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Sperm maturation

Van Huong Do, Sally Catt, German Amaya, Madeline Batsiokis, Simon Walton, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
The present study was conducted in cattle to test the null hypothesis that the pregnancy rate of recipient females is similar when in vitro-derived embryos are transferred either fresh (non-vitrified) or after being subjected to vitrification. Cumulus-oocyte complexes, collected twice (6 weeks apart) from 10 donor cows were matured in vitro and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm from a single proven bull per donor collection. Cleaved embryos were cultured in vitro until day 7 and any resulting blastocysts were graded for stage [early (unexpanded), advanced (expanded, hatching, hatched)] and/or quality and either discarded (poor quality), or, if deemed suitable, transferred fresh or vitrified for later warming and transfer...
August 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Marissa A Kent, Jared S Winoker, Aaron B Grotas
OBJECTIVE: To examine post orchiectomy specimens of transgender individuals to better understand the reproductive implications of hormonal therapy and to look for potential malignant or premalignant changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on the orchiectomy specimens from 135 TG individuals who underwent bilateral simple orchiectomy (54) or vaginoplasty with combined orchiectomy (81) at a single institution from 2014-2017. Factors examined included microscopic evidence of spermatogenesis, weight of specimens, evidence of malignant or premalignant changes, and patient demographic information...
August 6, 2018: Urology
M C Sánchez, C Alvarez Sedó, G R Chaufan, M Romanato, R Da Cuña, F Lo Nostro, J C Calvo, V Fontana
Endosulfan is an organochloride insecticide extensively used in several countries to protect crops from pests. As several studies indicate that endosulfan can affect human and animal development, the aim of this study was to analyse whether sperm parameters and the process of chromatin decondensation could be altered by endosulfan in mice sperm. Spermatozoa from cauda epididymis were obtained from mature male mice and incubated in the presence of two commercial formulations (CFs) of endosulfan (Master® and Zebra Ciagro®) or the active ingredient (AI) alone...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Seiya Oura, Haruhiko Miyata, Taichi Noda, Keisuke Shimada, Takafumi Matsumura, Akane Morohoshi, Ayako Isotani, Masahito Ikawa
The CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently introduce biallelic mutations in ES cells (ESCs), and its application with fluorescently-tagged ESCs enables phenotype analysis in chimeric mice. We have utilized ESCs that express EGFP in the cytosol and acrosome [EGR-G101 129S2 x (CAG/Acr-EGFP) B6] in previous studies; however, the EGFP signal in the sperm cytosol is weak and the signal in the acrosome is lost after the acrosome reaction, precluding analysis between wild type and ESC derived spermatozoa. In this study, we established an ESC line from RBGS (Red Body Green Sperm) transgenic mice [B6D2-Tg(CAG/Su9-DsRed2, Acr3-EGFP)RBGS002Osb] whose spermatozoa exhibit green fluorescence in the acrosome and red fluorescence in the mitochondria within the flagellar midpiece that is retained after the acrosome reaction...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Animals
Wuhui Li, Hui Tan, Junmei Liu, Jie Hu, Jialin Cui, Shi Wang, Qingfeng Liu, Fangzhou Hu, Li Ren, Min Tao, Rurong Zhao, Conghui Yang, Qinbo Qin, Shaojun Liu
Spermatogenesis involves a series of cellular transformations and thousands of regulated genes. Previously, we showed that the triploid fish (3nBY) cannot produce mature spermatozoa. In the present study, evaluation of the testis microstructure revealed that germ cells of 3nBY could develop into round spermatids, but then degenerated, resulting in male infertility. In this study we comparatively analysed the testis transcriptomes from 3nBY and its diploid parent YB and identified a series of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were enriched in the Wnt signalling pathway and the apoptotic and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis processes in 3nBY...
August 8, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Theodora K Tsouloufi, Ioannis A Tsakmakidis, Georgios Tsousis, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Eleni Tzika, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of subchronic oral exposure to zearalenone (ZEA) at a daily dose of 50 μg of ZEA/kg of body weight (an environmentally relevant concentration) on the reproductive system of rabbit bucks. ANIMALS 8 healthy sexually mature New Zealand White rabbits. PROCEDURES During the experimental period (March to June), each rabbit underwent a 7-week control protocol and then a 7-week treatment protocol. Water (0.5 mL) or ZEA solution (50 μg/kg [0.5 mL]) was administered orally once daily during the control and treatment period, respectively; ejaculates were collected weekly...
