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interneuron plasticity

Lisa Topolnik, Olivier Camiré
Understanding of how intracellular calcium (Ca2+ ) signals regulate the efficacy of transmission at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) has been a focus of intense investigation. This review discusses recent findings on how Ca2+ signals are integrated in dendrites of inhibitory interneurons to regulate their synapses. In particular, Ca2+ signaling through intracellular Ca2+ release plays an essential role in synaptic signal transduction and experience-dependent plasticity in dendrites of interneurons...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Mary H Patton, Katherine E Padgett, Paige N McKeon, Shao-Gang Lu, Thomas W Abrams, Brian N Mathur
Decades of work in Aplysia californica established the general rule that principles of synaptic plasticity and their molecular mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved from mollusks to mammals. However, an exquisitely sensitive, activity-dependent homosynaptic mechanism that protects against the depression of neurotransmitter release in Aplysia sensory neuron terminals has, to date, not been uncovered in other animals, including mammals. Here, we discover that depression at a mammalian synapse that is implicated in habit formation and habit learning acceleration by ethanol, the fast-spiking interneuron (FSI) to medium spiny principal projection neuron (MSN) synapse of the dorsolateral striatum, is subject to this type of synaptic protection...
October 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
James D Ryan, Yan Zhou, Natalina H Contoreggi, Farah K Bshesh, Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Konrad T Ben, Bruce S McEwen, Mary Jeanne Kreek, Teresa A Milner
Although opioid addiction has risen dramatically, the role of gender in addiction has been difficult to elucidate. We previously found sex-dependent differences in the hippocampal opioid system of Sprague-Dawley rats that may promote associative learning relevant to drug abuse. The present studies show that although female and male rats acquired conditioned place preference (CPP) to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist oxycodone (3mg/kg, I.P.), hippocampal opioid circuits were differentially altered. In CA3, Leu-Enkephalin-containing mossy fibers had elevated levels in oxycodone CPP (Oxy) males comparable to those in females and sprouted in Oxy-females, suggesting different mechanisms for enhancing opioid sensitivity...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Atsuyoshi Shimada, Fumiaki Imamura
BACKGROUND: Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are olfactory disorders caused by inflammation of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses. Although chronic rhinosinusitis patients have smaller olfactory bulbs (OBs), there is limited knowledge regarding the influence of chronic nasal inflammation on OB neurons. OBJECTIVE: Repeated intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that induced persistent nasal inflammation in mice caused a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and gliosis and synaptic loss in the OB within three weeks...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Henk-Jan Boele, Saša Peter, Michiel M Ten Brinke, Lucas Verdonschot, Anna C H IJpelaar, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Zhenyu Gao, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw
Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning has been used extensively to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative and motor learning. During this simple learning task, memory formation takes place at Purkinje cells in defined areas of the cerebellar cortex, which acquire a strong temporary suppression of their activity during conditioning. Yet, it is unknown which neuronal plasticity mechanisms mediate this suppression. Two potential mechanisms include long-term depression of parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses and feed-forward inhibition by molecular layer interneurons...
October 2018: Science Advances
Camilo Ferrer, Helen Hsieh, Lonnie P Wollmuth
Parvalbumin-expressing (PV) GABAergic interneurons regulate local circuit dynamics. In terms of the excitation driving PV interneuron activity, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated component onto PV interneurons tends to be smaller than that onto pyramidal neurons, but makes a significant contribution to their physiology and development. In the visual cortex, PV interneurons mature during the critical period. We hypothesize that during the critical period the NMDAR-mediated signaling and functional properties of glutamatergic synapses onto PV interneurons are developmentally regulated...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Manuel F Casanova, Emily L Casanova
The recognition of discernible anatomical regularities that appear to self-organize during development makes apparent the modular organization of the cerebral cortex. The metabolic cost engendered in sustaining interneuronal communications has emphasized the viability of short connections among neighboring neurons. This pattern of connectivity establishes a microcircuit which is repeated in parallel throughout the cerebral cortex. This canonical circuit is contained within the smallest module of information processing of the cerebral cortex; one which Vernon Mountcastle called the minicolumn...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Natasha N Tirko, Katherine W Eyring, Ioana Carcea, Mariela Mitre, Moses V Chao, Robert C Froemke, Richard W Tsien
Oxytocin is an important neuromodulator in the mammalian brain that increases information salience and circuit plasticity, but its signaling mechanisms and circuit effect are not fully understood. Here we report robust oxytocinergic modulation of intrinsic properties and circuit operations in hippocampal area CA2, a region of emerging importance for hippocampal function and social behavior. Upon oxytocin receptor activation, CA2 pyramidal cells depolarize and fire bursts of action potentials, a consequence of phospholipase C signaling to modify two separate voltage-dependent ionic processes...
