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Body dysmorphia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239802/the-health-threat-posed-by-the-hidden-epidemic-of-anabolic-steroid-use-and-body-image-disorders-among-young-men
#1
Anna L Goldman, Harrison G Pope, Shalender Bhasin
Context: The prevalence of body image disorders and anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is increasing, despite the evidence of their serious adverse health effects and despite the passage of laws regulating their sales. Here we review the evolution of the dual emerging epidemics of body image disorders and AAS use, adverse health effects of AAS, and the need for an integrated health policy and regulatory response to stem these epidemics. Evidence Acquisition: We searched for studies published in English language prior to June 2018...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003837/is-there-any-relationship-between-body-image-perception-eating-disorders-and-muscle-dysmorphic-disorders-in-male-bodybuilders
#2
Aslı Devrim, Pelin Bilgic, Nobuko Hongu
Bodybuilding has increasingly become popular between males since male body shape has become a subject of interest in the last decades. Bodybuilders have desired to gain more muscle and paid attention to their body shape. Based on this purpose, they have string rules that include restrictive eating and excessive exercise program. Recent research has demonstrated that desiring more muscular body shape exhibits eating behavior problems and body dissatisfaction issues in bodybuilders. Limited research exists on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in male bodybuilders...
September 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891927/muscle-dysmorphia-and-its-associated-psychological-features-in-three-groups-of-recreational-athletes
#3
Silvia Cerea, Gioia Bottesi, Quirico F Pacelli, Antonio Paoli, Marta Ghisi
Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) is a psychological disorder characterized by the preoccupation with the idea that one's body is not lean and muscular. The current study aimed to explore MD behaviours and symptoms in three groups of recreational athletes: bodybuilders (BB; n = 42), strength athletes (SA; n = 61), and fitness practitioners (FP; n = 22). Furthermore, we assessed MD-related psychological features as well as possible psychological predictors of MD among groups. Results highlighted that the BB group reported more beliefs about being smaller and weaker than desired compared to the other groups, whereas individuals in the SA group reported setting higher standards for themselves than the FP group...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616336/chubby-hands-or-little-fingers-sex-differences-in-hand-representation
#4
Lara A Coelho, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Disturbed body representation is a condition defined by the perception that one's body size is different from their anatomical size. While equal amounts of males and females suffer from disturbed body representation, there appear to be differences in the direction of this distortion. Females will typically overestimate, whereas males will typically underestimate body size. One part of the body that has been consistently misperceived is the hands. This misrepresentation consists of two distinct characteristics: an overestimation of hand width, and an underestimation of finger length...
April 3, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542171/psychosocial-correlates-of-gap-time-to-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use
#5
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
June 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532269/correction-to-antecedents-of-emotional-distress-and-sexual-dissatisfaction-in-circumcised-men-previous-findings-and-future-directions-comment-on-bossio-and-pukall-2017
#6
Tim Hammond, Mark D Reiss
The term "body eudysmorphia" in the 6th paragraph of this Letter to the Editor incorrectly read "body dysmorphia" in the letter as originally published. The original article has been corrected.
July 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473192/thinness-and-muscularity-internalization-associations-with-disordered-eating-and-muscle-dysmorphia-in-men
#7
Patrycja Klimek, Stuart B Murray, Tiffany Brown, Manuel Gonzales Iv, Aaron J Blashill
OBJECTIVE: The tripartite influence model of body image identifies internalization of societal body ideals as a risk factor for developing body dissatisfaction, and subsequent disordered eating behavior. In men, internalization of two dimensions of body image ideals, thinness and muscularity, is associated with body dissatisfaction and eating concerns. However, it is unknown how thinness and muscularity internalization interact in predicting muscle dysmorphia and disordered eating in men...
