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Dietary Fats

Min Wen, Bing Wu, Hua Zhao, Guangmang Liu, Xiaoling Chen, Gang Tian, Jingyi Cai, Gang Jia
This study investigated the effects of dietary zinc on carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and tissue zinc accumulation of Pekin ducks. A total of 768 1-day-old Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments and penned in groups of 16 with 8 pens per treatment. Ducks were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with graded levels of zinc sulfate (0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 mg zinc/kg) for 35 days. The slaughter weight, carcass weight, eviscerated weight, and breast and leg muscle weight of Pekin ducks were increased with increasing dietary zinc levels (P < 0...
October 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Miriam J E Urlings, Bram Duyx, Gerard M H Swaen, Lex M Bouter, Maurice P A Zeegers
OBJECTIVE: Balanced citations are a necessary condition for a sound development of scientific knowledge, whereas selective citations may bias scientific consensus. In this study, we assess which determinants influenced the likelihood of being cited in the literature on trans fatty acids and cholesterol. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a citation network analysis of the literature concerning trans fats and LDL- and HDL-cholesterol. Each publication was scored on various potential determinants of citation, such as study outcome, study design, sample size, journal impact factor and funding source...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Yu-Han Hung, Kimberly K Buhman
Enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, mediate the process of dietary fat absorption by secreting triacylglycerol (TAG) into circulation. When levels of dietary fat are high, TAG is stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) and sequentially hydrolyzed for ultimate secretion. Mice with deficiency in acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1-/- mice) were previously reported to have a reduced rate of intestinal TAG secretion and abnormal TAG accumulation in enterocyte CLDs. This unique intestinal phenotype is critical to their resistance to diet-induced obesity; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
October 17, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
Lin Yan, Sneha Sundaram
A high energy intake contributes to obesity, a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that an excessive intake of dietary fat enhances malignant spread in mice. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of a diet with an excessive amount of sucrose enhances metastasis. In a spontaneous metastasis model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), male C57BL/6 mice were maintained on an AIN93G, a high-fat, or a high-sucrose diet for the duration of the study. Pulmonary metastases from a primary tumor, established by a subcutaneous injection of LLC cells, were quantified...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Manami Saito, Julia Aoyama, Mohamed Elfeky, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
Dietary supplementation with melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) has been proposed as an anti-obesity strategy. However, it remains unclear how MSE modulates energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary MSE reduces energy intake and/or increases physical activity and metabolic thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) in mice. Twenty-four C57BL/6 J mice were provided with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 1% MSE added, for 17 weeks. Food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Naomi Yoshii, Koji Sato, Riki Ogasawara, Yusuke Nishimura, Yasushi Shinohara, Satoshi Fujita
Dietary protein intake is critical for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Plasma amino acid concentrations increase with protein intake and increases in muscle protein synthesis are dependent on leucine concentrations. We aimed to investigate the effect of a mixed meal and free amino acids intake on plasma leucine concentrations. In this randomized crossover study, 10 healthy young men (age 25 ± 1 years, height 1.73 ± 0.02 m, weight 65.8 ± 1.5 kg) underwent tests under different conditions-intake of 2 g of leucine (LEU), intake of a mixed meal (protein 27...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Michael J Gibney, Susan I Barr, France Bellisle, Adam Drewnowski, Sisse Fagt, Sinead Hopkins, Barbara Livingstone, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Luis Moreno, Jessica Smith, Florent Vieux, Frank Thielecke, Gabriel Masset
The International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI) set out to derive nutritional recommendations for a balanced breakfast using a standardized analysis of national nutrition surveys from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, UK and the US. In all countries, the frequency of breakfast consumption by age was high and U-shaped with children and older adults having a higher frequency of breakfast consumption. Breakfast contributed 16% to 21% of daily energy intake. In all countries, breakfast was a carbohydrate- and nutrient-rich meal, providing more carbohydrates (including sugars), thiamin, riboflavin, folate, calcium, potassium, and magnesium, and less vitamin A, fats and sodium relative to its contribution to daily energy intakes...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Vishal Singh, Beng San Yeoh, Benoit Chassaing, Xia Xiao, Piu Saha, Rodrigo Aguilera Olvera, John D Lapek, Limin Zhang, Wei-Bei Wang, Sijie Hao, Michael D Flythe, David J Gonzalez, Patrice D Cani, Jose R Conejo-Garcia, Na Xiong, Mary J Kennett, Bina Joe, Andrew D Patterson, Andrew T Gewirtz, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Dietary soluble fibers are fermented by gut bacteria into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are considered broadly health-promoting. Accordingly, consumption of such fibers ameliorates metabolic syndrome. However, incorporating soluble fiber inulin, but not insoluble fiber, into a compositionally defined diet, induced icteric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Such HCC was microbiota-dependent and observed in multiple strains of dysbiotic mice but not in germ-free nor antibiotics-treated mice. Furthermore, consumption of an inulin-enriched high-fat diet induced both dysbiosis and HCC in wild-type (WT) mice...
