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Dietary Fats

Stephen J Mooney, Rozenn N Lemaitre, David S Siscovick, Philip Hurvitz, Charlene E Goh, Tanya K Kaufman, Garazi Zulaika, Daniel M Sheehan, Nona Sotoodehnia, Gina S Lovasi
We explored links between food environments, dietary intake biomarkers, and sudden cardiac arrest in a population-based longitudinal study using cases and controls accruing between 1990 and 2010 in King County, WA. Surprisingly, presence of more unhealthy food sources near home was associated with a lower 18:1 trans-fatty acid concentration (-0.05% per standard deviation higher count of unhealthy food sources, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.01, 0.09). However, presence of more unhealthy food sources was associated with higher odds of cardiac arrest (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2...
August 15, 2018: Health & Place
C Yang, J He, B Yu, J Yu, X B Mao, D W Chen, Y L Yin
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio (DAR) on serum and hepatic lipid content, luminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, and the expression of host genes involved in fat and glucose metabolism in liver and mucosa in growing-finishing pigs. Forty-eight Duroc × Landrace × Large White pigs (49.8 ± 2.8 kg) were randomly allocated to low amylose/amylopectin ratio (LR) and high amylose/amylopectin ratio (HR) groups, each group consisting of six replicates (pen) with four pigs per pen...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Roberta Aguiar Sarmento, Elis Forcellini Pedrollo, Thaiana Cirino Krolikowski, Luis Henrique Canani
INTRODUCTION: Progranulin (PGRN) is secreted by adipose tissue and has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is evidence that a high fat diet increases PGRN expression in rodent adipose tissue. In humans, the relationship between diet composition and concentration of PGRN is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between dietary intake and serum PGRN levels. METHODS: This is an exploratory cross-sectional study including 85 subjects...
2018: PloS One
Ilya R Bederman, Gavriella Pora, Maureen O'Reilly, James Poleman, Kimberly Spoonhower, Michelle Puchowicz, Aura Perez, Bernadette O Erokwu, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Chris A Flask, Mitchell L Drumm
Negative energy balance is a prevalent feature of cystic fibrosis (CF). Pancreatic insufficiency, elevated energy expenditure, lung disease, and malnutrition, all characteristic of CF, contribute to the negative energy balance causing low bodily growth phenotype. As low body weight and BMI strongly correlate with poor lung health and survival of CF patients, improving energy balance is an important clinical goal (e.g. high-fat diet). CF mouse models also exhibit negative energy balance (growth retardation and high energy expenditure), independent from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, lung disease, and malnutrition...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Dominika Stygar, Elżbieta Chełmecka, Katarzyna Nabrdalik, Ewa Romuk, Jakub Poloczek, Tomasz Sawczyn, Konrad W Karcz, Janusz Gumprecht
Background: Obesity and chronic ingestion of lipid-rich meals are related to an enhanced oxidative stress (OS). Aims: To examine the influence of duodenal-jejunal omega switch surgery in combination with different diets on the antioxidative status in the soleus muscle of rats. Methods: After 8 weeks on a high-fat diet (HF) or control diet (CD), rats underwent duodenal-jejunal omega switch (DJOS) or SHAM (control) surgery. After surgery, for the next 8 weeks, half of DJOS/SHAM animals were kept on the same diet as before, and half had a changed diet...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Nikolaos Goutzourelas, Marina Orfanou, Ioannis Charizanis, George Leon, Demetrios A Spandidos, Demetrios Kouretas
This study examined the effects of redox status markers on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity before and after dietary intervention and exercise for weight loss. A total of 103 adults suffering from MetS and obesity participated in this study and followed a personalized diet plan for 6 months. Body weight, body fat (BF) percentage (BF%), respiratory quotient (RQ) and the redox status markers, reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (CARB), were measured twice in each individual, before and after intervention...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Azlina Daud, Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Samsul Deraman
OBJECTIVE: Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and association of triglyceride level and lifestyle factors among Malay obese class I and II adults. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study of 65 Malay obese class I and class II adults aged 20-62 years (21 male, 44 female) from sub-urban areas of Malaysia. Overnight fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine the triglyceride level (mmol/L)...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Edward Yu, Vasanti S Malik, Frank B Hu
Reduction in excess calories and improvement in dietary composition may prevent many primary and secondary cardiovascular events. Current guidelines recommend diets high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes; moderate in low-fat dairy and seafood; and low in processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, refined grains, and sodium. Supplementation can be useful for some people but cannot replace a good diet. Factors that influence individuals to consume a low-quality diet are myriad and include lack of knowledge, lack of availability, high cost, time scarcity, social and cultural norms, marketing of poor-quality foods, and palatability...
August 21, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Conor P Kerley
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity...
August 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Nasim Khatibi, Simin Shahvazi, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Morteza Samadi, Fateme Zare, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
AIM: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and inflammatory markers including serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in females. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study in female teachers living in Yazd, central Iran, data on anthropometric measurements and general information were gathered. A food frequency questionnaire was completed by participants and then, subjects were invited to give blood samples...
August 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Qiuzhong Dai, Zhenping Hou, Shuai Gao, Zhicai Li, Zhongshan Wei, Duanqin Wu
We hypothesized that ramie, Boehmeria nivea (a nettle native to Asia), can be used as a high-quality forage to replace alfalfa hay in diets of dairy cows. Accordingly, we aimed to examine the effects of substituting fresh forage ramie for alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay on production performance, milk composition, and serum parameters of dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein cows (body weight (BW) = 590 ± 50.6 kg) were randomly divided into four groups of eight cows. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks...
