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Dietary Fats

Brett McGettigan, Rachel McMahan, David Orlicky, Matthew Burchill, Thomas Danhorn, Prashanth Francis, Lin Ling Cheng, Lucy Golden-Mason, Claudia Jakubzick, Hugo Rosen
A crucial component of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis is lipid stress, which may contribute to hepatic inflammation and activation of innate immunity in the liver. However, little is known regarding how dietary lipids, including fat and cholesterol, may facilitate innate immune activation in vivo. We hypothesized that dietary fat and cholesterol drive NAFLD progression to steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis by altering the transcription and phenotype of hepatic macrophages METHODS: This hypothesis was tested by using RNA-seq methods to characterize and analyze sort-purified hepatic macrophage populations that were isolated from mice fed diets with varying amounts of fat and cholesterol RESULTS: The addition of cholesterol to a high fat diet triggered hepatic pathology reminiscent of advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans characterized by signs of cholesterol dysregulation, generation of oxidized LDL, increased recruitment of hepatic macrophages, and significant fibrosis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Fabio Ciccarone, Serena Castelli, Laura Ioannilli, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
SCOPE: Epigenetic aberrations caused by environmental factors and lifestyle choices have been associated with the development of a number of pathologies including cardiovascular disorders. However, whether obesity-related heart dysfunction can occur via epigenetic mechanisms is largely undisclosed. The manifested role of DNA hydroxymethylation in heart pathophysiology prompted us to investigate its levels/machinery in heart of mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its possible relation with genes linked to obesity-associated cardiac remodelling...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xuezhuang Wu, Sifa Dai, Jinling Hua, Hong Hu, Shujuan Wang, Aiyou Wen
A 42-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary copper (Cu) concentrations on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum parameters in broilers aged from 1 to 42 days. Five hundred forty 1-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 1 of the following 6 dietary treatments: (1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu), (2) 15 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu15), (3) 30 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu30), (4) 60 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu60), (5) 120 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu120), and (6) 240 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu240), Cu as copper methionine...
December 4, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Lediya T Cheru, Elli A Park, Charles F Saylor, Tricia H Burdo, Kathleen V Fitch, Sara Looby, Jeffrey Weiner, Jake A Robinson, Jane Hubbard, Martin Torriani, Janet Lo
Background: Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) has been shown to be a marker of intestinal damage among people living with HIV. We hypothesized that I-FABP would be increased in chronically HIV-infected patents more than elite controllers and would relate to specific nutrient intake and body composition. Methods: In an observational study, serum I-FABP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anthropometric measurements, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-slice abdominal computed tomography were obtained to assess body composition, as well as visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas (VAT and SAT)...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Farzad Amirabdollahian, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost
Frequently reported poor dietary habits of young adults increase their risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Excess adiposity is the most established predictor of MetS, and numerous anthropometric measures have been proposed as proxy indicators of adiposity. We aimed to assess prevalence of MetS in young adult population and to make comparison between weight- and shape-oriented measures of adiposity to identify the best index in association with measured body fat and as a risk predictor for MetS. Healthy males and females aged 18-25 years from the Northwest of England were recruited using convenience sampling ( n =550)...
