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Paralytic shellfish toxin

J Naouli, R Abouabdellah, A Bennouna, A Laissaoui, P W Swarzenski, H Ait Bouh, A Mesfioui, M-S Benbrahim, M-Y Dechraoui Bottein
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events occur regularly along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Morocco, and have been responsible for several severe cases of human intoxication. Along the southern Atlantic coast of Morocco, aquaculture and intensive artisanal fishing practices have recently been particularly heavily impacted, and toxic species have been observed in increasing intensity and frequency. In the 1990's a regulatory monitoring program was established for the coastal waters off Morocco by the National Institute of Fisheries Research (INRH), to reduce the risk of intoxication with biotoxins...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hongbo Li, Xinwei Wei, Chenlei Gu, Kaiqi Su, Hao Wan, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
Okadaic acid (OA) and saxitoxin (STX) are typical toxins of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), respectively, which are highly toxic marine toxins threatening human health and environmental safety. OA is a potent inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases that can cause cellular death, while STX is an inhibitor of sodium channel that can lead to neurological damage. In this work, a dual functional cardiomyocyte-based biosensor was proposed to detect DSP and PSP toxins by monitoring the viability and electrophysiology of cardiomyocytes...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Veronica Rey, Ana M Botana, Alvaro Antelo, Mercedes Alvarez, Luis M Botana
Although paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have traditionally been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization, and these methods have been validated successfully through inter-laboratory studies, mass spectrometry methods have also been described in literature for use in monitoring programs. However, methods using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) need to be improved in terms of sensitivity, analyte recovery and retention time stability because of undesirable matrix effects...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Paula Abal, Eva Cagide, Cristina Carrera, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Marine biotoxins are produced by aquatic microorganisms and accumulate in shellfish or finfish following the food web. These toxins usually reach human consumers by ingestion of contaminated seafood, although other exposure routes like inhalation or contact have also been reported and may cause serious illness. This review shows the current data regarding the symptoms of acute intoxication for several toxin classes, including paralytic toxins, amnesic toxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, tetrodotoxins, diarrheic toxins, azaspiracids and palytoxins...
August 9, 2018: Toxins
Jennifer M Phillips, V Monica Bricelj, Maren Mitch, Robert M Cerrato, Scott MacQuarrie, Laurie B Connell
Blooms of Alexandrium spp., the causative agent of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), recur with varying frequency and intensity on the Northwest Atlantic coast of North America, from New York, USA, to northern Canadian waters. Along this latitudinal range blooms co-occur with abundant, intertidal populations of softshell clams, Mya arenaria. Prior work identified a naturally-occurring genetic mutation in Domain II α-subunit of the clams' voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV ), which significantly reduces the binding affinity of the paralytic shellfish toxin, saxitoxin (STX)...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Marc Long, Kévin Tallec, Philippe Soudant, Christophe Lambert, Fabienne Le Grand, Géraldine Sarthou, Dianne Jolley, Hélène Hégaret
Harmful microalgal blooms are a threat to aquatic organisms, ecosystems and human health. Toxic dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins and to release bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with potent cytotoxic, hemolytic, ichtyotoxic and allelopathic activity. Negative allelochemical interactions refer to the chemicals that are released by the genus Alexandrium and that induce adverse effects on the physiology of co-occurring protists and predators. Releasing BECs gives the donor a competitive advantage that may help to form dense toxic blooms of phytoplankton...
July 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Adam Michael Lewis, Lewis Nicholas Coates, Andrew D Turner, Linda Percy, Jane Lewis
Alexandrium minutum is a globally distributed harmful algal bloom species with many strains that are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and consequently represent a concern to human and ecosystem health. This review highlights that A. minutum typically occurs in sheltered locations, with cell growth occurring during periods of stable water conditions. Sediment characteristics are important in the persistence of this species within a location, with fine sediments providing cyst deposits for ongoing inoculation to the water column...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Alison O'Neill, Benjamin H Maskrey, Lewis Coates, Mickael Teixeira Alves, Rebecca J Kelly, Robert G Hatfield, Stephanie J Rowland-Pilgrim, Adam M Lewis, Myriam Algoet, Andrew D Turner
Official control biotoxin testing of bivalve molluscs from Great Britain has been conducted by Cefas for over a decade. Reflecting the changes in legislation, bioassays were gradually replaced by analytical methods, firstly for analysis of Paralytic shellfish toxins, followed by introduction of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LCMS/MS) method for lipophilic toxins (LTs) in 2011. Twelve compounds, representing three main groups of regulated lipophilic toxins, as well as two non-regulated cyclic imines were examined in over 20,500 samples collected between July 2011 and December 2016...