August 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Alexandra G M Caron, Colette R Thomas, Kathryn L E Berry, Cherie A Motti, Ellen Ariel, Jon E Brodie
Quantifying the extent of microplastic (<5 mm) contamination in the marine environment is an emerging field of study. Reliable extraction of microplastics from the gastro-intestinal content of marine organisms is crucial to evaluate microplastic contamination in marine fauna. Extraction protocols and variations thereof have been reported, however, these have mostly focussed on relatively homogenous samples (i.e. water, sediment, etc.). Here, we present a microplastic extraction protocol for examining green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) chyme (i...
2018: MethodsX
Esi K Colecraft, Matilda Asante, Aaron K Christian, Seth Adu-Afarwuah
Introduction: Hypertension is a major contributor to the global disease burden and mortality. Evidence suggests increasing hypertension prevalence in Ghana but there is limited public awareness and information on the characteristics of those with the disease. Objective: To describe the baseline characteristics of adults with hypertension who were randomized to receive either hypertension related nutrition education plus hospital-based standard of care or only the standard of care (control group) in Asesewa, a semi-rural community in the Eastern Region of Ghana...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
Leimin Qian, Renyuan Gao, Leiming Hong, Cheng Pan, Hao Li, Jianming Huang, Huanlong Qin
Environmental exposure, including a high-fat diet (HFD), contributes to the high prevalence of colorectal cancer by changing the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, data examining the interaction between dietary habits and intestinal microbiota of the Chinese population is sparse. We assessed dietary habits using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in native Chinese community volunteers. Based on the dietary fat content determined using the FFQ, the volunteers were divided into HFD group (≥40% of dietary calories came from fat) or low-fat diet (LFD) group (<40%)...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ai Takeyama, Yasuo Nagata, Bungo Shirouchi, Chika Nonaka, Hiromu Aoki, Tsubasa Haraguchi, Masao Sato, Kei Tamaya, Hideto Yamamoto, Kazunari Tanaka
Accumulation of abdominal fat triggers metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities, such as dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension, that leads to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Mushrooms have been used as a foodstuff and folk medicine worldwide. Among these mushrooms, Sparassis crispa (SC) is a relatively newly cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom, which has been reported to have anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive properties...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Sisse Fagt, Jeppe Matthiessen, Camilla Thyregod, Karsten Kørup, Anja Biltoft-Jensen
Breakfast is considered by many to be the most important meal of the day. This study examined the intake of nutrients and foods at breakfast among Danes and the relation to the overall dietary quality. Data were derived from the Danish National Survey on Diet and Physical Activity 2011⁻2013, a cross-sectional national food consumption study. A total of 3680 participants aged 6⁻75 years were included in the analyses of breakfast consumption. The Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 method was used to examine the overall dietary quality of the diet...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
Shruti Jawale, Sadhana Joshi, Anvita Kale
Cognitive development may be influenced by maternal nutrition especially fats. Indian population is vegetarian and main source of fat is dairy. This study investigates the effect of dairy fat consumption during pregnancy in an animal model on fatty acids, brain neurotrophins (brain derived neurotrophic factor: BDNF; and nerve growth factor: NGF) and cognitive performance in adult offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control (Control C) and four treatment groups: High fat diet (HFD); High fat diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (HFDO); High fat diet deficient in vitamin B12 ( HFBD); High fat deficient in vitamin B12 supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (HFBDO)...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
M Matejcic, F Lesueur, C Biessy, A L Renault, N Mebirouk, S Yammine, P Keski-Rahkonen, K Li, B Hémon, E Weiderpass, V Rebours, M C Boutron-Ruault, F Carbonnel, R Kaaks, V Katzke, T Kuhn, H Boeing, A Trichopoulou, D Palli, C Agnoli, S Panico, R Tumino, C Sacerdote, J R Quirós, E J Duell, M Porta, M J Sánchez, M D Chirlaque, A Barricarte, P Amiano, W Ye, P H Peeters, K T Khaw, A Perez-Cornago, T J Key, H B Bueno-de-Mesquita, E Riboli, P Vineis, I Romieu, M J Gunter, V Chajès
There are both limited and conflicting data on the role of dietary fat and specific fatty acids in the development of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples collected at recruitment from 375 incident pancreatic cancer cases and 375 matched controls. Associations of specific fatty acids with pancreatic cancer risk were evaluated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for established pancreatic cancer risk factors...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Inga C Teller, Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Hella Brönneke, Pia Nosthoff-Horstmann, Annemarie Oosting, Gregor Lippach, Maria Wohlfarth, Manfred Rauh, Eline M van der Beek, Jörg Dötsch, Kai D Nüsken
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse metabolic outcome later in life. Healthy mice challenged with a Western-style diet (WSD) accumulated less body fat when previously fed a diet containing large lipid globules (complex lipid matrix (CLM)). This study was designed to clarify whether an early-life CLM diet mitigates 'programmed' visceral adiposity and associated metabolic sequelae after IUGR. In rats, IUGR was induced either by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG) or sham operation (i...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Aliya Alimujiang, Graham A Colditz, Jane D Gardner, Yikyung Park, Catherine S Berkey, Siobhan Sutcliffe
PURPOSE: To begin to explore the possible roles of childhood diet and growth in prostate cancer (PCa) development, we investigated these exposures in relation to two known/suspected PCa risk factors, earlier pubertal timing and greater attained height, in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development. METHODS: We used biannual/annual height, weight, and dietary history data to investigate childhood diet, body mass index (BMI), birth length, and childhood height in relation to PCa risk factors (age at peak height velocity (APHV), height at age 13, and adult height) for 64 Caucasian American boys...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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