2018: Journal of Obesity
David Rogerson, Diana Maçãs, Marianne Milner, Yingshan Liu, Markos Klonizakis
The Mediterranean diet has been shown to improve cardiovascular health. Vegan diets have demonstrated similar benefits, albeit in fewer studies. In a comparative pilot study, we compared the effects of a short-term Mediterranean Diet (MD) and Vegan Diet (VD) on microvascular function and cholesterol levels in a healthy population. Twenty-four young (aged 18 to 35 years) healthy volunteers followed a four-week intervention (MD = 12; VD = 12) ad libitum. Pre and post-intervention anthropometrics, microvascular function (assessed via LDF and expressed as raw CVC and %CVC MAX), dietary-analysis data (Calories, Protein, Carbohydrates, Total Fat, Saturated Fat, Fibre), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) and TC:HDL-C were compared...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Matylda Czosnykowska-Łukacka, Barbara Królak-Olejnik, Magdalena Orczyk-Pawiłowicz
Human milk (HM) is the first dietary exposure in infancy and the best nutritional option for growth and healthy development of the newborn and infant. The concentrations of macronutrients, namely proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, change during lactation stages. HM has been studied extensively in the first 6 months of lactation, but there are limited data regarding milk composition beyond 1 or 2 years postpartum. The aim of our study was to describe longitudinal changes in HM macronutrient concentrations during the prolonged lactation of healthy mothers from the 1st to the 48th month...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Roy Chris Skinner, Derek C Warren, Soofia N Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
Apple pomace, which is a waste byproduct of processing, is rich in several nutrients, particularly dietary fiber, indicating potential benefits for diseases that are attributed to poor diets, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD affects over 25% of United States population and is increasing in children. Increasing fruit consumption can influence NAFLD. The study objective was to replace calories in standard or Western diets with apple pomace to determine the effects on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and on risk of NAFLD...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Amy Taetzsch, Sai Krupa Das, Carrie Brown, Amy Krauss, Rachel E Silver, Susan B Roberts
Gluten-free (GF) eating patterns are frequently perceived to be healthier than gluten-containing (GC) ones, but there has been very little research to evaluate this viewpoint. The effect of GF eating patterns on dietary composition was assessed using two independent approaches. One approach compared macronutrients and typical shortfall nutrients between MyPlate example menus developed with either GC or equivalent GF foods. In this analysis, the GF menus were significantly lower in protein, magnesium, potassium, vitamin E, folate, and sodium ( p = 0...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Renate Luzía Barbosa-Yañez, Ulrike Dambeck, Linna Li, Jürgen Machann, Stefan Kabisch, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM). The causes are embedded in a complex interplay between excess body fat, insulin resistance and serum lipid anomalies. Endothelial homeostasis is strongly affected by this pathogenic network. Even though metabolic changes and weight loss improve vascular endothelial function, the effect of different dietary approaches is still uncertain for type 2 diabetes patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the acute effects of a hypocaloric very low carbohydrate (VLC) diet versus a hypocaloric low fat (LF) diet on flow mediated dilation (FMD), intrahepatic lipid (IHL) accumulation and visceral adipose tissue as independent risk factors of CVD in T2DM patients...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Javier Amézaga, Sara Arranz, Ander Urruticoechea, Gurutze Ugartemendia, Aitziber Larraioz, Maria Louka, Matxalen Uriarte, Carla Ferreri, Itziar Tueros
The fatty acid (FA) composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids of cancer patients can reflect tumor status, dietary intakes, and cancer type or therapy. However, the characteristic membrane profiles have so far not yet defined as a potential biomarker to monitor disease evolution. The present work provides the first evidence of cancer metabolic signatures affecting cell membranes that are independent of nutritional habits. From the Oncology Outpatient Unit of the Onkologikoa hospital, two groups of cancer patients ( n = 54) and healthy controls ( n = 37) were recruited, and mature RBCs membrane phospholipids were analyzed for FA profiling (GC-MS)...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Guoqing Wu, Yanan Wang, Yuhui Yang, Yonghui Shi, Jin Sun, Yunchong Xu, Tingyu Luo, Guowei Le
SCOPE: Dietary methionine restriction (MR) promotes multi-faceted health benefits. Moreover, lower rate of protein synthesis by dietary MR is associated with life span extension. The goal of this work is to explore how dietary MR would affect protein metabolism in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO). METHODS AND RESULTS: DIO mice (male C57BL/6) were subjected to dietary MR for 22 weeks. High-throughput sequencing technology, qRT-PCR analysis, and the dual luciferase reporter assay were performed to verify that MiR-328-3p directly targets cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) to modulate endogenous H2 S production...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Taylor C Wallace, Scott Bultman, Chris D'Adamo, Carrie R Daniel, Justine Debelius, Emily Ho, Heather Eliassen, Dawn Lemanne, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried, Qiang Tian, Linda T Vahdat
Cancer is a major public health problem and is the second leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide; nearly one in six deaths are attributable to cancer. Approximately 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States are attributable to unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and body fatness. Individual cancers are distinct disease states that are multifactorial in their causation, making them exceedingly cumbersome to study from a nutrition standpoint. Genetic influences are a major piece of the puzzle and personalized nutrition is likely to be most effective in disrupting cancer during all stages...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Xu Si, Yibo Li, Wenting Shang, Guanghou Shui, Sin Man Lam, Christopher L Blanchard, Padraig Strappe, Zhongkai Zhou
Long term high-fat diet triggered cerebral oxidative stress, reflected by reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidant decline in peripheral and cerebral tissues, together with hippocampal lipid disturbance particularly for triglyceride accumulation and sulfatide deficiency. Hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex also exhibited pathological changes, characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and reduced Nisslbodies. Sulfatides was noted to protect hippocampal neurons from oxidative damage through the clearance of Aβ with apolipoprotein E transportating and low density lipoprotein receptor binding...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Stefanie Vandevijvere, Karin De Ridder, Thibault Fiolet, Sarah Bel, Jean Tafforeau
PURPOSE: To assess the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) among Belgian children, adolescents and adults and associations with diet quality. METHODS: Data from the national Food Consumption Surveys 2004 (N = 3083; ≥ 15 years) and 2014-2015 (N = 3146; 3-64 years) were used. Two 24-h recalls (dietary records for children) were used for data collection. Foods consumed were classified by the level of processing using the NOVA classification...
