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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131713/vaccines-we-need-but-don-t-have
#1
Stanley A Plotkin
Vaccinations have had tremendous success in the 20th century. However, in the 21st century, we are facing complex immunological issues in relation to controlling underlying infectious diseases. Therefore, new technologies are needed to develop vaccines against infectious diseases like respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus. In addition, recent emerging infections have taught us that we must prepare preventative measures in advance using our scientific abilities.
November 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121998/circulating-brain-enriched-micrornas-as-novel-biomarkers-for-detection-and-differentiation-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Kira S Sheinerman, Jon B Toledo, Vladimir G Tsivinsky, David Irwin, Murray Grossman, Daniel Weintraub, Howard I Hurtig, Alice Chen-Plotkin, David A Wolk, Leo F McCluskey, Lauren B Elman, John Q Trojanowski, Samuil R Umansky
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive specific biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) would facilitate patient selection and disease progression monitoring. We describe the assessment of circulating brain-enriched microRNAs as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: In this case-control study, the plasma samples were collected from 250 research participants with a clinical diagnosis of AD, FTD, PD, and ALS, as well as from age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 50 for each group), recruited from 2003 to 2015 at the University of Pennsylvania Health System, including the Alzheimer's Disease Center, the Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center, the Frontotemporal Degeneration Center, and the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Clinic...
November 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119424/health-literacy-assessment-in-adults-with-neurofibromatosis-electronic-and-short-form-measurement-using-fcchl-and-health-litt
#3
Vanessa L Merker, Sarah McDannold, Eric Riklin, Mojtaba Talaei-Khoei, Monica R Sheridan, Justin T Jordan, Scott R Plotkin, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
Determining health literacy level is an important prerequisite for effective patient education. We assessed multiple dimensions of health literacy and sociodemographic predictors of health literacy in patients with neurofibromatosis. In 86 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), or schwannomatosis, we assessed health literacy status using two HL tools-the adapted functional, communicative, and critical health literacy scale (adapted FCCHL) and health literacy assessment using talking touchscreen technology (Health LiTT)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097016/volumetric-mri-analysis-of-plexiform-neurofibromas-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-comparison-of-two-methods
#4
Wenli Cai, Seth M Steinberg, Miriam A Bredella, Gina Basinsky, Bhanusupriya Somarouthu, Scott R Plotkin, Jeffrey Solomon, Brigitte C Widemann, Gordon J Harris, Eva Dombi
OBJECTIVES: Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are complex, histologically benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors that are challenging to measure by simple line measurements. Computer-aided volumetric segmentation of PN has become the recommended method to assess response in clinical trials directed at PN. Different methods for volumetric analysis of PN have been developed. The goal of this study is to test the level of agreement in volume measurements and in interval changes using two separate methods of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis...
October 30, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090397/outcomes-and-experiences-of-men-and-women-with-partner-notification-for-hiv-testing-in-tanzania-results-from-a-mixed-method-study
#5
Marya Plotkin, Catherine Kahabuka, Alice Christensen, Denice Ochola, Myra Betron, Mustafa Njozi, Werner Maokola, Renatus Kisendy, Erick Mlanga, Kelly Curran, Mary Drake, Eusebi Kessy, Vincent Wong
A growing evidence base supports expansion of partner notification in HIV testing services (HTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Njombe region, Tanzania, to evaluate partner notification within facility-based HTS. Men and women newly diagnosed with HIV were enrolled as index clients and asked to list current or past sexual partners for referral to HTS. Successful partner referral was 2.5 times more likely among married compared to unmarried index clients and 2.2 times more likely among male compared to female index clients...
October 31, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070028/riboviz-analysis-and-visualization-of-ribosome-profiling-datasets
#6
Oana Carja, Tongji Xing, Edward W J Wallace, Joshua B Plotkin, Premal Shah
BACKGROUND: Using high-throughput sequencing to monitor translation in vivo, ribosome profiling can provide critical insights into the dynamics and regulation of protein synthesis in a cell. Since its introduction in 2009, this technique has played a key role in driving biological discovery, and yet it requires a rigorous computational toolkit for widespread adoption. DESCRIPTION: We have developed a database and a browser-based visualization tool, riboviz, that enables exploration and analysis of riboseq datasets...
October 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068311/three-components-missing-in-many-population-management-strategies
#7
Jack Plotkin
Many PHM strategies fall short because they fail to address three critical components that relate to patient-centeredness: patient-centered education, patient-centered social indicators, and patient-centered technology. Each of these three components is absolutely essential for population health strategies to work.