April 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362698/attentional-biases-toward-body-images-in-males-at-high-risk-of-muscle-dysmorphia
#8
Xinhong Jin, Yahong Jin, Shi Zhou, Shun-Nan Yang, Shuzhi Chang, Hui Li
Objective: Although research on muscle dysmorphia (MD), a body dysmorphic disorder subtype, has recently increased, the causes and mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Results from studies examining disorders associated with body image suggest the involvement of self-schema in biasing attention toward specific body information. The present study examined whether individuals at higher risk of MD also display attentional biases toward specific types of body images. Methods: The validated Chinese version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale was used to distinguish men at higher and lower risk of MD...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271781/screening-tool-to-determine-risk-of-having-muscle-dysmorphia-symptoms-in-men-who-engage-in-weight-training-at-a-gym
#9
Antonio Palazón-Bru, María M Rizo-Baeza, Asier Martínez-Segura, David M Folgado-de la Rosa, Vicente F Gil-Guillén, Ernesto Cortés-Castell
OBJECTIVE: Although 2 screening tests exist for having a high risk of muscle dysmorphia (MD) symptoms, they both require a long time to apply. Accordingly, we proposed the construction, validation, and implementation of such a test in a mobile application using easy-to-measure factors associated with MD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Gyms in Alicante (Spain) during 2013 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-one men who engaged in weight training...
March 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076380/body-size-and-shape-misperception-and-visual-adaptation-an-overview-of-an-emerging-research-paradigm
#10
REVIEW
Kirsten L Challinor, Jonathan Mond, Ian D Stephen, Deborah Mitchison, Richard J Stevenson, Phillipa Hay, Kevin R Brooks
Although body size and shape misperception (BSSM) is a common feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia, little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Recently, a new approach has emerged, based on the long-established non-invasive technique of perceptual adaptation, which allows for inferences about the structure of the neural apparatus responsible for alterations in visual appearance. Here, we describe several recent experimental examples of BSSM, wherein exposure to "extreme" body stimuli causes visual aftereffects of biased perception...
December 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728801/-muscle-dysmorphia-and-use-of-ergogenics-substances-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Jaime García-Rodríguez, Georgina Alvarez-Rayón, Jaime Camacho-Ruíz, Adriana Amaya-Hernández, Juan Manuel Mancilla-Díaz
The use of ergogenic substances (UES) is not restricted to achieving a better athletic performance, but also it is a behavior for body changing through muscle development; however, little is known about the relationship between muscle dysmorphia (MD) and UES. Therefore, it was conducted a systematic review of those empirical papers that have studied this relationship over the last decade (2004-2014). First it is highlighted that of the 22 articles analyzed, only 13 explicitly aimed this interest. Besides, although the documented data outlined some relevant aspects such as the existence of a high co-occurrence (60-90%) between MD and UES...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686747/functional-analysis-of-the-zebrafish-ortholog-of-hmgcs1-reveals-independent-functions-for-cholesterol-and-isoprenoids-in-craniofacial-development
#12
Anita M Quintana, Jose A Hernandez, Cesar G Gonzalez
There are 8 different human syndromes caused by mutations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. A subset of these disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz disorder, are associated with facial dysmorphia. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such facial deficits are not fully understood, primarily because of the diverse functions associated with the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mutation of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCR results in orofacial clefts. Here we sought to expand upon these data, by deciphering the cholesterol dependent functions of the cholesterol synthesis pathway from the cholesterol independent functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619103/effects-of-muscle-dysmorphia-social-comparisons-and-body-schema-priming-on-desire-for-social-interaction-an-experimental-approach
#13
Catharina Schneider, Maria Agthe, Takuya Yanagida, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
BACKGROUND: Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It goes along with a risk for social withdrawal to maintain rigid exercise and dietary regimen. The aim of the current study was thus, to explore differences in men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia regarding their desire for social interaction. Furthermore, we investigated potential effects of individual social comparison tendencies (the tendency to compare oneself with persons who are perceived to be superior or inferior to oneself on a certain dimension) and of one's own body schema on the desire for social interaction...
