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insect behaviors

Esteban Hasson, Diego De Panis, Juan Hurtado, Julián Mensch
Host plant shifts in herbivorous insects often involve facing new environments that may speed up the evolution of oviposition behavior, performance related traits, morphology and, incidentally, reproductive isolation. In the genus Drosophila, cactophilic species of the repleta group include emblematic species in the study of the evolution of host plant utilization. The South American D. buzzatii and its sibling D. koepferae are a model system for the study of differential host plant use. Though these species exhibit a certain degree of niche overlap, the former breeds primarily on decaying cladodes of Opuntia cacti while the D...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Jian-Bai Liu, Han Wu, Jie-Qun Yi, Zi-Wei Song, Dun-Song Li, Gu-Ren Zhang
Chemoreception is critical for the survival of insects. Insects have a variety of behavioral responses, such as mating, host searching and ovipositing, in response to different odor signals detected in their living environment. Trichogramma chilonis, an egg parasitoid, acts as an efficient and effective biocontrol reagent for many agricultural and forestry insect pests in many parts of China. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of the olfaction-evoked behavior in T. chilonis. In the present study, we conducted transcriptome profiling analysis of T...
August 11, 2018: Gene
Lisa Soyeon Baik, Yocelyn Recinos, Joshua A Chevez, Todd C Holmes
Many insects show strong behavioral responses to short wavelength light. Drosophila melanogaster exhibit Cryptochrome- and Hyperkinetic-dependent blue and ultraviolet (UV) light avoidance responses that vary by time-of-day, suggesting that these key sensory behaviors are circadian regulated. Here we show mutant flies lacking core clock genes exhibit defects in both time-of-day responses and valence of UV light avoidance/attraction behavior. Non-genetic environmental disruption of the circadian clock by constant UV light exposure leads to complete loss of rhythmic UV light avoidance/attraction behavior...
2018: PloS One
Romain Libbrecht, Peter R Oxley, Daniel J C Kronauer
BACKGROUND: Division of labor between reproductive queens and workers that perform brood care is a hallmark of insect societies. However, studies of the molecular basis of this fundamental dichotomy are limited by the fact that the caste of an individual cannot typically be experimentally manipulated at the adult stage. Here we take advantage of the unique biology of the clonal raider ant, Ooceraea biroi, to study brain gene expression dynamics during experimentally induced transitions between reproductive and brood care behavior...
August 13, 2018: BMC Biology
Lee W Cohnstaedt, Jordan C Disberger, Eric Paulsen, Adrian J Duehl
Optimized visual attractants will increase insect trapping efficiency by using the target insect's innate behaviors (positive photo-taxis) as a means to lure the insect into a population control or monitoring trap. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have created customizable lighting options with specific wavelengths (colors), intensities, and bandwidths, all of which can be customized to the target insects. Photo-attraction behavioral bioassays can use LEDs to optimize the attractive color(s) for an insect species down to specific life history stages or behaviors (mating, feeding, or seeking shelter)...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chengyu Li, Haibo Dong, Kai Zhao
The ability to track odor plumes to their source (food, mate, etc.) is key to the survival of many insects. During this odor-guided navigation, flapping wings could actively draw odorants to the antennae to enhance olfactory sensitivity, but it is unclear if improving olfactory function comes at a cost to aerodynamic performance. Here, we computationally quantify the odor plume features around a fruit fly in forward flight and confirm that the antenna is well positioned to receive a significant increase of odor mass flux (peak 1...