September 26, 2018: Neuron
D Rowlands, K K Lensjø, T Dinh, S Yang, M R Andrews, T Hafting, M Fyhn, J W Fawcett, G Dick
In the adult brain, the extracellular matrix (ECM) influences recovery after injury, susceptibility to mental disorders, and is in general a strong regulator of neuronal plasticity. The proteoglycan aggrecan is a core component of the condensed ECM structures termed perineuronal nets (PNNs), and the specific role of PNNs on neural plasticity remains elusive. Here, we genetically targeted the Acan gene encoding for aggrecan utilizing a novel animal model. This allowed for conditional and targeted loss of aggrecan in vivo , which ablated the PNN structure and caused a shift in the population of parvalbumin expressing inhibitory interneurons towards a high plasticity state...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Damien Testa, Alain Prochiantz, Ariel A Di Nardo
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the brain are condensed glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix structures with heterogeneous composition yet specific organization. They typically assemble around a subset of fast-spiking interneurons that are implicated in learning and memory. Owing to their unique structural organization, PNNs have neuroprotective capacities but also participate in signal transduction and in controlling neuronal activity and plasticity. In this review, we define PNN structure in detail and describe its various biochemical and physiological functions...
October 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Elisabeth Abs, Rogier B Poorthuis, Daniella Apelblat, Karzan Muhammad, M Belen Pardi, Leona Enke, Dahlia Kushinsky, De-Lin Pu, Max Ferdinand Eizinger, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Ivo Spiegel, Johannes J Letzkus
A wealth of data has elucidated the mechanisms by which sensory inputs are encoded in the neocortex, but how these processes are regulated by the behavioral relevance of sensory information is less understood. Here, we focus on neocortical layer 1 (L1), a key location for processing of such top-down information. Using Neuron-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (NDNF) as a selective marker of L1 interneurons (INs) and in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging, electrophysiology, viral tracing, optogenetics, and associative memory, we find that L1 NDNF-INs mediate a prolonged form of inhibition in distal pyramidal neuron dendrites that correlates with the strength of the memory trace...
September 15, 2018: Neuron
Gabriela Rodríguez, Darpan Chakraborty, Katrina M Schrode, Rinki Saha, Isabel Uribe, Amanda M Lauer, Hey-Kyoung Lee
Plasticity of thalamocortical (TC) synapses is robust during early development and becomes limited in the adult brain. We previously reported that a short duration of deafening strengthens TC synapses in the primary visual cortex (V1) of adult mice. Here, we demonstrate that deafening restores NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of TC synapses onto principal neurons in V1 layer 4 (L4), which is accompanied by an increase in NMDAR function. In contrast, deafening did not recover long-term depression (LTD) at TC synapses...
September 25, 2018: Cell Reports
Noemi Morello, Riccardo Schina, Federica Pilotto, Mary Phillips, Riccardo Melani, Ornella Plicato, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, Maurizio Giustetto
Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused in most cases by loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein 2 ( MECP2 ). Understanding the pathological processes impacting sensory-motor control represents a major challenge for clinical management of individuals affected by RTT, but the underlying molecular and neuronal modifications remain unclear. We find that symptomatic male Mecp2 knockout (KO) mice show atypically elevated parvalbumin (PV) expression in both somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices together with excessive excitatory inputs converging onto PV-expressing interneurons (INs)...