October 18, 2018: Cell
Jian Zhang, Shengjie Tan, Ai Zhao, Meichen Wang, Peiyu Wang, Yumei Zhang
AIM: To investigate the association between patterns of nutrient intake and serum lipids in Chinese women aged 18-80 years. METHODS: In the present study, cross-sectional data were analysed from 2886 female participants aged 18-80 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey wave 2009. Nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis combined with cluster analysis based on the data of nutrient intake for three consecutive days. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of nutrient patterns with serum lipids...
October 19, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Karin E Sandoval, Joshua S Wooten, Mathew P Harris, Megan L Schaller, David S Umbaugh, Ken A Witt
Background: Diet-mediated alterations of critical brain nutrient transporters, major facilitator super family domain-containing 2a (Mfsd2a) and glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), have wide reaching implications in brain health and disease. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of long-term low- and high-fat diets with lard or fish oil on critical brain nutrient transporters, Mfsd2a and Glut1. Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 wk: 10% of kcal from lard, 10% of kcal from fish oil, 41% of kcal from lard, or 41% of kcal from fish oil...
October 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Cristina Oana Mǎrginean, Claudiu Mǎrginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ
Introduction: Childhood obesity is occurring at alarming rates in both developed and developing countries. "Obesogenic" environmental factors must be associated with variants of different risk alleles to determine polygenic or common obesity, and their impact depends on different developmental stages.The interaction between obesogenic environment and genetic susceptibility results in the so-called polygenic forms of obesity. In contrast, monogenic and syndromic obesity are not influenced by environmental events...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
S T Rashid, N J Haywood, N Y Yuldasheva, J Smith, A Aziz, D J A Scott, M T Kearney, S B Wheatcroft
Introduction: Preservation of structural integrity of the endothelial monolayer and maintenance of endothelial cell function are of critical importance in preventing arterial thrombosis, restenosis and atherosclerosis. Obesity has been intimately linked with endothelial dysfunction, and reports of reduced abundance and functional impairment of circulating progenitor cells in obesity have led to the suggestion that defective endothelial repair contributes to obesity-related cardiovascular disease...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Margie H Davenport, Victoria L Meah, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Gregory A Davies, Rachel J Skow, Nick Barrowman, Kristi B Adamo, Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Frances Sobierajski, Laurel Riske, Marina James, Amariah J Kathol, Megan Nuspl, Andree-Anne Marchand, Taniya S Nagpal, Linda G Slater, Ashley Weeks, Ruben Barakat, Michelle F Mottola
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the relationship between maternal prenatal exercise and birth complications, and neonatal and childhood morphometric, metabolic and developmental outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of all designs were eligible (except case studies and reviews) if published in English, Spanish or French, and contained information on the relevant population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), intervention (subjective/objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise, alone ('exercise-only') or in combination with other intervention components (eg, dietary; 'exercise+cointervention')), comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume, type or trimester of exercise) and outcomes (preterm birth, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, low birth weight (<2500 g), high birth weight (>4000 g), small for gestational age, large for gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis (cord blood pH, base excess), hyperbilirubinaemia, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admittance, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, neonatal body composition (per cent body fat, body weight, body mass index (BMI), ponderal index), childhood obesity (per cent body fat, body weight, BMI) and developmental milestones (including cognitive, psychosocial, motor skills))...