August 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Jeremy E Niven, Elisa Frasnelli
Behavioral lateralization is widespread across the animals, being found in numerous vertebrate species as well as in species from across many invertebrate phyla. Numerous recent studies have focused on lateralization in the insects, exploring the behaviors themselves as well as their neural basis and the possible selective pressures that led to their evolution. Lateralization in the insects can occur in any sensory modality and may be generated by peripheral or central neural asymmetries. The lateralization of particular insect behaviors can show either population-level or individual-level lateralization but which of these types of lateralization is present is strongly influenced by their social environment...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Eric W Riddick, Maria Luisa Dindo, Michael J Grodowitz, Ted E Cottrell
AIMS AND SCOPE: The aim of this special collection is to highlight the importance of reproduction (ie, oviposition) in the life history, population dynamics, survival, and fitness of beneficial insects, broadly defined. Specific areas of interest include the (1) identification of natural products to boost oviposition; (2) importance of chemical cues in oviposition site selection; (3) influence of host plant defenses on oviposition success; (4) reproductive physiology and the frequency of egg laying; (5) trade-offs between maternal size and egg size; (6) foraging behavior, host selection, and oviposition in parasitoids; and (7) oviposition decisions in the face of intraguild predators...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Dan Luo, Meng Lai, Chuanfeng Xu, Haoni Shi, Xingping Liu
BACKGROUND: For capital breeding Lepidoptera, larval food quality is a key determinant of their fitness. A series of studies have suggested that the larval host species or varieties dramatically impact their development and reproductive output. However, few studies have reported the role of foliar age and adult mating success has often been ignored in these studies. In this paper, the influence of host species and needle age on larval performances, adult mating behavior and fitness consequences has been studied using a capital breeding caterpillar, Dendrolimus punctatus Walker (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae)...
August 8, 2018: BMC Ecology
Niansheng Ju, Rundong Jiang, Stephen L Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde, Shiming Tang
Whereas optogenetic techniques have proven successful in their ability to manipulate neuronal populations-with high spatial and temporal fidelity-in species ranging from insects to rodents, significant obstacles remain in their application to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Robust optogenetics-activated behavior and long-term monitoring of target neurons have been challenging in NHPs. Here, we present a method for all-optical interrogation (AOI), integrating optical stimulation and simultaneous two-photon (2P) imaging of neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake rhesus macaques...
August 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Philipp Brand, Virginie Larcher, Antoine Couto, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Santiago R Ramírez
Insect mating behavior is controlled by a diverse array of sex-specific traits and strategies that evolved to maximize mating success. Orchid bees exhibit a unique suite of perfume-mediated mating behaviors. Male bees collect volatile compounds from their environment to concoct species-specific perfume mixtures that are presumably used to attract conspecific females. Despite a growing understanding of the ecology and evolution of chemical signaling in orchid bees, many aspects of the functional adaptations involved, in particular regarding sensory systems, remain unknown...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Guanjie Yan, Shimin Liu, Anthony C Schlink, Gavin R Flematti, Bekka S Brodie, Bjorn Bohman, Johan C Greeff, Philip E Vercoe, Jianhong Hu, Graeme B Martin
The Australian blow fly, Lucilia cuprina Wiedmann (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a major cause of myiasis (flystrike) in Merino sheep in Australia and New Zealand and, as a primary colonizer of fresh carrion, also an important species in forensic investigations. Olfaction is considered the most important cue for insects to rapidly locate carrion over long distances, so the first carrion visitors are predicted to be very sensitive to carrion-related volatile compounds. We studied the responses of the Australian blow fly, Lucilia cuprina, to the carrion-associated compounds dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), butyric acid, 1-octen-3-ol and indole...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Tanya Wolff, Gerald M Rubin
The central complex, a set of neuropils in the center of the insect brain, plays a crucial role in spatial aspects of sensory integration and motor control. Stereotyped neurons interconnect these neuropils with one another and with accessory structures. We screened over 5000 Drosophila melanogaster GAL4 lines for expression in two neuropils, the noduli (NO) of the central complex and the asymmetrical body (AB), and used multicolor stochastic labelling to analyze the morphology, polarity and organization of individual cells in a subset of the GAL4 lines that showed expression in these neuropils...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kôji Sasakawa, Yûsuke Kon
