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Paralytic shellfish toxin

Virginia Angélica Bianchi, Hendrick Langeloh, Urban Tillmann, Bernd Krock, Annegret Müller, Ulf Bickmeyer, Doris Abele
Multiple toxic and bioactive compounds produced by Alexandrium spp. cause adverse effects on bivalves, but these effects are frequently difficult to attribute to a single compound class. To disentangle the effect of neurotoxic vs lytic secondary metabolites, we exposed blue mussels to either a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing Alexandrium spp. strain, or to an exclusively lytic compound (LC) producing strain, or a strain containing both compound classes, to evaluate the time dependent effects after 3 and 7 days of feeding...
October 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alescia Cullen, Paul M D'Agostino, Rabia Mazmouz, Russell Pickford, Susanna Wood, Brett A Neilan
The neurotoxin saxitoxin, and related paralytic shellfish toxins, are produced by multiple species of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. This study investigates the two saxitoxin-producing strains of Scytonema crispum, CAWBG524 and S. crispum CAWBG72, isolated in New Zealand. Each strain was previously reported to have a distinct paralytic shellfish toxin profile, a rare observation between strains within the same species. Sequencing of the saxitoxin biosynthetic clusters ( sxt) from S. crispum CAWBG524 and S...
October 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Ruiwen Cao, Dan Wang, Qianyu Wei, Qing Wang, Dinglong Yang, Hui Liu, Zhijun Dong, Xiaoli Zhang, Qianqian Zhang, Jianmin Zhao
Harmful algae blooms have expanded greatly in recent decades, and their secreted toxins pose a severe threat to human health and marine ecosystems. Saxitoxin (STX) is a main paralytic shellfish poison naturally produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium . Despite numerous studies have assessed the impacts of STX on marine bivalves, comparative in vivo study on the toxicity of STX on bivalves with distinct accumulation ability (such as oysters and scallops) has been seldom investigated. The aim of this study was to identify whether distinct sensitivity exists between oysters, Crassostrea gigas , and scallops, Chlamys farreri under the same amount of STX exposure using multiple biomarker responses...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
April L Lukowski, Duncan C Ellinwood, Meagan E Hinze, Ryan J DeLuca, J Du Bois, Sherwood Hall, Alison R H Narayan
The remarkable degree of synthetic selectivity found in Nature is exemplified by the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins such as saxitoxin. The polycyclic core shared by saxitoxin and its relatives is assembled and subsequently elaborated through the installation of hydroxyl groups with exquisite precision that is not possible to replicate with traditional synthetic methods. Here, we report the identification of the enzymes that carry out a subset of C-H functionalizations involved in paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis...
September 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Subhendu Chakraborty, Marina Pančić, Ken H Andersen, Thomas Kiørboe
Many species of phytoplankton produce toxins that may provide protection from grazing. In that case one would expect toxin production to be costly; else all species would evolve toxicity. However, experiments have consistently failed to show any costs. Here, we show that costs of toxin production are environment dependent but can be high. We develop a fitness optimization model to estimate rate, costs, and benefits of toxin production, using PST (paralytic shellfish toxin) producing dinoflagellates as an example...
August 14, 2018: ISME Journal
J Galindo, M Contreras, P Maldonado, F Torrealba, N Lagos, J L Valdés
BACKGROUND: Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) and related paralytics shellfish toxins has been successfully used as local anesthetic and muscle relaxants to treat a variety of ailments. The primary mechanism of action of these toxins occurs by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels with compounds such as TTX, lidocaine, or derivatives. However, most of these non-classical sodium channel blockers act with a reduced time effect as well as ensuing neurotoxicity. NEW METHOD: In this report, we show that the use of local NeoSTX injections inactivates the hippocampal neuronal activity reversibly with a by long-term dynamics, without neuronal damage...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
J Naouli, R Abouabdellah, A Bennouna, A Laissaoui, P W Swarzenski, H Ait Bouh, A Mesfioui, M-S Benbrahim, M-Y Dechraoui Bottein
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events occur regularly along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Morocco, and have been responsible for several severe cases of human intoxication. Along the southern Atlantic coast of Morocco, aquaculture and intensive artisanal fishing practices have recently been particularly heavily impacted, and toxic species have been observed in increasing intensity and frequency. In the 1990's a regulatory monitoring program was established for the coastal waters off Morocco by the National Institute of Fisheries Research (INRH), to reduce the risk of intoxication with biotoxins...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hongbo Li, Xinwei Wei, Chenlei Gu, Kaiqi Su, Hao Wan, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
Okadaic acid (OA) and saxitoxin (STX) are typical toxins of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), respectively, which are highly toxic marine toxins threatening human health and environmental safety. OA is a potent inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases that can cause cellular death, while STX is an inhibitor of sodium channel that can lead to neurological damage. In this work, a dual functional cardiomyocyte-based biosensor was proposed to detect DSP and PSP toxins by monitoring the viability and electrophysiology of cardiomyocytes...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Veronica Rey, Ana M Botana, Alvaro Antelo, Mercedes Alvarez, Luis M Botana
Although paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have traditionally been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization, and these methods have been validated successfully through inter-laboratory studies, mass spectrometry methods have also been described in literature for use in monitoring programs. However, methods using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) need to be improved in terms of sensitivity, analyte recovery and retention time stability because of undesirable matrix effects...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Natalia Vilariño, M Carmen Louzao, Paula Abal, Eva Cagide, Cristina Carrera, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Marine biotoxins are produced by aquatic microorganisms and accumulate in shellfish or finfish following the food web. These toxins usually reach human consumers by ingestion of contaminated seafood, although other exposure routes like inhalation or contact have also been reported and may cause serious illness. This review shows the current data regarding the symptoms of acute intoxication for several toxin classes, including paralytic toxins, amnesic toxins, ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, tetrodotoxins, diarrheic toxins, azaspiracids and palytoxins...
