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Sperm maturation

Arlo Adams, Aarati Sriram, A Wayne Vogl
Sertoli cells of the mammalian seminiferous epithelium form unique subcellular actin-related structures at intercellular junctions. The appearance of these so called "tubulobulbar complexes" (TBCs) precedes both sperm release at the apex of the epithelium and the movement of early spermatogenic cells out of the spermatogonial stem cell niche at the base of the epithelium. TBCs are considered to be part of the mechanism of junction endocytosis by Sertoli cells. The structures contain junction proteins and morphologically identifiable junctions, and are associated with markers of endocytosis...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jordi Miquel, Srisupaph Poonlaphdecha, Alexis Ribas
The present study describes the ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Glypthelmins staffordi (Glypthelminthidae) by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live digeneans were collected from the Chinese edible frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) in Udon Thani Province (Thailand). The ultrastructural study reveals that the mature spermatozoon of G. staffordi is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities. It exhibits the Bakhoum et al.'s type IV of spermatozoon of digeneans characterized by the 9+'1' axonemes of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, the presence of the association "external ornamentation-cortical microtubules", the external ornamentation located in the posterior part of the anterior region, the arrangement of parallel cortical microtubules in two bundles and with its maximum number located in the anterior part of the sperm cell, and the presence of two mitochondria...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Augusto Weber, Jayse Alves, Ana Lucia Abujamra, Ivan Cunha Bustamante-Filho
Human secondary hypogonadism is associated with impaired testicular function, however, little is known about its impact on sperm epididymal maturation. Endocrine disruption in the epididymis could impair the secretion of key proteins, such as β-defensins, responsible for spermatozoa maturation during epididymal transit. This study evaluated the sequence and structural similarities between porcine epididymal β-defensins pBD3, pBD4, pBD125, and pEP2C and their human homologs using bioinformatics integrated with information derived from protein databanks...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
P J Torres, E M Luque, M F Ponzio, V Cantarelli, M Diez, S Figueroa, L M Vincenti, V P Carlini, A C Martini
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intragestational role of ghrelin in offspring development and reproductive programming in a mouse model of ghrelin imbalance during pregnancy. Female mice were injected with ghrelin (supraphysiological levels: 4 nmol/animal/day), antagonist (endogenous ghrelin inhibition with (D-Lys3)GHRP-6, 6 nmol/animal/day) or vehicle (control = normal ghrelin levels) throughout the pregnancy. Parameters evaluated in litters were growth, physical, neurobiological and sexual development and, at adulthood, reproductive function...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
V Elfgen, A Mietens, M Mewe, T Hau, R Middendorff
During their transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa mature and acquire motility and fertilizing capacity. The smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the epididymal duct are thought to be responsible for the adequate transport of spermatozoa. Thus, precise regulation of SMC function also represents a prerequisite for sperm maturation thereby contributing to male fertility. In this review, we would like to highlight various aspects of epididymal SMC function and discuss several angles with respect to regulation of contraction and relaxation...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Nobuyuki Shimizu, Miho Matsuda
Testicular tumors are the most common solid malignant tumors in men 20-35 years of age. Although most of testicular tumors are curable, current treatments still fail in 15%-20% of patients. However, insufficient understanding of the molecular basis and lack of animal models limit development of more effective treatments. This study reports the identification of a novel zebrafish mutant line, ns1402, which develops testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). While both male and female ns1402 mutants were fertile at young age, male ns1402 mutants became infertile as early as 9 months of age...
October 9, 2018: Zebrafish
J M Thomas, J W C Locke, R C Bonacker, E R Knickmeyer, D J Wilson, R Vishwanath, A M Arnett, M F Smith, D J Patterson
An experiment was designed to compare fertility of SexedULTRA 4M™ sex-sorted semen and conventional, non-sex-sorted semen following either fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or split-time artificial insemination (STAI) of mature suckled beef cows. Units of sex-sorted and conventional semen were produced using contemporaneous ejaculates from three commercially available sires. Units of conventional semen were generated with 25.0 × 106 live cells per 0.25 ml straw prior to freezing, and units of sex-sorted semen were generated using the SexedULTRATM Genesis III sorting technology with 4...