Ecological speciation via a host shift plays an important role in the diversification of phytophagous and parasitic insects. However, it is not clear how separation is maintained among initial populations in which genetic separation mechanisms are not fully established. Learning-induced host preference in females can contribute to host fidelity and result in a barrier to gene flow in the initial populations. However, the role of males, which also affects gene flow, has been largely unexplored. We examined host preference through induced learning in males, which can contribute to initial population divergence, in the parasitoid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae and the two host species, Callosobruchus chinensis and C...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Gladys Bichang'a, Jean-Luc Da Lage, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Michel Zivy, Thierry Balliau, Kevin Sambai, Bruno Le Ru, Laure Kaiser, Gerald Juma, Esther Njoki Mwangi Maina, Paul-André Calatayud
Foraging parasitoids use chemical signals in host recognition and selection processes. Although, the volatiles play a relevant role in the localization by parasitoids of their hosts feeding on plants, the host identification process for acceptance occurs mainly during contact between the parasitoid and its host where host products related to feeding activities, fecal pellets and oral secretions, play a crucial role. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature of the contact kairomone(s) that mediate the acceptance for oviposition of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), which was released in Kenya in 1993 to control the invasive crambid Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hui-Ru Jia, Yu-Feng Sun, Shu-Ping Luo, Kong-Ming Wu
Aphidophagous syrphids are important for pest control and pollination in various agroecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying olfaction, which is critical for insect' behavioral processes and fitness, has not been well understood in the family Syrphidae. Hence, we performed a systematic identification and characterisation of the antennal sensilla and two groups of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs), in the hoverfly Eupeodes corollae. (i) With scanning electron microscopy, four major types of sensilla (chaetic sensilla [two subtypes], trichoid sensilla, basiconic sensilla [two subtypes] and coeloconic sensilla), with numerous microtrichia, were first observed along the entire surface of aristate antennae of both sexes E...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Shigehiro Namiki, Ryohei Kanzaki
Sex pheromones orient male moths toward conspecific female moths; the presence of visual information modulates this behavior. In the current study, we explore candidate neuronal pathways for the interaction between vision and the locomotor signal for pheromone orientation. We describe the connectivity between visual neuropils and brain premotor centers, the posterior slope (PS) and the lateral accessory lobe (LAL), in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Using a single-cell labeling technique, we analyze visual projection neurons supplying these areas...
August 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Joshua M Coleman, Kyle M Benowitz, Alexandra G Jost, Luciano M Matzkin
For plant utilizing insects, the shift to a novel host is generally accompanied by a complex set of phenotypic adaptations. Many such adaptations arise in response to differences in plant chemistry, competitive environment, or abiotic conditions. One less well-understood factor in the evolution of phytophagous insects is the selective environment provided by plant shape and volume. Does the physical structure of a new plant host favor certain phenotypes? Here, we use cactophilic Drosophila , which have colonized the necrotic tissues of cacti with dramatically different shapes and volumes, to examine this question...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Massimo Nepi, Donato A Grasso, Stefano Mancuso
It has been known for centuries that floral and extra-floral nectar secreted by plants attracts and rewards animals. Extra-floral nectar is involved in so-called indirect defense by attracting animals (generally ants) that prey on herbivores, or by discouraging herbivores from feeding on the plant. Floral nectar is presented inside the flower close to the reproductive organs and rewards animals that perform pollination while visiting the flower. In both cases nectar is a source of carbon and nitrogen compounds that feed animals, the most abundant solutes being sugars and amino acids...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qian Ju, Xiao Li, Xiao-Qiang Guo, Long Du, Chen-Ren Shi, Ming-Jing Qu
The dark black chafer (DBC), Holotrichia parallela , is an important pest of multiple crops. Insect host-searching behaviors are regulated by host plant volatiles. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanism linking the chemosensory system to plant volatiles at the molecular level will benefit DBC control strategies. Based on antenna transcriptome data, two highly expressed antenna-specific odorant-binding proteins (HparOBP20 and 49) were selected to identify novel DBC attractants using reverse chemical ecology methods...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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