September 2018: ENeuro
Maral Tajerian, Victor Hung, Huy Nguyen, Gail Lee, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Andrey Victorovich Malkovskiy, Bende Zou, Simon Xie, Ting-Ting Huang, J David Clark
Chronic pain poses a heavy burden for the individual and society, comprising personal suffering, comorbid psychiatric symptoms, cognitive decline, and disability. Treatment options are poor due in large part to pain centralization, where an initial injury can result in lasting CNS maladaptations. Hippocampal cellular plasticity in chronic pain has become a focus of study due to its roles in cognition, memory, and the experience of pain itself. However, the extracellular alterations that parallel and facilitate changes in hippocampal function have not been addressed to date...
September 26, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Dominique Debanne, Yanis Inglebert, Michaël Russier
Long-term synaptic modification is not the exclusive mode of memory storage, and persistent regulation of voltage-gated ion channels also participates in memory formation. Intrinsic plasticity is expressed in virtually all neuronal types including principal cells and interneurons. Activation of synaptic glutamate receptors initiates long-lasting changes in neuronal excitability at presynaptic and postsynaptic side. As synaptic plasticity, intrinsic plasticity is bi-directional and expresses a certain level of input-specificity or cell-specificity...
September 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tianying Wang, Adya Saran Sinha, Tenpei Akita, Yuchio Yanagawa, Atsuo Fukuda
Exposure to prenatal stress (PS) and mutations in Gad1 , which encodes GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67, are the primary risk factors for psychiatric disorders associated with abnormalities in parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Decreased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins has also been reported in patients with these disorders, raising the possibility that ECM abnormalities may play a role in their pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Reed L Ressler, Stephen Maren
Over the years Pavlovian fear conditioning has proved to be a powerful model to investigate the neural underpinnings of aversive associative memory formation. Although it is well appreciated that plasticity occurring at excitatory synapses within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in associative memory formation, recent evidence suggests that plasticity within the amygdala is more distributed than previously appreciated. In particular, studies demonstrate that plasticity in the central nucleus (CeA) is critical for the acquisition of conditioned fear...
September 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Frank Ativie, Joanna A Komorowska, Eva Beins, Önder Albayram, Till Zimmer, Andreas Zimmer, Dario Tejera, Michael Heneka, Andras Bilkei-Gorzo
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, play important roles in defending the brain against pathogens and supporting neuronal circuit plasticity. Chronic or excessive pro-inflammatory responses of microglia damage neurons, therefore their activity is tightly regulated. Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor activity influences microglial activity, although microglial CB1 receptor expression is very low and activity-dependent. The CB1 receptor is mainly expressed on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS)-with an especially high level on GABAergic interneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Niels Niethard, Hong-Viet V Ngo, Ingrid Ehrlich, Jan Born
Slow oscillations and sleep spindles are hallmarks of the EEG during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Both oscillatory events, especially when co-occurring in the constellation of spindles nesting in the slow oscillation upstate, are considered to support memory formation and underlying synaptic plasticity. The regulatory mechanisms of this function at the circuit level are poorly understood. Here, using two-photon imaging in mice, we relate EEG-recorded slow oscillations and spindles to calcium signals recorded from the soma of cortical putative pyramidal-like (Pyr) cells and neighboring parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV-Ins) or somatostatin-positive interneurons (SOM-Ins)...
September 25, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Karri Lamsa, Petrina Lau
Formation of a cell assembly, a group of cortical neurons that function co-operatively to sustain an active memory trace, arises from changes in the connections between neurons. Establishment of memory traces is thought to rely on long-term plasticity in excitatory glutamatergic synapses interconnecting principal cells. In addition, recent studies in the hippocampus in vivo indicate that reconfiguration of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron activity also occurs during long-term memory encoding. Recent experiments in anesthetized, as well as in freely moving animals, demonstrate that learning-related hippocampal activities are associated with persistent changes in GABAergic interneuron firing rates and alterations in protein expression levels regulating GABA release...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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