September 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057205/micrornas-and-connexins-in-bone-interaction-and-mechanisms-of-delivery
#8
Lilian I Plotkin, Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Hannah M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current knowledge on the cross-talk between connexins and microRNAs (miRs) in bone cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins play a crucial role on bone development and maintenance, and disruptions in their abundance or localization can affect how bone perceives and responds to mechanical, hormonal, and pharmacological stimuli. Connexin expression can be modified by miRs, which modulate connexin mRNA and protein levels. Recently, different manners by which miRs and connexins can interact in bone have been identified, including mechanisms that mediate miR exchange between cells in direct contact through gap junctions, or between distant cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056226/a-dementia-associated-risk-variant-near-tmem106b-alters-chromatin-architecture-and-gene-expression
#9
Michael D Gallagher, Marijan Posavi, Peng Huang, Travis L Unger, Yosef Berlyand, Analise L Gruenewald, Alessandra Chesi, Elisabetta Manduchi, Andrew D Wells, Struan F A Grant, Gerd A Blobel, Christopher D Brown, Alice S Chen-Plotkin
Neurodegenerative diseases pose an extraordinary threat to the world's aging population, yet no disease-modifying therapies are available. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of risk loci for neurodegeneration, the mechanisms by which these loci influence disease risk are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the association between common genetic variants at the 7p21 locus and risk of the neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal lobar degeneration. We showed that variants associated with disease risk correlate with increased expression of the 7p21 gene TMEM106B and no other genes; co-localization analyses implicated a common causal variant underlying both association with disease and association with TMEM106B expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines and human brain...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046308/progress-toward-development-of-a-vaccine-against-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#10
Mark R Schleiss, Sallie R Permar, Stanley A Plotkin
A vaccine against congenital human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. Congenital CMV causes substantial long-term morbidity in newborns, particularly sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and the public health impact of this infection on maternal and child health is under-recognized. Although progress toward development of a vaccine has been limited by an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protective immunity for the fetus, knowledge about some of the key components of the maternal immune response necessary for preventing trans-placental transmission is accumulating...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045393/molecular-evolution-no-escape-from-the-tangled-bank
#11
Joshua B Plotkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040184/proceedings-from-the-1st-international-conference-current-concepts-and-controversies-in-gynecologic-and-urologic-oncology
#12
Olga Matylevich, Sergey Mavrichev, Andrei Pletnev, Alesya Evmenenko, Aleksey Shevchuk, Valentina Suslova, Sergey Taranenko, Elena Dolomanova, Dmitry Rovsky, Anna Portyanko, Jubilee Brown, Robert Wendel Naumann, Kathleen Schmeler, Anna Plotkin, Sophia Michaelson, Mary Eiken, Edward Trimble, Thomas Randall
The N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus organized a collaborative international conference entitled 'Current Concepts and Controversies in Gynecologic and Urologic Oncology' with the International Gynecologic Cancer Society and the United States National Cancer Institute. International, regional, and national experts presented recent developments and local conditions in the treatment of gynecologic cancers. Findings were reviewed with the intent of optimizing the management of women with gynecologic cancers across the Commonwealth of Independent States region...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019082/loss-of-the-nutrient-sensor-tas1r3-leads-to-reduced-bone-resorption
#13
Michael S Eaton, Nicholas Weinstein, Jordan B Newby, Maggie M Plattes, Hanna E Foster, Jon W Arthur, Taylor D Ward, Stephen R Shively, Ryann Shor, Justin Nathan, Hannah M Davis, Lilian I Plotkin, Eric M Wauson, Brian J Dewar, Aaron Broege, Jonathan W Lowery
The taste receptor type 1 (TAS1R) family of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors participates in monitoring energy and nutrient status. TAS1R member 3 (TAS1R3) is a bi-functional protein that recognizes amino acids such as L-glycine and L-glutamate or sweet molecules such as sucrose and fructose when dimerized with TAS1R member 1 (TAS1R1) or TAS1R member 2 (TAS1R2), respectively. It was recently reported that deletion of TAS1R3 expression in Tas1R3 mutant mice leads to increased cortical bone mass but the underlying cellular mechanism leading to this phenotype remains unclear...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018138/endotoxin-preconditioning-reprograms-s1-tubules-and-macrophages-to-protect-the-kidney
#14
Takashi Hato, Amy Zollman, Zoya Plotkin, Tarek M El-Achkar, Bernhard F Maier, S Louise Pay, Shataakshi Dube, Pablo Cabral, Momoko Yoshimoto, Jeanette McClintick, Pierre C Dagher
Preconditioning with a low dose of endotoxin confers unparalleled protection against otherwise lethal models of sepsis. The mechanisms of preconditioning have been investigated extensively in isolated immune cells such as macrophages. However, the role of tissue in mediating the protective response generated by preconditioning remains unknown. Here, using the kidney as a model organ, we investigated cell type-specific responses to preconditioning. Compared with preadministration of vehicle, endotoxin preconditioning in the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model of sepsis led to significantly enhanced survival and reduced bacterial load in several organs...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956734/coronary-artery-disease-analysis-of-diagnostic-performance-of-ct-perfusion-and-mr-perfusion-imaging-in-comparison-with-quantitative-coronary-angiography-and-spect-multicenter-prospective-trial
#15
Matthias Rief, Marcus Y Chen, Andrea L Vavere, Benjamin Kendziora, Julie M Miller, W Patricia Bandettini, Christopher Cox, Richard T George, João Lima, Marcelo Di Carli, Michail Plotkin, Elke Zimmermann, Michael Laule, Peter Schlattmann, Andrew E Arai, Marc Dewey
Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of stress myocardial computed tomography (CT) perfusion with that of stress myocardial magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods All patients gave written informed consent prior to inclusion in this institutional review board-approved study. This two-center substudy of the prospective Combined Noninvasive Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using 320-Detector Row Computed Tomography (CORE320) multicenter trial included 92 patients (mean age, 63...
