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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322193/comparative-analysis-of-the-integument-transcriptomes-between-stick-mutant-and-wild-type-silkworms
#1
Duan Tan, Hai Hu, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Songyuan Wu, Xin Ding, Fangyin Dai, Cheng Lu
In insects, the integument provides mechanical support for the whole body and protects them from infections, physical and chemical injuries, and dehydration. Diversity in integument properties is often related to body shape, behavior, and survival rate. The stick ( sk ) silkworm is a spontaneous mutant with a stick-like larval body that is firm to the touch and, thus, less flexible. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the cuticles at day 3 of the fifth instar (L5D3) of sk larvae revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent...
October 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322085/the-effect-of-different-habitat-types-and-ontogenetic-stages-on-the-diet-shift-of-a-critically-endangered-fish-species-coreius-guichenoti-sauvage-and-dabry-de-thiersant-1874
#2
Zhi Yang, Xiaojuan Chen, Na Zhao, Huiyuan Tang, Jiangping Tao, Peng Zhang, Fang Shi, Chengyan Wan
This study examined the effect of habitat types and ontogenetic stages on the diet shift of Coreius guichenoti (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant, 1874), a critically endangered fish species. Based on the stable isotope analysis method, the following was explored: the variations in δ13 C and δ15 N values, isotopic niche width and four basal food sources (Mollusks, Macrocrustaceans, Aquatic insect larvae and particulate organic matters (POMs)) among three essential habitat types (the spawning ground, natural riverine feeding and nursery area, and Three Gorges Reservoir area) and between two ontogenetic stages (immature and fully mature stages)...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321388/effect-of-gamma-irradiation-on-fecundity-sterility-and-female-sex-pheromone-production-of-callosobruchus-chinensis-coleoptera-bruchidae
#3
Kashinath Chiluwal, Junheon Kim, Soon Do Bae, Gwang Hyun Roh, Hae Jun Park, Chung Gyoo Park
Azuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is a field-to-storage pest of legumes and its females produce sex pheromone components with two isomers: (2Z,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienal (2Z-homofarnesal) and (2E,6E)-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienal (2E-homofarnesal). Two-day-old virgin adults were treated with different doses (0, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 Gy) of gamma radiation and the effects on adult survivorship, fecundity, sterility, and pheromone production were studied...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321386/rice-leaf-folder-larvae-alter-their-shelter-building-behavior-and-shelter-structure-in-response-to-heat-stress
#4
Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Ling-Ling Gu, Gao-Rong Wang, Xiang-Dong Liu
Behavioral thermoregulation is a key strategy for insects to cope with heat stress. The rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae usually fold one leaf to construct a leaf shelter. The larvae are vulnerable to heat stress, and the temperature in summer is often beyond the optimal range of them. Shelters confer protection against environmental stress but unclear whether larvae will alter shelter-building behavior when encountering heat stress. We observed the shelter-building behavior of larvae during and after heat shock, and then examined the shape and structure of shelters...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319455/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-chemosensory-gene-families-from-trichoptera-and-basal-lepidoptera
#5
Jothi Kumar Yuvaraj, Martin N Andersson, Dan-Dan Zhang, Christer Löfstedt
The chemosensory gene families of insects encode proteins that are crucial for host location, mate finding, oviposition, and avoidance behaviors. The insect peripheral chemosensory system comprises odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). These protein families have been identified from a large number of insect species, however, they still remain unidentified from several taxa that could provide important clues to their evolution...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314458/comparative-analysis-reveals-the-complex-role-of-histoblast-nest-size-in-the-evolution-of-novel-insect-abdominal-appendages-in-sepsidae-diptera
#6
Dacotah Melicher, Kathy F Y Su, Rudolf Meier, Julia H Bowsher
BACKGROUND: The males of some sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera) have abdominal appendages that are remarkable in several ways. They are sexually dimorphic, have a complex evolutionary history of gain and loss, and can be jointed and thus highly mobile. The sternite brushes are used extensively in complex courtship behaviors that differ considerably between species and during mating. The abdominal appendages have a novel developmental pathway developing from histoblast nests rather than imaginal discs...