August 9, 2018: Toxins
Jennifer M Phillips, V Monica Bricelj, Maren Mitch, Robert M Cerrato, Scott MacQuarrie, Laurie B Connell
Blooms of Alexandrium spp., the causative agent of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), recur with varying frequency and intensity on the Northwest Atlantic coast of North America, from New York, USA, to northern Canadian waters. Along this latitudinal range blooms co-occur with abundant, intertidal populations of softshell clams, Mya arenaria. Prior work identified a naturally-occurring genetic mutation in Domain II α-subunit of the clams' voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV ), which significantly reduces the binding affinity of the paralytic shellfish toxin, saxitoxin (STX)...
September 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Marc Long, Kévin Tallec, Philippe Soudant, Christophe Lambert, Fabienne Le Grand, Géraldine Sarthou, Dianne Jolley, Hélène Hégaret
Harmful microalgal blooms are a threat to aquatic organisms, ecosystems and human health. Toxic dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins and to release bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with potent cytotoxic, hemolytic, ichtyotoxic and allelopathic activity. Negative allelochemical interactions refer to the chemicals that are released by the genus Alexandrium and that induce adverse effects on the physiology of co-occurring protists and predators. Releasing BECs gives the donor a competitive advantage that may help to form dense toxic blooms of phytoplankton...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Adam Michael Lewis, Lewis Nicholas Coates, Andrew D Turner, Linda Percy, Jane Lewis
Alexandrium minutum is a globally distributed harmful algal bloom species with many strains that are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and consequently represent a concern to human and ecosystem health. This review highlights that A. minutum typically occurs in sheltered locations, with cell growth occurring during periods of stable water conditions. Sediment characteristics are important in the persistence of this species within a location, with fine sediments providing cyst deposits for ongoing inoculation to the water column...
October 2018: Journal of Phycology
Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Alison O'Neill, Benjamin H Maskrey, Lewis Coates, Mickael Teixeira Alves, Rebecca J Kelly, Robert G Hatfield, Stephanie J Rowland-Pilgrim, Adam M Lewis, Myriam Algoet, Andrew D Turner
Official control biotoxin testing of bivalve molluscs from Great Britain has been conducted by Cefas for over a decade. Reflecting the changes in legislation, bioassays were gradually replaced by analytical methods, firstly for analysis of Paralytic shellfish toxins, followed by introduction of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LCMS/MS) method for lipophilic toxins (LTs) in 2011. Twelve compounds, representing three main groups of regulated lipophilic toxins, as well as two non-regulated cyclic imines were examined in over 20,500 samples collected between July 2011 and December 2016...
July 2018: Harmful Algae
Jiangbing Qiu, Cheryl Rafuse, Nancy I Lewis, Aifeng Li, Fanping Meng, Daniel G Beach, Pearse McCarron
The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium Halim has frequently been associated with harmful algal blooms. Although a number of species from this genus are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) and/or cyclic imines (CI), studies on comprehensive toxin profiling using techniques capable of detecting the full range of PST and CI analogues are limited. Isolates of Alexandrium spp. from Atlantic Canada were analyzed by targeted and untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Results showed a number of distinct profiles and wide ranging cell quotas of PST and spirolides (SPX) in both A...
July 2018: Harmful Algae
Federica Farabegoli, Lucía Blanco, Laura P Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Vieites, Ana García Cabado
Massive phytoplankton proliferation, and the consequent release of toxic metabolites, can be responsible for seafood poisoning outbreaks: filter-feeding mollusks, such as shellfish, mussels, oysters or clams, can accumulate these toxins throughout the food chain and present a threat for consumers' health. Particular environmental and climatic conditions favor this natural phenomenon, called harmful algal blooms (HABs); the phytoplankton species mostly involved in these toxic events are dinoflagellates or diatoms belonging to the genera Alexandrium , Gymnodinium , Dinophysis , and Pseudo-nitzschia ...
May 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
R M Coleman, G Ojeda-Torres, W Bragg, D Fearey, P McKinney, L Castrodale, D Verbrugge, K Stryker, E DeHart, M Cooper, E Hamelin, J Thomas, R C Johnson
A case of an elderly female with suspected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is presented. The patient shared a meal of recreationally-harvested shellfish with her family and soon began to experience nausea and weakness. She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory depression and shock. Her condition improved, and she was discharged from the hospital 6 days later. No others who shared the meal reported symptoms of PSP...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jiangbing Qiu, Fanping Meng, Ling Ding, Yijia Che, Pearse McCarron, Daniel G Beach, Aifeng Li
New C-11 hydroxyl metabolites of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been reported in shellfish. To gain further information on these metabolites, as well as the potential for formation of phase-II metabolites and acyl esters of PSTs, bivalves were fed with the PSTs-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum (strain ATHK). Through independent experiments, scallops (Chlamys farreri) were fed for 9 days and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for 5 days plus an additional 5 days of depuration, with representative samples taken throughout...
July 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Daniel G Beach, Elliott S Kerrin, Krista Thomas, Michael A Quilliam, Pearse McCarron
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE-MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
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