June 15, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541768/sex-differences-in-the-presentation-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-in-a-community-sample-of-adolescents
#14
Sophie C Schneider, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia M Turner, Jennifer L Hudson
The current study sought to explore sex differences in the presentation of probable full-syndrome and subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents from an Australian community sample. Specifically, it examined sex differences in the types of BDD symptoms endorsed, body areas of concern, and the association with elevated symptoms of comorbid disorders. In male participants, it also compared the presenting features of those with and without muscle dysmorphia. Of 3,149 adolescents assessed using self-report questionnaires, 162 (5...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492953/muscle-dysmorphia-detection-of-the-use-abuse-of-anabolic-adrogenic-steroids-in-a-spanish-sample
#15
Irene González-Martí, Juan Gregorio Fernández-Bustos, Onofre Ricardo Contreras Jordán, Marina Sokolova
Debido a una distorsión en la imagen corporal, las personas que padecen Dismorfia Muscular se perciben menos musculosas de lo que son en realidad. Con el fin de aumentar su musculatura, algunas de estas personas hacen uso de hormonas cuya función principal es la del aumento del tamaño muscular. Por lo que el objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia del uso de hormonas en personas afectadas por Dismorfia Muscular. 562 hombres y 172 mujeres fisicoculturistas y levantadores de pesas, a los que se le administraron diferentes cuestionarios para conocer, primero si padecían el trastorno, y después en qué porcentaje usaban hormonas la muestra afectada...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481431/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-body-project-more-than-muscles-for-men-with-body-dissatisfaction
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tiffany A Brown, K Jean Forney, Dennis Pinner, Pamela K Keel
OBJECTIVE: Pressures for men to conform to a lean, muscular ideal have, in part, contributed to eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia symptoms, yet few programs have been developed and empirically evaluated to help men. This study investigated the acceptability and efficacy of a cognitive dissonance-based (DB) intervention in reducing eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia risk factors in men with body dissatisfaction. METHOD: Men were randomized to a two-session DB intervention (n = 52) or a waitlist control condition (n = 60)...
August 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341956/improvement-on-the-neo-umbilicoplasty-technique-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Valderi Vieira da Silva Júnior, Francis Régis Soares de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: The umbilicus is an important component of body esthetics, and its absence or dysmorphia may give rise to psychological discomfort, making it a common concern in surgical planning. Many techniques of umbilicus reconstruction have been proposed, each with its own limitations in terms of esthetics, risk of stenosis or final positioning. Reconstruction techniques may involve skin grafting, cartilage, purse-string suture and flaps. One of the most promising approaches is scarless neo-umbilicoplasty...
June 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163846/the-prevalence-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-amongst-athletes-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#18
Mosleh Jabari, Hassan Al-Shehri, Abdullah Al-Faris, Mohammed Al-Sayed, Fahd Algaeed, Nasser Al-Sobaie, Fawaz Al-Saleh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among athletes and examine the extent of their knowledge on the effects of AAS in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during 2015. In total 600 athletes from three gyms participated in the study. The study included Saudi and non-Saudi athletes chosen by the simple random sampling method. A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989453/the-transition-from-thinness-oriented-to-muscularity-oriented-disordered-eating-in-adolescent-males-a-clinical-observation
#19
Stuart B Murray, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Jonathan M Mond
PURPOSE: Robust empirical evidence has illustrated a rising prevalence of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among males, noting that both may be oriented more toward muscularity-as opposed to thinness-oriented concerns. While an elevated prevalence of premorbid anorexia nervosa (AN) has been noted among those with muscle dysmorphia, little evidence has examined the process of this transition from thinness-oriented to muscularity-oriented disordered eating. METHODS: This clinical observation presents a case of AN in an adolescent male, whose symptom presentation transitioned during the course of treatment for AN, into more muscularity-oriented disordered eating...
March 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968940/obsession-with-perfection-body-dysmorphia
#20
Neelam A Vashi
The deeply rooted fascination with beauty penetrates society worldwide. The indulgence to look and feel beautiful pervades all ages, genders, and nationalities, with research conferring a remarkable tendency to agree on measures of attractiveness among these disparate groups. Research has found that beautiful people do, in fact, receive more desirable outcomes in life and job satisfaction, family formation, and overall happiness. Humans have a tendency to respond to attractive persons more favorably, driving many patients to our clinics...
November 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
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