro Bando, Taiichi Kawamura, Masanori Terashima
Esophagojejunal anastomotic leakage (EJAL) is a serious complication of total or proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer, with a reported incidence of 2.1-14.6% and mortality of up to 50%. EJAL is an independent prognostic factor for the poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Meticulous surgical techniques, experience with anastomotic devices, and a thorough understanding of various risk factors and preventive measures are essential and early diagnosis is critical for preventing EJAL-related death. Patients with suspected EJAL must be evaluated promptly, but contrast swallow is not recommended...
October 13, 2018: Surgery Today
Lovely Gupta, Deepak Khandelwal, Sanjay Kalra
South Asian population is facing rapid changes in dietary pattern with a shift from healthy traditional high fibre diet to calorie-dense low fibre. This has resulted in epidemic of lifestyle disorders including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease in these populations. High fibre diet has shown to decrease risk of these lifestyle disorders as well as many gastrointestinal disorders including colorectal cancer. There is an urgent need to increase fibre component in the diet of these populations to prevent the lifestyle disorders...
July 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho, Geórgia de Assis Dias Alves, Marina Ortiz Lovatto, Iuri França Bonilha, Fernanda Barbisan, Ivana Beatrice Manica da Cruz, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Roselei Fachinetto, Gizele Scotti do Canto, Melânia Palermo Manfron
Ultraviolet B radiation represents 10% of the total UV radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, being the primary responsible for the biological effects related to skin cancer and photoaging. Ilex Paraguariensis A. St. Hil., known as Yerba mate (YM), is a native tree of South America whose polyphenols in its leaves are described to exhibit photochemoprotective effect and are employed in the treatment of cancer. Additionally, the polyphenols are used to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce the UV-induced damage, which ultimately decreases the oxidative stress...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sara R Martins-Neves, Anne-Marie Cleton-Jansen, Célia M F Gomes
The development of local recurrence and metastatic disease most probably attributable to the intrinsic or acquired resistance of tumor cells to standard therapy, still constitute the major clinical problem preventing the cure of cancer patients. Despite progress in the research of new therapeutic targets and compounds, resistant cells displaying stem-like properties seem to play a leading role in therapeutic failures and to be the culprit cells responsible for associated tumor recurrence. A whole new plethora of research studies suggest that drug-tolerant cancer stem cells may be induced by conventional cancer chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin, cisplatinum and ionizing radiation...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Xiang-Dong Guo, Lei Liu, Han-Yan Xiao
As a major public health concern, colon cancer is one of the most common cancer types, which is also the second cause of cancer death in developed countries and the third most common cancer in other parts of the world. It was reported that patients diagnosed at early stage have a chance to obtain 5-year survival rates at least compared to patients with late stage. Facing the multistep process in intestinal tumorigenesis, there is an urgent need to develop more effective early detection strategies for ameliorating the patient clinical outcome...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Luping Sha, Qinfu Zhao, Da Wang, Xian Li, Xiudan Wang, Xinyao Guan, Siling Wang
"Gate" engineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have been extensively applied in cancer theranostics. Due to the complexity of tumor development and progression, with chemotherapy alone, it has often been difficult to achieve a good therapeutic effect. Currently, it has been shown that the combination with photothermal therapy overcomes the shortcoming of chemotherapy. In most studies, the photothermal effect has proven to accelerate drug release from nanocarriers and ablate malignant cells directly, but the influence on the intracellular fate of nanocarriers remains unknown...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hanna Grauers Wiktorin, Malin S Nilsson, Roberta Kiffin, Frida Ewald Sander, Brianna Lenox, Anna Rydström, Kristoffer Hellstrand, Anna Martner
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature monocytes and granulocytes that impede immune-mediated clearance of malignant cells by multiple mechanisms, including the formation of immunosuppressive reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the myeloid cell NADPH oxidase (NOX2). Histamine dihydrochloride (HDC), a NOX2 inhibitor, exerts anti-cancer efficacy in experimental tumor models but the detailed mechanisms are insufficiently understood. To determine effects of HDC on the MDSC compartment we utilized three murine cancer models known to entail accumulation of MDSC, i...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Wen-Bo Zhou, Xin-Xin Zhang, Yun Cai, Wu Sun, Hao Li
Tamoxifen (TMX) is an antiestrogen drug that is used in the treatment and prevention of all stages of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Adverse effects of TMX include hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole, isolated from medicinal plants especially Fructus Cnidii, on TMX-induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were injected with osthole (100 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle, followed by TMX (90 mg/kg, ip) 24 h later. We showed that a single injection of TMX-induced liver injury and oxidative stress...
October 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Tajindra Singh Saluja, Murtaza Ali, Prabhaker Mishra, Vijay Kumar, Satyendra Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is usually preceded by clinically visible changes on oral mucosa categorised as oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). The progression of OPMD to OSCC is a multistep process which provides an opportunity for early cancer detection and interception. Recent research suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) hold the key to unlocking effective strategies to curb initiation and growth of several malignant neoplasms including OSCC. In this meta-analysis we evaluated the efficacy of CSC markers CD133, podoplanin, ALDH1, and others in predicting risk of malignant transformation of OPMDs...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Yuki Fujiwara, Yi Sun, Robert J Torphy, Jiadai He, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Barish H Edil, Richard D Schulick, Yuwen Zhu
Thalidomide-like drugs have been approved for the treatment of human multiple myeloma (MM), with their direct antitumor effects and immunomodulatory functions well documented. However, the exact molecular mechanisms that govern these effects remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that pomalidomide (POM) promotes immune response by inhibiting expression of PD-L1. POM inhibited PD-L1 expression on tumor cells to promote cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in vitro and suppressed PD-L1 upregulation on antigen-presenting cells (APC) to prevent peptide-induced T cell tolerance...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Research
Jayanti M Clay, Joanne K Daggy, Sunetris Fluellen, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds
OBJECTIVE: To assess women's attitudes and preferences related to recent changes in cervical cancer screening guidelines. METHODS: We distributed 380 surveys in three University based and Community clinics. Study participants anonymously completed surveys, which included questions related to demographics, cervical cancer, screening practices, risk perception and attitudes towards changing practices. RESULTS: 315 women agreed to participate (83%)...
