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Jin Seok Seo, Hee Seung Yang, Suk Jung, Chang Soon Kang, Sunghun Jang, Dae Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: An assist-as-needed robot-assisted gait training protocol was recently developed. It allows active movement during training, but its exact criteria remain unknown. Asymmetric step length is a common abnormal gait pattern in hemiplegic stroke patients. We compared the effects of assist-as-needed robot-assisted gait training on the unaffected and affected limbs of hemiplegic stroke patients. METHOD: Twenty-four chronic stroke patients with asymmetric step lengths were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lauren Welte, Luke A Kelly, Glen A Lichtwark, Michael J Rainbow
The function of the human foot is described dichotomously as a compliant structure during mid-stance and a stiff lever during push-off. The arch-spring and the windlass mechanisms, respectively, describe each of these behaviours; however, their interaction has not been quantified to date. We hypothesized that by engaging the windlass mechanism with metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) dorsiflexion, we would observe stiffening of the arch and reduced energy absorption and dissipation during dynamic compressions of the foot...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Jeroen Aeles, Ilse Jonkers, Sofie Debaere, Christophe Delecluse, Benedicte Vanwanseele
The aim of this study was to compare young and adult sprinters on several biomechanical parameters that were previously highlighted as performance-related and to determine the behaviour of several muscle-tendon units (MTU) in the first stance phase following a block start in sprint running. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematic data were collected from 16 adult and 21 young well-trained sprinters. No difference between the groups was found in some of the previously highlighted performance-related parameters (ankle joint stiffness, the range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexor moment)...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hisato Toriyama, Junichi Ushiba, Junichi Ushiyama
In the field of psychology, it has been well established that there are two types of motor imagery such as kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) and visual motor imagery (VMI), and the subjective evaluation for vividness of motor imagery each differs across individuals. This study aimed to examine how the motor imagery ability assessed by the psychological scores is associated with the physiological measure using electroencephalogram (EEG) sensorimotor rhythm during KMI task. First, 20 healthy young individuals evaluated subjectively how vividly they can perform each of KMI and VMI by using the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Takamitsu Shimada, Kazutaka Ohi, Toshiki Yasuyama, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Motor conversion disorders are characterized by movement symptoms without a neurological cause. A psychogenic etiology is presumed for these disorders, but little is known about their underlying neural mechanisms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been utilized to understand the mechanisms associated with unexplained motor symptoms. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the cerebral response to motor stimulation in a patient with conversion disorder with motor paralysis to determine the underlying neural mechanisms of this disorder...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Hyun-Seung Rhyu, Hyun-Gu Han, Soung-Yob Rhi
Although many studies have focused on stretching techniques for athletes, no comprehensive studies have investigated the use of the instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) technique in young basketball players. The active properties of muscle and subjective reporting of functional ability were used to identify the effects of IASTM on the calf muscle. Active range of motion (AROM), functional fitness, and isokinetic lower strength in the knees and ankles were measured in 40 healthy young basketball players...
July 28, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Ana Carolina de Campos, Katharine E Alter, Theodore J Huppert, Diane L Damiano
Background: Evaluation of task-evoked cortical responses during movement has been limited in individuals with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP), despite documented alterations in brain structure/function and deficits in motor control. Objective: To systematically evaluate cortical activity associated with lower extremity tasks, and relate activation parameters to clinical measures in CP. Methods: 28 ambulatory participants (14 with bilateral CP and 14 with typical development) completed five motor tasks (non-dominant ankle dorsiflexion, hip flexion and leg cycling as well as bilateral dorsiflexion and cycling) in a block design while their sensorimotor cortex was monitored using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), in addition to laboratory and clinical measures of performance...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Luiz Alfredo Braun Ferreira, Veronica Cimolin, Hugo Pasini Neto, Luanda André Colange Grecco, Roberta Delasta Lazzari, Arislander Jonathan Lopes Dumont, Manuela Galli, Claudia Santos Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Recovering the ability to walk is an important goal of physical therapy for patients who have survived cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Orthotics can provide a reduction in plantar flexion of the ankle, leading to greater stability in the stance phase of the gait cycle. Postural insoles can be used to reorganize the tone of muscle chains, which exerts an influence on postural control through correction reflexes. The aim of the present study was to perform kinematic and spatiotemporal analyses of gait in stroke survivors with hemiparesis during postural insole usage...
July 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Sarah J Holmes, Anita J Mudge, Elizabeth A Wojciechowski, Matthias W Axt, Joshua Burns
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy are at risk of developing muscle contractures, often contributing to pain, structural deformities and mobility limitations. With the increasing use of gait indices to summarise the findings of three dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), the purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between multilevel joint contractures and the Gait Profile Score in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: The Gait Profile Score, calculated from 3D gait analysis, and passive range of motion, strength and spasticity of the hips, knees and ankles in the sagittal plane were measured in 145 children with cerebral palsy (mean age:11 years,4 months; SD:2 years,10 months) (83 males) enrolled in the NSW Paediatric Gait Analysis Service Research Registry from 2011 to 2016...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Alexander Ritz Mait, Jason Lee Forman, Bingbing Nie, John Paul Donlon, Adwait Mane, Ali Reza Forghani, Robert B Anderson, M Truitt Cooper, Richard W Kent
Background: Forced external rotation of the foot is a mechanism of ankle injuries. Clinical observations include combinations of ligament and osseous injuries, with unclear links between causation and injury patterns. By observing the propagation sequence of ankle injuries during controlled experiments, insight necessary to understand risk factors and potential mitigation measures may be gained. Hypothesis: Ankle flexion will alter the propagation sequence of ankle injuries during forced external rotation of the foot...
