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Cancer prevent

Raymond Javan Chan, Louisa G Gordon, Chia Jie Tan, Alexandre Chan, Natalie K Bradford, Patsy Yates, Oluwaseyifunmi Andi Agbejule, Christine Miaskowski
CONTEXT: Financial toxicity (FT) is used to describe the financial distress/hardship associated with cancer and its treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between FT and symptom burden. METHOD: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from January 2000 to January 2018) and accepted quantitative, mixed-methods and qualitative studies...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Peter G Lawlor, Nicole A Rutkowski, Alistair R MacDonald, Mohammed T Ansari, Lindsey Sikora, Franco Momoli, Salmaan Kanji, David K Wright, Erin Rosenberg, Annmarie Hosie, Jose L Pereira, David Meagher, Jill Rice, John Scott, Shirley H Bush
CONTEXT: Based on the clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care (PC), a published analytic framework (AF) formulated research questions in key domains and recommended a scoping review to identify evidence gaps. OBJECTIVES: To produce a literature map for key domains of the published AF: screening; prognosis and diagnosis; management and the health-related outcomes. METHODS: A standard scoping review framework was used by an interdisciplinary study team of nurse and physician delirium researchers, an information specialist and review methodologists to conduct the review...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Fatemeh Khadangi, Angelo Azzi
α-Tocopherol is the only tocopherol that has been shown to prevent the human deficiency disease Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency (AVED), and thus it is the only one that, for humans, can be called vitamin E. Vitamin E in addition to preventing AVED has documented immune boosting properties and an activity against nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis and low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological studies indicating that vitamin E could prevent cardiovascular events, neurodegenerative disease, macular degeneration, and cancer were in general not confirmed by clinical intervention studies...
December 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
Renata Ottes Vasconcelos, Simona Serini, Ana Paula de Souza Votto, Gilma Santos Trindade, Caterina Fanali, Alessandro Sgambato, Gabriella Calviello
The recently developed therapeutic strategies have led to unprecedented improvements in the control of metastatic melanoma and in the survival of specific subgroups of patients. However, drug resistance, low response rates, and undesired side effects make these treatments not suitable or tolerable for all the patients, and chemotherapeutic treatments appear still indispensable, at least for subgroups of patients. New combinatory strategies are also under investigation as tailored treatments or salvage therapies, including combined treatments of immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy...
December 13, 2018: Melanoma Research
Giuseppe Vanella, Livia Archibugi, Serena Stigliano, Gabriele Capurso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alcohol is a type I carcinogen and the WHO stated that it caused 5% of all deaths in 2016, of which 13% because of cancers. Among digestive tract cancers, this association is clear for esophageal, liver and colorectal cancer, and more debated for gastric and pancreatic cancer. The present review will revise recent evidence on epidemiologic association and mechanisms linking alcohol with the risk of esophageal, gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Moderate alcohol intake increases the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colorectal cancer...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Pan Pan, Jianhua Yu, Li-Shu Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Diet has a significant impact on the risk of developing CRC, but though processed meat is a known positive contributor, the effects of other dietary components are largely mixed. This review focuses on dietary patterns to describe the complexity of dietary diversity and overall food consumption and to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of CRC...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
David W Corpman, Farzad Masroor, Diane M Carpenter, Sundeep Nayak, Deepak Gurushanthaiah, Kevin H Wang
BACKGROUND: Surveillance positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for treatment assessment of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer. However, human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+OPSCC) patients represent a unique subpopulation, for which the utility of surveillance PET/CT has not been well studied. METHODS: In this retrospective chart review comprising 233 HPV+OPSCC patients, we evaluated surveillance PET/CT for diagnostic accuracy, downstream clinical impact, and survival...
December 14, 2018: Head & Neck
Hakan Köksal, Elisabeth Müller, Else Marit Inderberg, Øyvind Bruland, Sébastien Wälchli
Novel therapies to treat patients with solid cancers that have developed resistance to chemotherapy represent unmet needs of considerable dimensions. In the present review, we will address the attempts to develop Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) targeted immunotherapy against osteosarcoma (OS). This aggressive cancer displays its peak incidence in children and young adults. The main cause of patient death is lung metastases with a 5-year survival as low as 5-10% in the primary metastatic setting and 30% in the relapse situation, respectively...
December 14, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Lesley Smith, Adam W Glaser, Daniel Peckham, Darren C Greenwood, Richard G Feltbower
Respiratory diseases are a major cause of late morbidity and mortality amongst childhood cancer survivors. This population-based study investigates respiratory hospital admissions in long-term survivors of cancers diagnosed in young people to identify specific respiratory morbidities, treatment-related risks and their relationship to subsequent morbidity and mortality. Population-based cancer registrations in Yorkshire, England, diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 aged 0-29 years, were linked to inpatient Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) for admissions up to 2017...