December 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Xinhui Zhou, Hao Wang, Cuina Wang, Chao Zhao, Qian Peng, Tiehua Zhang, Changhui Zhao
Beta-carotene, the main dietary source of provitamin A, is required for maintaining optimum human health. The bioaccessibility of beta-carotene can be greatly improved when ingested with fat. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to select proper oils (palm oil, coconut oil, fish oil, and corn oil) as a carrier to form stable nanoemulsion that can effectively enhance the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene. The nanoemulsion was formulated with 90% (v/v) aqueous solution (2% whey protein isolate, WPI, w/v) and 10% (v/v) dispersed oil...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Belay Binitu Worku, Habtamu Fekadu Gemede, Ashagrie Zewdu Woldegiorgis
Cheka is a cereal and vegetable-based beverage which is consumed in Southwestern parts of Ethiopia particularly in Dirashe and Konso. In this study, nine cheka samples were collected from vending houses in Konso and Dirashe districts for the laboratory analysis of the nutritional profile and chemical properties of cheka. The pH and titratable acidity of the samples ranged from 3.53-3.99 and 0.80%-1.11%, respectively. The total solids, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash, carbohydrate, and gross energy contents of the samples ranged from 21...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Eleni Papaefstathiou, Agapios Agapiou, Stelios Giannopoulos, Rebecca Kokkinofta
Twenty traditional carob products were measured for their nutritional composition, and their results were compared with the pulp of Cypriot carob cultivars. Moisture, ash, fat, proteins, sugars, dietary fibers, minerals, caffeine-theobromine, carbohydrates, and energy value were determined. Fluctuations of the nutritional composition values based on the ingredients' chemical synthesis and product manufacturing process were noted. Only 60% of the products had a label indicating their nutritional value, and the majority of them (75%) were consistent with that of labeling...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Jean Mboma, Nadine Leblanc, Sereana Wan, René L Jacobs, André Tchernof, Pascal Dubé, Paul Angers, Hélène Jacques
Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) generated through domestic or industrial heating of vegetable oils may alter liver enzymes and induce hepatomegaly and steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of CFAM on liver and plasma lipids and to determine whether these effects are modulated by dietary lipids. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were fed either of the four isoenergetic diets consisting of canola oil or soybean oil with/without 500 mg/100 g CFAM of total fat for 28 days...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Mario Ruiz, Rakesh Bodhicharla, Emma Svensk, Ranjan Devkota, Kiran Busayavalasa, Henrik Palmgren, Marcus Ståhlman, Jan Boren, Marc Pilon
Dietary fatty acids are the main building blocks for cell membranes in animals, and mechanisms must therefore exist that compensate for dietary variations. We isolated C. elegans mutants that improved tolerance to dietary saturated fat in a sensitized genetic background, including eight alleles of the novel gene fld-1 that encodes a homolog of the human TLCD1 and TLCD2 transmembrane proteins. FLD-1 is localized on plasma membranes and acts by limiting the levels of highly membrane-fluidizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phospholipids...
December 4, 2018: ELife
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