June 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Ashley Davis Lake, Heather Myers, Brett Aefsky, Robert Butler
Background: Dry needling (DN) has been established as an effective treatment for myofascial pain, however, there are no studies thus far investigating the benefit to movement and motor control. Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to compare differences in a series of outcomes between dry needling, dry needling and stretching, and stretching only in a sample of healthy males. A secondary purpose was to compare change over time. Design: Blinded, randomized controlled trial...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
A López-Valenciano, F Ayala, M De Ste Croix, D Barbado, F J Vera-Garcia
PURPOSE: To analyse the relationship between several parameters of neuromuscular performance with unilateral dynamic balance measured through the Y-Balance test, as well as to determine the possible sex-related differences. METHODS: The Y-Balance test, isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) knee flexion and extension strength, isometric hip abduction and adduction strength, lower extremity joint range of motion (ROM) (hip, knee and ankle) and core stability were assessed in male (n = 88) and female (n = 44) professional football players...
August 7, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Cory Messerschmidt, Anuj Netto, William R Barfield, Christopher Gross, William McKibbin
The effects of gastrocnemius recession on strength and function are underreported. This prospective study reports strength and functional effects after isolated gastrocnemius recession. Patients (n D 20) underwent an isolated gastrocnemius recession for foot and ankle conditions with associated gastrocnemius or gastrocnemius-soleus contracture. Eight patients prospectively underwent range of motion (ROM) and Biodex testing preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Foot Function Index (FFI) assessed functional outcomes...
2018: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
Ingrid Skaaret, Harald Steen, Terje Terjesen, Inger Holm
BACKGROUND: Different types of ankle-foot orthoses are commonly used following lower limb surgery in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. After three-dimensional gait analysis 1 year postoperatively, many children are recommended continued use of ankle-foot orthoses. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to quantify the impact of ankle-foot orthoses on gait 1 year postoperatively and evaluate predictors for clinically important improvement. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
August 7, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Laura E Stanley, Matthew Harkey, Brittney Luc-Harkey, Barnett S Frank, Brian Pietrosimone, J Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between ankle dorsiflexion (ankle-DF) displacement and knee and hip kinematics and kinetics during a jump-landing task in females following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Females (n = 23) with a history of unilateral ACLR (≥ 6-months post-ACLR) underwent a three-dimensional lower extremity biomechanical evaluation. Pearson Product Moment (r) correlations assessed associations between ankle-DF displacement and knee and hip kinematic and kinetic variables...
August 7, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Caleb T Sypkes, Benjamin J Kozlowski, Jordan Grant, Leah R Bent, Chris J McNeil, Geoffrey A Power
Background: Following active muscle lengthening, there is an increase in steady-state isometric force as compared with a purely isometric contraction at the same muscle length and level of activation. This fundamental property of skeletal muscle is known as residual force enhancement (RFE). While the basic mechanisms contributing to this increase in steady-state isometric force have been well documented, changes in central nervous system (CNS) excitability for submaximal contractions during RFE are unclear...
2018: PeerJ
Peter R Worsley, Caitlan Conington, Holly Stuart, Alice Patterson, Dan L Bader
Background: The ankle joint is a common site of musculoskeletal pathology. Measurement of its functional range of motion is a primary indicator for rehabilitation outcomes in therapy settings. The present study was designed to assess reliability and validity of a new standardised method using a D-Flex device to assess ankle range of motion. Methods: A cohort of 20 healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the weight-bearing ankle range of motion using three assessment tools, namely, a goniometer, inclinometer and the D-Flex measurement devices...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
D Sabbagh, J Fior, R Gentz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Omar Mutlak, Mohammed Aslam, Nigel J Standfield
OBJECTIVES: The real mechanism for the development of the later stages of chronic venous insufficiency still remains unclear. Venous hypervolemia and microvascular ischemia have been reported to be the consequences of venous insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of induced venous hypovolemia by dorsiflexion exercise in patients with venous leg ulcers. METHODS: Thirty-six participants, all of whom had an ankle brachial pressure index between 0...
August 1, 2018: Perfusion
Angelica Castilho Alonso, Guilherme Carlos Brech, Rita de Cássia Ernandes, Douglas Rodrigues, Sérgio Ayama, Alexandra Carolina Canonica, Natália Mariana Silva Luna, Sileno da Silva Santos, Luis Mochizuki, Mark Peterson, Luiz Eugênio Garcez-Leme, Júlia Maria D'Andréa Greve
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the extent of motor adaptation in ankle plantar flexors and dorsiflexors among older drivers during clinical isokinetic testing. METHODS: One hundred older adults (70.4±5.7 years) participated in two bilateral ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor isokinetic assessments at 30°/sec. Peak torque (PTQ), PTQ adjusted for body weight (PTQ/BW), and total work (TW) were analyzed. RESULTS: On the dominant side, PTQ/BW and TW were significantly greater for the second plantar flexion test than were those for the first such test (p<0...
July 26, 2018: Clinics
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