June 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Burak Evren İnanan, Fevzi Yılmaz
All-male or all-female progeny is preferable in reproduction of fish species. In rainbow trout, all-female progeny is desirable, and the most common and healthful approach is to use sex reversed (SR) females as broodstock by including androgen hormones through the diet at the larval stage. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences and changes of seminal plasma ions (Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ and Cl- ) and pH in 2 to 3 and 3 to 4 year-old SR females, compared with 2 to 3 year-old normal (N) males at the beginning, middle, and end of the spawning season (SS)...
July 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Brett Nixon, Stephen D Johnston, David A Skerrett-Byrne, Amanda L Anderson, Simone J Stanger, Elizabeth G Bromfield, Jacinta H Martin, Philip M Hansbro, Matthew D Dun
Competition to achieve paternity has contributed to the development of a multitude of elaborate male reproductive strategies. In one of the most well-studied examples, the spermatozoa of all mammalian species must undergo a series of physiological changes, termed capacitation, in the female reproductive tract prior to realizing their potential to fertilize an ovum. However, the evolutionary origin and adaptive advantage afforded by capacitation remains obscure. Here, we report the use of comparative and quantitative proteomics to explore the biological significance of capacitation in an ancient reptilian species, the Australian saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)...
August 2, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Miaad Jabbar Sahib Alhilali, Abbas Parham, Armin Attaranzadeh, Malihe Amirian, Mohammad Azizzadeh
PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic value of intrafollicular concentrations of some cytokines from women undergoing ovarian stimulation in the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection/embryo transfer (ICSI/ET) cycles. METHODS: A total of 80 patients were included in this study following ovarian stimulation and ICSI. Follicular fluids (FF) were collected at the day of oocyte retrieval. Ten cytokines including: tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were measured using magnetic multiplex immunoassays...
July 30, 2018: Cytokine
Iara A Novelli, Paola R DE Oliveira, Maria Christina M N Castañon, Pilar C Silva, Bernadete M DE Sousa
The kidneys in two viviparous species of Neotropical lizards, Notomabuya frenata and Aspronema dorsivittatum (Mabuyidae), were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to determine the presence of the sexual segment of the kidney (SSK) and to study its morphology. The individuals used in this study belong to the Herpetological Collection of the Herpetology Laboratory - Reptiles of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (CHUFJF-Reptiles) and they were collected between the years 2008 and 2012 from the Cerrado region in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil...
July 26, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
V H Do, S Walton, S Catt, A W Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Modifications to in vitro maturation (IVM) media are made to improve rates of blastocyst formation and quality of mammalian embryos. Embryo quality is an important factor in the viability of embryos following cryopreservation. Salubrinal is a specific inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. Here, it was added to IVM medium in an attempt to increase blastocyst formation and to enhance embryo quality in cattle. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect on blastocyst formation and cryotolerance of the supplementation of salubrinal to bovine IVM medium...
May 2018: Cryo Letters
James A Browne, Shih-Hsing Leir, Scott E Eggener, Ann Harris
The epithelium of the human epididymis maintains an appropriate luminal environment for sperm maturation that is essential for male fertility. Regional expression of small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs contributes to segment-specific gene expression and differentiated functions. MicroRNA profiles were reported in human epididymal tissues but not specifically in the epithelial cells derived from those regions. Here, we reveal miRNA signatures of primary cultures of caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis epithelial cells and of the tissues from which they were derived...