October 3, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Laura M Snell, Bethany L MacLeod, Jaclyn C Law, Ivan Osokine, Heidi J Elsaesser, Kebria Hezaveh, Russell J Dickson, Marc A Gavin, Cynthia J Guidos, Tracy L McGaha, David G Brooks
CD8+ T cell exhaustion impedes control of chronic viral infection; yet how new T cell responses are mounted during chronic infection is unclear. Unlike T cells primed at the onset of infection that rapidly differentiate into effectors and exhaust, we demonstrate that virus-specific CD8+ T cells primed after establishment of chronic LCMV infection preferentially generate memory-like transcription factor TCF1+ cells that were transcriptionally and proteomically distinct, less exhausted, and more responsive to immunotherapy...
October 1, 2018: Immunity
Sandra Leal, Lídia Rocha, Ana Silva, Juliana Faria, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Susana I Sá
Tamoxifen (TAM) therapy is the better treatment for breast cancer and the drug use the prophylaxis of this disease in young premenopausal women. Yet, the effects associated with this therapy are unknown. To better understand the extension of this problem, we developed an animal model to mimic this therapy, aiming to evaluate its potential biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver. Young cycling female rats were treated with TAM for one, two and three months and toxicological biomarkers and liver histomorphometry were evaluated...
October 3, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Manika Suryadevara, Cynthia A Bonville, Donald A Cibula, Joseph B Domachowske
OBJECTIVE: To develop a program to educate providers, office staff, patients, and parents on life-long cancer prevention strategies, including the use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to improve adolescent HPV vaccination rates. STUDY DESIGN: A 2-phase program was implemented at 6 pediatric practices across upstate New York. Phase 1 included provider and staff education regarding practice-specific vaccination challenges and discussion of the contents of a study-specific cancer-prevention booklet, which included HPV vaccine information...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Nitya V Sharma, Kathryn L Pellegrini, Veronique Ouellet, Felipe O Giuste, Selvi Ramalingam, Kenneth Watanabe, Eloise Adam-Granger, Lucresse Fossouo, Sungyong You, Michael R Freeman, Paula Vertino, Karen Conneely, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Dominique Trudel, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, John A Petros, Fred Saad, Carlos S Moreno
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer typically undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but the benefits are often short-lived and the responses variable. ADT failure results in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which inevitably leads to metastasis. We hypothesized that differences in tumor transcriptional programs may reflect differential responses to ADT and subsequent metastasis. RESULTS: We performed whole transcriptome analysis of 20 patient-matched Pre-ADT biopsies and 20 Post-ADT prostatectomy specimens, and identified two subgroups of patients (high impact and low impact groups) that exhibited distinct transcriptional changes in response to ADT...
October 11, 2018: Cancers
Brian Køster, Maria Meyer, Therese Andersson, Gerda Engholm, Peter Dalum
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main risk factor for skin cancer. Denmark has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. In 2007, a long-term sun safety campaign was launched in Denmark. We have evaluated the effects on prevalence of sunburn and modeled the effects on future melanoma incidence.Sunburn was evaluated by annual cross-sectional surveys representative for the Danish population on age, gender, and region. During 2007-2015, survey data were collected for 33.315 Danes. Cutaneous Melanoma incidences were modeled in the Prevent program, using population projections, historic incidence, sunburn exposure, and relative risk of sunburn on melanoma...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shinya Toyokuni
Cancer is the primary cause of human mortality in most countries. This tendency has increased as various medical therapeutics have advanced, which suggests that we cannot escape carcinogenesis, although the final outcome may be modified by exposomes and statistics. Cancer is classified by its cellular differentiation. Mesothelial cells are distinct in that they line somatic cavities, facilitating the smooth movement of organs, but are not exposed to the external environment. Malignant mesothelioma, or simply mesothelioma, develops either in the pleural, peritoneal or pericardial cavities, or in the tunica vaginalis testes...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Manuela Hugle, Sebastian Czaplinski, Karoline Habermann, Meike Vogler, Simone Fulda
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is preventing effective treatment of multiple cancer types including pediatric tumors. Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer cells is frequently associated with high expression of p-glycoprotein, a transporter in the plasma membrane that can mediate cellular drug export. Here, we generated pediatric cancer cells with acquired resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug vincristine (VCR). In these cells, acquired resistance is associated with increased expression of p-glycoprotein...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
E V Plokhova, D P Dundua
Thrombosis traditionally considered as a complication of cardiovascular disease, however, this problem until recently was rarely taken into account in the presence of cancer. Although the association between cancer and thrombosis has been known almost 150 years ago, awareness of the impact of thrombotic complications have increased only now. Cancer is an independent major risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), which is the leading cause of death of cancer patient. The incidence of VTE is steadily increasing in these patients...
2018: Kardiologiia
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