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insect behaviors

Ivan A Kerchev
Invasion of Polygraphus proximus (Blandford) has caused an extensive destruction in the aboriginal forest ecosystems of South Siberia. The goal of this study was to better understand the acoustic communication of P. proximus by analyzing the beetles' sound-production mechanisms and comparing sounds produced during different behaviors. Comparisons applied waveform analysis and quantitation of temporal parameters such as syllable, chirp duration, interchirp interval, number of tooth-strike per chirp, strike rate, and the duration of intervals between strikes...
December 10, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Moshe Gish, Moshe Inbar
Background: Upon the detection of imminent peril, pea aphids ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) often drop off their host plant. Dropping in response to insect enemies is intermittent in nature, but when a mammalian herbivore feeds on their host plant, a large mixed-age group of aphids usually drops off the plant at once. Aphids that reach the ground are confronted with new, hostile environmental conditions and must therefore quickly walk toward a suitable host plant. The longer it takes an aphid to reach a host plant, the more it is exposed to the risks of starvation, desiccation and predation...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Nicholas J Czaplewski, Katrina L Menard, William D Peachey
The pallid bat ( Antrozous pallidus ) is a species of western North America, inhabiting ecoregions ranging from desert to oak and pine forest. They are primarily insectivorous predators on large arthropods that occasionally take small vertebrate prey, and are at least seasonally omnivorous in certain parts of their geographic range where they take nectar from cactus flowers and eat cactus fruit pulp and seeds. Until recently, mesquite bugs were primarily tropical-subtropical inhabitants of Mexico and Central America but have since occupied the southwestern United States where mesquite trees occur...
2018: PeerJ
Christian Busch, Alexander Borst, Alex S Mauss
Moving animals experience constant sensory feedback, such as panoramic image shifts on the retina, termed optic flow. Underlying neuronal signals are thought to be important for exploratory behavior by signaling unintended course deviations and by providing spatial information about the environment [1, 2]. Particularly in insects, the encoding of self-motion-related optic flow is well understood [1-5]. However, a gap remains in understanding how the associated neuronal activity controls locomotor trajectories...
December 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lin Qiu, Shunjie Tao, Hualiang He, Wenbing Ding, Youzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Chemosensory proteins are a family of insect-specific chemical sensors that sense specific chemical cues and regulate insect behavior. Chemosensory proteins have been identified and analyzed in many insect species, such as Drosophila melanogaster, Bactrocera dorsalis and Calliphora stygia. This research has revealed that these proteins play a crucial role in insect orientation, predation and oviposition. However, little is known about the chemosensory proteins of Chlorops oryzae, a major pest of rice crops throughout Asia...
December 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Kiyoko Taniai, Toru Arakawa, Taro Maeda
Traumatic insemination (TI) is an extraordinary style of mating behavior wherein the female integument is pierced by the male extragenital structure to transfer the spermatozoa into the female's body through wounding. Flower bugs of the genus Orius belong to the family Anthocoridae (Heteroptera), which is referred to as the "TI family". Males possess sharp shaped extragenitalia, and females receive the extragenitalia using the copulatory tubes, which are specialized extragenital structures in Orius species...
2018: PloS One
Sudarat Tharad, Öykü Üzülmez, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, José L Toca-Herrera
Cytolytic protein (Cyt) is a member of insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis . Cyt protein has activity against insect cells and mammalian cells, which differ in lipid and cholesterol composition. This study presents the lipid binding behavior of Cyt2Aa2 protein on model membranes containing different levels of cholesterol content by combining Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). QCM-D results revealed that cholesterol enhances the binding rate of Cyt2Aa2 protein onto lipid bilayers...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jonathon A Siva-Jothy, Katy M Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Deciding where to eat and raise offspring carries important fitness consequences for all animals, especially if foraging, feeding, and reproduction increase pathogen exposure. In insects with complete metamorphosis, foraging mainly occurs during the larval stage, while oviposition decisions are made by adult females. Selection for infection avoidance behaviors may therefore be developmentally uncoupled. Using a combination of experimental infections and behavioral choice assays, we tested if Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies avoid infectious environments at distinct developmental stages...
November 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Natalie K Boyle, Theresa L Pitts-Singer, John Abbott, Anne Alix, Diana L Cox-Foster, Silvia Hinarejos, David M Lehmann, Lora Morandin, Bridget O'Neill, Nigel E Raine, Rajwinder Singh, Helen M Thompson, Neal M Williams, Thomas Steeger
Current pesticide risk assessment practices use the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., as a surrogate to characterize the likelihood of chemical exposure of a candidate pesticide for all bee species. Bees make up a diverse insect group that provides critical pollination services to both managed and wild ecosystems. Accordingly, they display a diversity of behaviors and vary greatly in their lifestyles and phenologies, such as their timing of emergence, degree of sociality, and foraging and nesting behaviors. Some of these factors may lead to disparate or variable routes of exposure when compared to honey bees...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Pietro Zito, Sergio Rosselli, Maurizio Bruno, Antonella Maggio, Maurizio Sajeva
Sexually deceptive orchid flowers use visual, tactile and olfactory cues of female insects in order to attract males of one or a few closely related species as pollinators. Ophrys L. is the most species-rich genus of sexually deceptive orchids in the Mediterranean Basin. Despite Ophrys pollinated by Andrena male bees use alkanes and mainly alkenes with specific double-bond positions as key signals that trigger pseudocopulatory behavior, some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with low molecular weight were found as long-range attractants non-eliciting copulatory behavior...