July 24, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Colin C Conine, Fengyun Sun, Lina Song, Jaime A Rivera-Pérez, Oliver J Rando
The small RNA payload of mammalian sperm undergoes dramatic remodeling during development, as several waves of microRNAs and tRNA fragments are shipped to sperm during post-testicular maturation in the epididymis. Here, we take advantage of this developmental process to probe the function of the sperm RNA payload in preimplantation development. We generated zygotes via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using sperm obtained from the proximal (caput) versus distal (cauda) epididymis and then characterized the development of the resulting embryos...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Upasna Sharma, Fengyun Sun, Colin C Conine, Brian Reichholf, Shweta Kukreja, Veronika A Herzog, Stefan L Ameres, Oliver J Rando
The biogenesis of the RNA payload of mature sperm is of great interest, because RNAs delivered to the zygote at fertilization can affect early development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that small RNAs are trafficked to mammalian sperm during the process of post-testicular maturation in the epididymis. By characterizing small RNA dynamics during germ cell maturation in mice, we confirm and extend prior observations that sperm undergo a dramatic switch in the RNA payload from piRNAs to tRNA fragments (tRFs) upon exiting the testis and entering the epididymis...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
M-S Hashemi, H Mozdarani, K Ghaedi, M H Nasr-Esfahani
BACKGROUND: To achieve sperm retrieval in azoospermic men, predicting the success rate seems to be necessary. OBJECTIVES: In the present study we aimed to assess expression of seven molecular markers [ESX1, DAZ, DAZL (pre-meiotic markers), ZMYND15, PRM1, TNP1, and SPEM1 (post-meiotic markers)] to predict the success of sperm retrieval. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 63 azoospermic men [16 OA (obstructive azoospermia) and 47 NOA (nonobstructive azoospermia)] undergoing testicular tissue microdissection (micro-TESE) for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
July 27, 2018: Andrology
Gonçalo I André, Renée C Firman, Leigh W Simmons
Males are known to adjust their expenditure on testes growth and sperm production in response to sperm competition risk. Genital morphology can also contribute to competitive fertilization success but whether male genital morphology can respond plastically to the sperm competition environment has received little attention. Here, we exposed male house mice to two different sperm competition environments during their sexual development and quantified phenotypic plasticity in baculum morphology. The sperm competition environment generated plasticity in body growth...
July 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Anaís Garcia-Rodriguez, Moises de la Casa, Malena Serrano, Jamie Gosálvez, Rosa Roy Barcelona
The DNA repair capacity in the mature spermatozoa is highly compromised due to the base-excision repair (BER) route being truncated. In the mature spermatozoa, only the first enzyme of the route (OGG1) is present. Consequently, reduced activity of the enzymes of the BER route both during spermatogenesis and in the mature spermatozoa may be detrimental for fertility. The objective of our study was to investigate the correlation between two representative SNPs of those enzymes, SNPs OGG1 Ser326Cys (rs1052133) and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487) and male infertility...
July 25, 2018: Andrologia
Jinsong Liu
Life starts with a zygote which is formed via fusion of haploid sperm and egg. The formation of blastomere via cleavage division (nuclear division without increase in cell size) is the first step in the embryogenesis after zygote. The blastomeres are responsible to reprogram parental genome to new embryonic genome for generation of pluripotent stem cells which then differentiate via Waddington's epigenetic landscape to give a birth for a new life. Multiple authors over the past century and a half have proposed that tumor arises from development gone awry along the Waddington's landscape...
July 21, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Jahahreeh Finley
Transposable elements (TEs), also known as "jumping genes", are DNA sequences first described by Nobel laureate Barbara McClintock that comprise nearly half of the human genome and are able to transpose or move from one genomic location to another. As McClintock also noted that a genome "shock" or stress may induce TE activation and transposition, accumulating evidence suggests that cellular stress (e.g. mediated by increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species [ROS] and calcium [Ca2+], etc...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Xuan Shang, Chunling Shen, Jianbing Liu, Lingyun Tang, Hongxin Zhang, Yicheng Wang, Wenting Wu, Jun Chi, Hua Zhuang, Jian Fei, Zhugang Wang
Testis-specific PRSS55 is a highly conserved chymotrypsin-like serine protease among mammalian species. So far, the physiological function of PRSS55 remains unknown. Here, we show that PRSS55 is a GPI-anchored membrane protein, specifically expressed in adult mouse testis and mainly observed in the luminal side of seminiferous tubules and sperm acrosome. Mice deficient for Prss55 develop male infertile with normal reproduction-related parameters observed. Interestingly, in vivo fertilization rate of Prss55-/- males is dramatically decreased, possibly due to incapable migration of Prss55-/- sperm from uterus into oviduct...
July 21, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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