July 2018: Harmful Algae
Jiangbing Qiu, Cheryl Rafuse, Nancy I Lewis, Aifeng Li, Fanping Meng, Daniel G Beach, Pearse McCarron
The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium Halim has frequently been associated with harmful algal blooms. Although a number of species from this genus are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) and/or cyclic imines (CI), studies on comprehensive toxin profiling using techniques capable of detecting the full range of PST and CI analogues are limited. Isolates of Alexandrium spp. from Atlantic Canada were analyzed by targeted and untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Results showed a number of distinct profiles and wide ranging cell quotas of PST and spirolides (SPX) in both A...
July 2018: Harmful Algae
Federica Farabegoli, Lucía Blanco, Laura P Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Vieites, Ana García Cabado
Massive phytoplankton proliferation, and the consequent release of toxic metabolites, can be responsible for seafood poisoning outbreaks: filter-feeding mollusks, such as shellfish, mussels, oysters or clams, can accumulate these toxins throughout the food chain and present a threat for consumers' health. Particular environmental and climatic conditions favor this natural phenomenon, called harmful algal blooms (HABs); the phytoplankton species mostly involved in these toxic events are dinoflagellates or diatoms belonging to the genera Alexandrium , Gymnodinium , Dinophysis , and Pseudo-nitzschia ...
May 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
R M Coleman, G Ojeda-Torres, W Bragg, D Fearey, P McKinney, L Castrodale, D Verbrugge, K Stryker, E DeHart, M Cooper, E Hamelin, J Thomas, R C Johnson
A case of an elderly female with suspected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is presented. The patient shared a meal of recreationally-harvested shellfish with her family and soon began to experience nausea and weakness. She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory depression and shock. Her condition improved, and she was discharged from the hospital 6 days later. No others who shared the meal reported symptoms of PSP...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jiangbing Qiu, Fanping Meng, Ling Ding, Yijia Che, Pearse McCarron, Daniel G Beach, Aifeng Li
New C-11 hydroxyl metabolites of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been reported in shellfish. To gain further information on these metabolites, as well as the potential for formation of phase-II metabolites and acyl esters of PSTs, bivalves were fed with the PSTs-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum (strain ATHK). Through independent experiments, scallops (Chlamys farreri) were fed for 9 days and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for 5 days plus an additional 5 days of depuration, with representative samples taken throughout...
July 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Daniel G Beach, Elliott S Kerrin, Krista Thomas, Michael A Quilliam, Pearse McCarron
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE-MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
Andrew D Turner, Maggie Broadwater, Frances Van Dolah
A receptor binding assay (RBA) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity is formally validated through collaborative study and approved for regulatory monitoring use in the US for mussels and clams. However, to date, the method has not been tested on bivalve molluscs originating from European waters and no validation studies have been conducted for oysters, a shellfish species of great importance globally. This study firstly reports the work conducted to assess the performance of the assay in comparison with a regulatory chemical detection method for a range of shellfish species originating from Great Britain...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J Foss, Andrew I Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy
Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) in Europe, North America and Asia. Three cyanobacteria strains were isolated in Lake Iznik in northwestern Turkey. Morphological characterization of these strains suggested all three strains conformed to classical taxonomic identification of A...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Shu-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxic alkaloids mainly produced by marine dinoflagellates and their biosynthesis is associated with the cell cycle. Study shows that colchicine can cease cell division and inhibit PST production of dinoflagellates. However, the molecular mechanism behind this linkage is unknown. Here, we applied the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach to investigate protein expression profiles of a toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) and its non-toxigenic mutant (ACHK-NT) when treated with colchicine...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
June 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Audrey M Mat, Christophe Klopp, Laura Payton, Céline Jeziorski, Morgane Chalopin, Zouher Amzil, Damien Tran, Gary H Wikfors, Hélène Hégaret, Philippe Soudant, Arnaud Huvet, Caroline Fabioux
Harmful Algal Blooms are worldwide occurrences that can cause poisoning in human seafood consumers as well as mortality and sublethal effets in wildlife, propagating economic losses. One of the most widespread toxigenic microalgal taxa is the dinoflagellate Genus Alexandrium, that includes species producing neurotoxins referred to as PST (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins). Blooms cause shellfish harvest restrictions to protect human consumers from accumulated toxins. Large inter-individual variability in toxin load within an exposed bivalve population complicates monitoring of shellfish toxicity for ecology and human health regulation...
June 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Melissa B Peacock, Corinne M Gibble, David B Senn, James E Cloern, Raphael M Kudela
San Francisco Bay (SFB) is a eutrophic estuary that harbors both freshwater and marine toxigenic organisms that are responsible for harmful algal blooms. While there are few commercial fishery harvests within SFB, recreational and subsistence harvesting for shellfish is common. Coastal shellfish are monitored for domoic acid and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), but within SFB there is no routine monitoring for either toxin. Dinophysis shellfish toxins (DSTs) and freshwater microcystins are also present within SFB, but not routinely monitored...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
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