November 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Che Anishas Che Idris, Kalyana Sundram, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
Heating oils and fats for a considerable length of time results in chemical reactions, leading to the aggravation of a free radical processes, which ultimately contributes to atherosclerosis. Our study focused on elucidating the effect of feeding heated oils with or without dietary cholesterol on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. We heated palm olein and corn oil at 180 °C for 18 h and 9 h per day, respectively, for two consecutive days. Next, 20 male rabbits were divided into four groups and fed the following diet for 12 weeks: (i) heated palm olein (HPO); (ii) HPO with cholesterol (HPOC); (iii) heated corn oil (HCO); and (iv) HCO with cholesterol (HCOC)...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Deborah J Bowen, Jennifer M Jabson, Wendy E Barrington, Alyson J Littman, Donald L Patrick, Anne Vernez Moudon, Denise Albano, Shirley A A Beresford
The objective of this effort is to gather data to tailor interventions appropriately. Greater understanding of the correlates of socioeconomic status and obesogenic dietary behaviors was the focus of this manuscript. Using multistage sampling, women with varied education levels completed a baseline assessment in a longitudinal study of women aged 30 to 50 years. This study was conducted in low-SES areas of South King County, Washington State. This study included 530 Caucasian and 510 Hispanic women. Fruit and vegetable consumption was positively associated and soft drink consumption inversely associated with the level of education in Caucasian women...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bruce A Griffin, Celia G Walker, Susan A Jebb, Carmel Moore, Gary S Frost, Louise Goff, Tom A B Sanders, Fiona Lewis, Margaret Griffin, Rachel Gitau, Julie A Lovegrove
We examined the impact of APOE genotype on plasma lipids and glucose in a secondary analysis of data from a five-arm, randomised controlled, parallel dietary intervention trial ('RISCK' study), to investigate the impact of replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with either monounsaturated fat (MUFA) or carbohydrate of high or low glycaemic index (GI) on CVD risk factors and insulin sensitivity. We tested the impact of APOE genotype (carriage of E2 and E4 alleles versus E3/E3), determined retrospectively, on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and glucose homeostasis at baseline ( n = 469), and on the change in these variables after 24 weeks of dietary intervention ( n = 389)...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Audrey Machado Dos Reis, Ana Valéria Fruchtenicht, Sérgio Henrique Loss, Luis Fernando Moreira
To meet the nutritional requirements of patients admitted to intensive care units, it is necessary to establish a diet schedule. Complications associated with enteral nutrition by tube feeding are not uncommon and may reduce the delivery of required nutrient to patients in intensive care units. Research on the osmolality, fat content, caloric intensity and fiber content of formulas are under way, and a substantial number of studies have focused on fiber content tolerability or symptom reduction. We conducted a systematic review of dietary fiber use and safety in critically ill patients in 8 studies based on diarrhea, other gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal distension, gastric residual volume, vomiting and constipation), intestinal microbiota, length of stay in the intensive care unit and death...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Osama Hamdy, Mhd Wael Tasabehji, Taha Elseaidy, Shaheen Tomah, Sahar Ashrafzadeh, Adham Mottalib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of combined obesity and diabetes has increased dramatically in the last few decades. Although medical and surgical weight management are variably effective in addressing this epidemic, it is essential to parallel these strategies with a hypocaloric diet comprising the appropriate macronutrient composition to induce weight loss, enhance glycemic control, and improve cardiovascular risk factors. This review reports the current evidence of the role of carbohydrates and fat-based diets for weight management in patients with combined type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity...
October 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Yael Latzer, Adi Elron Yutal, Miri Givon, Orna Kabakov, Sigal Alon, Nehama Zuckerman-Levin, Michal Rozenstain-Hason, Orna Tzischinsky
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare dietary patterns (timing and frequency of binge episodes, caloric intake and macronutrient composition) of patients with binge eating disorders (BE) with and without night eating syndrome (NES). DESIGN: The study includes 59 women (18-60) who sought treatment for Eating Disorders (EDs) and were diagnosed with BED or BN (BE) with or without NES. They were divided into two groups: NES-BE and BE-only. The participants kept 7-day, 24-h food diaries and completed demographic and depression questionnaires...
October 16, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Jiaomei Li, Kelei Li, Jinlong Gao, Xiaofei Guo, Mengqing Lu, Zihao Li, Duo Li
Maternal exposure to dietary factors during pregnancy influences the risk of many adult-onset diseases in the later life of offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet on breast cancer risk of female offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (control group), or a high-fat diet rich in safflower oil (SO), fish oil (FO) or flaxseed oil (FSO) (n = 10) throughout gestation and lactation. Their female offspring were fed an AIN-93G diet from weaning...
October 17, 2018: Food & Function
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