September 25, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951169/attenuation-of-antimicrobial-activity-by-the-human-steroid-hormones
#16
Balbina J Plotkin, Monika I Konakieva
Upon entering the human host, Staphylococcus aureus is exposed to endogenous steroid hormones. The interaction between S. aureus and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) results in an increased resistance to the host cationic defense peptide, β-1 defensin, as well as vancomycin and other antibiotics that have a positive charge. The increased resistance to vancomycin is phenotypic and appears to correlate with a DHEA-mediated alteration in cell surface architecture. DHEA-mediated cell surface changes include alterations in: cell surface charge, surface hydrophobicity, capsule production, and carotenoid production...
September 23, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922167/statins-and-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Benjamin L Deck, Jacqueline Rick, Sharon X Xie, Alice Chen-Plotkin, John E Duda, James F Morley, Lana M Chahine, Nabila Dahodwala, John Q Trojanowski, Daniel Weintraub
BACKGROUND: The relationship between statins and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Analyses were performed to determine associations between statin use and cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive performance in PD. METHODS: Neuropsychological tests, medication logs, and ratings of functional abilities were collected from 313 PD participants longitudinally. RESULTS: At baseline, statin users (SU; N = 129) were older, more likely male, and had shorter PD duration than non-statin users (NSU; N = 184)...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911884/anti-vegf-treatment-improves-neurological-function-in-tumors-of-the-nervous-system
#18
REVIEW
Na Zhang, Jie Chen, Gino Ferraro, Limeng Wu, Meenal Datta, Rakesh K Jain, Scott R Plotkin, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Lei Xu
Research of various diseases of the nervous system has shown that VEGF has direct neuroprotective effects in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and indirect effects on improving neuronal vessel perfusion which leads to nerve protection. In the tumors of the nervous system, VEGF plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor progression. The effect of anti-VEGF treatment on nerve protection and function has been recently reported - by normalizing the tumor vasculature, anti-VEGF treatment is able to relieve nerve edema and deliver oxygen more efficiently into the nerve, thus reducing nerve damage and improving nerve function...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910378/neuroinflammation-myelin-and-behavior-temporal-patterns-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#19
Toufik Taib, Claire Leconte, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Angelo H Cho, Bruno Palmier, Egle Torsello, Rene Lai Kuen, Somfieme Onyeomah, Karine Ecomard, Chiara Benedetto, Bérard Coqueran, Anne-Catherine Novak, Edwige Deou, Michel Plotkine, Pierre Gressens, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Valérie C Besson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in white matter injury (WMI) that is associated with neurological deficits. Neuroinflammation originating from microglial activation may participate in WMI and associated disorders. To date, there is little information on the time courses of these events after mild TBI. Therefore we investigated (i) neuroinflammation, (ii) WMI and (iii) behavioral disorders between 6 hours and 3 months after mild TBI. For that purpose, we used experimental mild TBI in mice induced by a controlled cortical impact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906025/vitamin-d-in-the-parkinson-associated-risk-syndrome-pars-study
#20
Michelle E Fullard, Sharon X Xie, Ken Marek, Matthew Stern, Danna Jennings, Andrew Siderowf, Allison W Willis, Alice S Chen-Plotkin
BACKGROUND: Lower vitamin D levels have been associated with manifest Parkinson's disease, prompting the hypothesis that vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency may increase risk for PD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vitamin D levels in a population at risk for developing PD. METHODS: Plasma vitamin D levels were measured in the Parkinson Associated Risk Syndrome Study, a cohort of asymptomatic individuals, some of whom are at high risk for PD. Vitamin D levels were compared between subjects at high risk for PD (hyposmia and dopamine transporter scan deficit) versus all others and examined for correlations with dopaminergic system integrity...
September 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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