December 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
You-Cheng Hseu, Ting-Yu Yang, Mei-Ling Li, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Dony Chacko Mathew, Chia-Hsuan Tsai, Ruei-Wan Lin, Chuan-Chen Lee, Hsin-Ling Yang
TGF-β1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular fibrotic diseases. Chalcones are reportedly cancer chemo-preventive food components that are rich in fruits and vegetables. In this study, flavokawain A (FKA, 2-30 μM), a naturally occurring chalcone in kava extracts, was evaluated for its anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties in TGF-β1-stimulated vascular smooth muscle (A7r5) cells, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism of action. Immunofluorescence data showed down-regulated F-actin expression with FKA treatment in TGF-β1-stimulated A7r5 cells...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Jesper Frank Christensen, Casper Simonsen, Pernille Hojman
Exercise training is playing an increasing role in cancer care, as accumulating evidence demonstrates that exercise may prevent cancer, control disease progression, interact with anti-cancer therapies, and improve physical functioning and psychosocial outcomes. In this overview article, we present the current state of the field of exercise oncology, which currently comprises of nearly 700 unique exercise intervention trials with more than 50,000 cancer patients. First, we summarize the range of these interventions with regard to diagnoses, clinical setting, timing, and type of intervention...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Chang-Hyun Kim, Jung Ki Yoo, Seong Ho Jeon, Chi-Yeon Lim, Ju-Hee Lee, Deog-Bon Koo, Mi-Young Park
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in controlling the immune response against cancer and in suppression of autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. However, the beneficial effects of MDSCs on the experimental mouse model of psoriasis have not been reported. Therefore, we investigated the anti-psoriatic effect of MDSCs on IMQ-induced skin inflammation in mice and explored the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that administration of MDSCs (1×106 or 2×106 cells) suppressed the development of IMQ-induced skin inflammation in mice as exemplified by a significant reduction in clinical severity scores and was associated with a reduction of histopathological changes, including inflammatory infiltration, epidermal hyperplasia, and hyperkeratosis...
December 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Helio Tedesco-Silva, Maria Del Carmen Rial, Jose Cruz Santiago, Marilda Mazzali, Alvaro Pacheco-Silva, Rodolfo Torres
While calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are effective for preventing acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients, long-term use may cause chronic kidney injury and is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events, cancer, and infection-associated death. Immunosuppression strategies are needed to balance risks of acute and subclinical rejection with long-term benefits of improved kidney function. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, is used for immunosuppression in kidney transplantation...
December 13, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Ling Bi, Chanlu Xie, Mu Yao, Su Su Thae Hnit, Soma Vignarajan, Yilun Wang, Qian Wang, Zhichao Xi, Hongxi Xu, Zhong Li, Paul de Souza, Andrew Tee, Matthew Wong, Tao Liu, Xiaodong Zhao, Jia Zhou, Ling Xu, Qihan Dong
Cancer cell repopulation through cell cycle re-entry by quiescent (G0 ) cell is thought to be an important mechanism behind treatment failure and cancer recurrence. Facilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT) is involved in DNA repair, replication and transcription by eviction of histones or loosening their contact with DNA. While FACT expression is known to be high in a range of cancers, the biological significance of the aberrant increase is not clear. We found that in prostate and lung cancer cells FACT mRNA and protein levels were low at G0 compared to the proliferating state but replenished upon cell cycle re-entry...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Huitong Ruan, Linlin Bu, Quanyin Hu, Hao Cheng, Weiyue Lu, Zhen Gu
The past few years have witnessed vast clinical accomplishments of immune checkpoint blockades (ICB), which block the regulatory receptor expressed on immune cells or tumor cells to prevent the suppression of antitumor cytotoxic T-cell responses. Despite this, limitations still exist, such as low objective response rate (ORR) and the risk of immune-related side effects. To address these issues, combination treatment strategies are vastly explored and recommended. This review summarizes recent advances in combination of ICB with therapies that participate in different stages of cancer immune cycle, including tumor antigen release, tumor antigen presentation, T-cell activation, recognition of cancer cells by T-cells, and tumor-killing activity...
December 13, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yuichi Akino, Huanmei Wu, Ryoong-Jin Oh, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: For scanning particle beam therapy, interference between scanning patterns and interfield organ motion may result in suboptimal dose within target volume. In this study, we developed a simple offline correction technique for uniform scanning proton beam (USPB) delivery to compensate for the interplay between scanning patterns and respiratory motion and demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique in treating liver cancer. METHODS: The computed tomography (CT) and respiration data of two patients who had received stereotactic body radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma were used...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Gouri Pantvaidya, Masillamany Sivasanker, Priya Ranganathan, Prathamesh Pai, Anil D'Cruz
BACKGROUND: Trismus is a common complication following treatment for oral cancers. However, its incidence in site-specific cancers is not adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with trismus in treated patients with oral cancer. METHODS: The maximal mouth opening in treated oral cancers was measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find risk factors for developing trismus in the entire cohort and in a subgroup of patients with gingivobuccal complex cancers...
December 12, 2018: Head & Neck
Hyuna Sung, Rebecca L Siegel, Lindsey A Torre, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Ann Goding Sauer, Kerem Shuval, Susan M Gapstur, Eric J Jacobs, Edward L Giovannucci, Ahmedin Jemal
The prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden have been rising over the past several decades globally. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of excess body weight in adults-defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 -increased from nearly 21% in men and 24% in women to approximately 40% in both sexes. Notably, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) quadrupled in men, from 3% to 12%, and more than doubled in women, from 7% to 16%. This change, combined with population growth, resulted in a more than 6-fold increase in the number of obese adults, from 100 to 671 million...
December 12, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Ketra Rice, Krishna Sharma, Chunyu Li, Lynn Butterly, Joanne Gersten, Amy DeGroff
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is the most widely used colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test in the United States. Through the detection and removal of potentially precancerous polyps, it can prevent CRC. However, CRC screening remains low among adults who are recommended for screening. The New Hampshire Colorectal Cancer Screening Program implemented a patient navigation (PN) intervention to increase colonoscopy screening among low-income patients in health centers in New Hampshire. In the current study, the authors examined the cost-effectiveness of this intervention...
December 12, 2018: Cancer
Apurva Patel, Anjali Soni, Preeti Sharma
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) transplantation has shown great promise for treating various diseases; however, poor viability of transplanted ASCs because of oxidative stress has limited its therapeutic efficiency. Plant saponins are recently been reported to have antioxidant activity tested in various cancer cell lines. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Tribulus terrestris saponins (TTS) on the proliferation of ASCs. The cytotoxic activity of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) was determined by treating ASCs with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 µM H2 O2 for 2 hours...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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