September 27, 2018: Theriogenology
Luana Grasiele Pereira Bezerra, Ana Liza Paz Souza, Herlon Victor Rodrigues Silva, Fábio Roger Vasconcelos, Arlindo de Alencar Araripe Moura, Alexsandra Fernandes Pereira, Moacir Franco de Oliveira, Alexandre Rodrigues Silva
The aim was to describe, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the ultrastructure of peccaries' fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For that, semen derived from three mature males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for motility, membrane integrity, membrane functionality, chromatin integrity, and morphology through light microscopy. Samples were frozen using a Tris extender plus egg yolk (20%) and glycerol (6%). Then, fresh and frozen-thawed semen samples were mixed in different sperm pools that were processed for SEM and TEM...
October 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Barbara Merlo, Gaetano Mari, Eleonora Iacono
The increase in demand for in vitro produced horse embryos is fostering the development of commercial laboratories for this purpose. Nevertheless, blastocyst production after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is still not as great as desired in most of these laboratories. In relation to horse oocyte classification, both expanded and compact cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) are used for in vitro embryo production. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro embryo developmental capacity of COCs from horses including those with only the corona radiata, frequently collected after aspiration procedures...
September 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Fatemeh Hassani, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi, Masood Bazrgar, Ashraf Moini, Nahid Nasiri, Azadeh Ghaheri
Background: The objective of this study was to describe the association between luteinizing hormone (LH)/ follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio and demographic variables and maturation stage of oocytes in insulinresistant and insulin-sensitive patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in comparison with control group. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 60 patients with in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) indication were subdivided into 3 groups as follow: 20 subjects were assigned to control (fertile women with male infertility history) group, 20 subjects with PCOS were insulin resistant (IR) and 20 subjects with PCOS were insulin sensitive (IS)...
January 2019: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Keykavos Gholami, Gholamreza Pourmand, Morteza Koruji, Mohammadali Sadighigilani, Shadan Navid, Fariborz Izadyar, Mehdi Abbasi
Optimization of in vitro culture system for the expansion and the maturation of male germ cells to post meiotic stages is a valuable tool for studies exploring spermatogenesis regulation and the management of male infertility. Several studies have reported promising results of mouse spermatogonial stem cells culture in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems and a subsequent production of sperm. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of a three-dimensional soft agar culture system (SACS) supplemented with Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR) in colony formation and inducing human germ cells to reach post-meiotic stages...
October 2, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Jessica L H Walters, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Brett Nixon, Elizabeth G Bromfield
Germline oxidative stress is intimately linked to several reproductive pathologies including a failure of sperm-egg recognition. The lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) is particularly damaging to the process of sperm-egg recognition as it compromises the function and the stability of several germline proteins. Considering mature spermatozoa do not have the capacity for de novo protein translation, 4HNE modification of proteins in the mature gametes has uniquely severe consequences for protein homeostasis, cell function and cell survival...
October 3, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tuğba Kotil, M Ertan Kervancıoğlu, Gülçin Ekter Kanten, Gülden Tunalı, Seyhun Solakoğlu
SummaryDigyny, the presence of a third pronucleus due to the failure of second polar body extrusion, is problematic after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) practices. Mitochondria have critical roles such as production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis during oocyte maturation, fertilization and the following development, while the regulation of meiotic spindle formation, chromosome segregation, pronuclear apposition and cytokinesis is closely associated with the cytoskeleton...