December 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Li-Xiang Wang, Chun-Dong Niu, Yan Zhang, Ya-Long Jia, Yi-Jie Zhang, Yue Zhang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Cong-Fen Gao, Shun-Fan Wu
NompC channel is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily. It can regulate gentle-touch, locomotion, hearing and food texture detection in Drosophila. We cloned the NompC gene of Nilaparvata lugens (NlNompC). The full length NlNompC possessed similar structure as DmNompC, which belongs to TRPN subfamily. The expression pattern analysis of different developmental stages and body parts showed that the transcription of NlNompC was more abundant in adult stage and in the abdomen...
November 26, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Walkyria Rodrigues Ramos, Arley Faria josÉ De Oliveira, Rui Alves De Freitas, Veracilda Ribeiro Alves, Danilo Pacheco Cordeiro
Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of medical importance, as they are vectors of viruses, bacteria and trypanosomatids of the genus Leishmania Ross, the causative agent of leishmaniasis (Forattini 1973). During the past 20 years approximately 500,000 cases of leishmaniasis have been reported in Brazil. Most of these cases were reported in the North and Northeast regions. In the State of Roraima, almost 2,000 cases, including both cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), have been reported during the past three years (SINAN 2017)...
October 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Rouguiatou Sangbaramou, Ibrahima Camara, Xin-Zheng Huang, Jie Shen, Shu-Qian Tan, Wang-Peng Shi
Insects such as locusts and grasshoppers can reduce the effectiveness of pathogens and parasites by adopting different defense strategies. We investigated the behavioral thermopreference of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) induced by the fungus Beauveria bassiana, and the impact this behavior had on the fungal mycosis under laboratory conditions. By basking in higher temperature locations, infected nymphs elevated their thoracic temperature to 30-32.6 °C, which is higher than the optimum temperature (25°C) for B...
2018: PloS One
Ana Sofia P S Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff, Sergi Santamaria
Laboulbeniales are highly specific ectoparasitic fungi of arthropods (insects, millipedes, and arachnids). The first Laboulbeniales parasitizing the millipede order Chordeumatida (Diplopoda) were discovered and described as a new dioecious genus of Laboulbeniales, Thaxterimyces, to accommodate the new species T. baliensis. Also the millipede host is a new species and is described as Metopidiothrix sheari. This is the first time Laboulbeniales fungus and its millipede host are described as new together. Males of Metopidiothrix have the most extensive secondary sexual modifications in the entire class Diplopoda...
2018: PloS One
Yong-Zhi Zhong, Rui Tang, Jin-Ping Zhang, Shi-Yong Yang, Guo-Hua Chen, Kang-Lai He, Zhen-Ying Wang, Feng Zhang
Halyomorpha halys is a major herbivore insect in the fruit orchards of China that has become a devastating invasive pest in North America and Europe since its accidental introductions in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Like other hemipteran insects, H. halys releases defensive chemicals against natural enemies, including ( E )-2-decenal, which is an aldehyde associated with alarm pheromones. In this study, a series of electrophysiological and behavioral tests were conducted to characterize the alarm functions of ( E )-2-decenal among H...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shoulin Jiang, Yang Dai, Yongqing Lu, Shuqin Fan, Yanmin Liu, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Megha N Parajulee, Fajun Chen
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is likely to influence insect-plant interactions. Aphid, as a typical phloem-feeding herbivorous insect, has shown consistently more positive responses in fitness to elevated CO2 concentrations than those seen in leaf-chewing insects. But, little is known about the mechanism of this performance. In this study, the foliar soluble constituents of cotton and the life history of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and its mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and feeding behavior were measured, as well as the relative transcript levels of target genes related appetite, salivary proteins, molting hormone (MH), and juvenile hormone, to investigate the fitness of A...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Arthur de Fouchier, Xiao Sun, Gabriela Caballero-Vidal, Solène Travaillard, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Nicolas Montagné
Phytophagous insects use volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants to orient towards their hosts. In lepidopteran pests, crop damages are caused by larval stages-the caterpillars-that feed extensively on leaves or other plant tissues. However, larval host plant choice has been poorly studied, and it is generally admitted that caterpillars feed on the plant where the female laid the eggs. The mobility of caterpillars has been generally overlooked even though several studies showed that they can orient towards odors and change host plant...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Shivam Kaushik, Rahul Kumar, Pinky Kain
Taste modalities are conserved in insects and mammals. Sweet gustatory signals evoke attractive behaviors while bitter gustatory information drive aversive behaviors. Salt (NaCl) is an essential nutrient required for various physiological processes, including electrolyte homeostasis, neuronal activity, nutrient absorption, and muscle contraction. Not only mammals, even in Drosophila melanogaster, the detection of NaCl induces two different behaviors: Low concentrations of NaCl act as an attractant, whereas high concentrations act as repellant...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Beryl M Jones, Gene E Robinson
For over a century, biologists have proposed a role for phenotypic plasticity in evolution, providing an avenue for adaptation in addition to 'mutation-first' models of evolutionary change. According to the various versions of this idea, the ability of organisms to respond adaptively to their environment through phenotypic plasticity may lead to novel phenotypes that can be screened by natural selection. If these initially environmentally induced phenotypes increase fitness, then genetic accommodation can lead to allele frequency change, influencing the expression of those phenotypes...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Andrew K Dickerson, Alexander Olvera, Yva Luc
Insects enter every passible space on the planet. Despite our best efforts, flying insects infiltrate slightly open windows in domiciles, automobiles, storage spaces, and more. Is this ubiquitous experience a consequence of insect abundance and probability, or are flying insects adept at detecting passageways? There remains a lack of understanding of insect effectiveness in finding passage through the voids and imperfections in physical barriers in response to attractants, a topic particularly critical to the area of insect-borne disease control...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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