October 3, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Hakan Golbasi, Onur Ince, Ceren Golbasi, Mehmet Ozer, Mustafa Demir, Bulent Yilmaz
This study investigates the predictive power of serum progesterone/estradiol (P/E2 ) level for estimating the live birth rate in patients who had a serum progesterone (P) rate ≥ 1.5 ng/mL on the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration day and who received the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective cohort study included 176 cycles. The P/E2 ratio was lower in patients with a live birth (0.73 ± 0.54) than those without a live birth (1...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Mariana P de Macedo, Werner G Glanzner, Vitor B Rissi, Karina Gutierrez, Luke Currin, Hernan Baldassarre, Vilceu Bordignon
Oocyte activation is physiologically triggered by the sperm during fertilization, however, production of porcine embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or parthenogenetic activation (PA) requires artificial oocyte activation. Although effective protocols for artificial oocyte activation have been developed, current protocols require long exposures to non-specific inhibitors, which do not mimic the physiological process and may have detrimental consequences for embryo development...
September 24, 2018: Theriogenology
Ejaz Ahmad, Zahid Naseer, Uğur Uçan, İlker Serin, Ahmet Ceylan, Melih Aksoy
The study was conducted to evaluate the seasonal dynamics in the sperm acrosome reaction (AR), osmotic tolerance and serum testosterone concentration in rams. Blood and semen samples were collected from six mature rams during the winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The AR in sperm samples was induced by using lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and calcium ionophore (CI). The AR was monitored at various incubation times (15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min) post-induction. To determine the osmotic tolerance through hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) the sperm were exposed to different osmotic conditions (50, 100, 290, 500 and 1000 mOsm/L)...
September 20, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Ignacio Fernández, Jorge M O Fernandes, Vânia P Roberto, Martina Kopp, Catarina Oliveira, Marta F Riesco, Jorge Dias, Cymon J Cox, M Leonor Cancela, Elsa Cabrita, Paulo Gavaia
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble vitamin known for its essential role in blood coagulation, but also on other biological processes (e.g. reproduction, brain and bone development) have been recently suggested. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind its particular function on reproduction are not yet fully understood. METHODS: The potential role of VK on reproduction through nutritional supplementation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) was assessed by gonadal maturation and 11-ketosterone, testosterone and estriol plasma levels when fed with control or VK supplemented (1250 mg kg-1 of VK1 ) diets along a six month trial...
September 27, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Anton Kovacik, Filip Tirpak, Marian Tomka, Michal Miskeje, Eva Tvrda, Julius Arvay, Jaroslav Andreji, Tomas Slanina, Michal Gabor, Lukas Hleba, Martin Fik, Tomas Jambor, Miroslava Cisarova, Peter Massanyi
Objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between trace elements content and RedOx status, as well as sperm quality parameters (motility features, DNA fragmentation) in fish spermatozoa in natural conditions. Reproductively mature male freshwater fish (n = 16) of Cyprinus carpio breed were used in the study. Trace elements content was determined in fish milt samples by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS)...
December 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Cristina Perez-Patiño, Inmaculada Parrilla, Junwei Li, Isabel Barranco, Emilio A Martinez, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, Jordi Roca
Proteins are essential for sperm function, including their fertilizing capacity. Pig spermatozoa, emitted in well-defined ejaculate fractions, vary in their functionality, which could be related to different sperm protein composition. This study aimed (i) to update the porcine sperm proteome and (ii) to identify proteins differentially expressed in mature spermatozoa from cauda epididymis and those delivered in separate ejaculate fractions. Ejaculates from nine mature and fertile boars were manually collected in three separate portions: the first 10 mL of the sperm-rich ejaculate fraction (SRF), the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF...
September 26, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Sebastian Wacker, Bjørn Mejdell Larsen, Per Jakobsen, Sten Karlsson
Multiple paternity is an important characteristic of the genetic mating system and common across a wide range of taxa. Multiple paternity can increase within-population genotypic diversity, allowing selection to act on a wider spectre of genotypes, and potentially increasing effective population size. While the genetic mating system has been studied in many species with active mating behavior, little is known about multiple paternity in sessile species releasing gametes into the water. In freshwater mussels, males release sperm into the water, while eggs are retained and fertilized inside the female (spermcast mating)...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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