October 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313160/taxonomy-and-natural-history-of-strumigenys-thaxteri-wheeler-and-strumigenys-reticeps-kempf-hymenoptera-formicidae
#7
John E Lattke, Thiago S R da Silva, Thibaut Delsinne
We report finding Strumigenys thaxteri Wheeler in the Amazonian foothills of southeastern Ecuador, over 2000 km to the west of previously known records for the species in Trinidad and Guyana. Field observations suggest it is a sit and wait ambush predator that captures insects that alight on the vegetation upon which they position themselves. Once prey is subdued they descend with it to ground level, where they presumably nest. Their massive mandibles, robust claws, dense body cover of long silky hairs, and sting may all contribute to detecting, trapping, and subduing larger sized, flying prey...
June 20, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312624/altered-pheromone-biosynthesis-is-associated-with-sex-specific-changes-in-life-span-and-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Nithya Mary Joseph, Nateshwar Yogindra Elphick, Sasha Mohammad, Johannes H Bauer
Many insect behaviors, including foraging, aggression, mating or group behavior, are tightly regulated by pheromones. Recently, it has been shown that pheromones may influence extreme longevity in the honeybee Apis mellifera, while changes in pheromone profile have been observed during ageing in Drosophila melanogaster. These data suggest a potential link between the pheromone system, behavior and longevity in insects. Here, we investigate this potential link by examining changes in behavior and longevity in fruit flies with altered pheromone profiles...
October 9, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312554/nonreproductive-effects-of-insect-parasitoids-on-their-hosts
#9
Paul K Abram, Jacques Brodeur, Alberto Urbaneja, Alejandro Tena
The main modes of action of insect parasitoids are considered to be killing their hosts with egg laying followed by offspring development (reproductive mortality), and adults feeding on hosts directly (host feeding). However, parasitoids can also negatively affect their hosts in ways that do not contribute to current or future parasitoid reproduction (nonreproductive effects). Outcomes of nonreproductive effects for hosts can include death, altered behavior, altered reproduction, and altered development. On the basis of these outcomes and the variety of associated mechanisms, we categorize nonreproductive effects into (a) nonconsumptive effects, (b) mutilation, (c) pseudoparasitism, (d) immune defense costs, and (e) aborted parasitism...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312553/fat-body-biology-in-the-last-decade
#10
Sheng Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Qili Feng
The insect fat body is analogous to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver. In this review, the new and exciting advancements made in fat body biology in the last decade are summarized. Controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals, insect fat body cells undergo mitosis during embryogenesis, endoreplication during the larval stages, and remodeling during metamorphosis and regulate reproduction in adults. Fat body tissues are major sites for nutrient storage, energy metabolism, innate immunity, and detoxification...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310733/conserved-microbiota-among-young-heliconius-butterfly-species
#11
Bas van Schooten, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, W Owen McMillan, Riccardo Papa
Background: Insects are the most diverse group of animals which have established intricate evolutionary interactions with bacteria. However, the importance of these interactions is still poorly understood. Few studies have focused on a closely related group of insect species, to test the similarities and differences between their microbiota. Heliconius butterflies are a charismatic recent insect radiation that evolved the unique ability to use pollen as a protein source, which affected life history traits and resulted in an elevated speciation rates...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308813/exposure-to-pollen-bound-pesticide-mixtures-induces-longer-lived-but-less-efficient-honey-bees
#12
Alberto Prado, Maryline Pioz, Cyril Vidau, Fabrice Requier, Mylène Jury, Didier Crauser, Jean-Luc Brunet, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
Due to the widespread use of pesticides and their persistence in the environment, non-target organisms are chronically exposed to mixtures of toxic residues. Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are all found at low doses in the diet of pollinators such as honey bees, but due to the lack of data on the toxicological effects of these mixtures, determining their risk is difficult to assess. We therefore developed a study combining the identification of common pollen-bound pesticide mixtures associated with poor colony development and tested their effects on bee behavior and physiology...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308058/ultrastructure-of-antennal-sensilla-of-three-fruit-borers-lepidoptera-crambidae-or-tortricidae
#13
Yiping Li, Fangfang Liu, Xiao Du, Zhumei Li, Junxiang Wu
Three fruit borers Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Crambidae), Grapholita molesta Busck (Tortricidae), and Spilonota albicana Motschulsky (Tortricidae) are serious pests of fruit trees. In this study, their antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and distributions were observed by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). Nine types of sensilla were found on the antennae of C. punctiferalis, while eight types of sensilla were presented on each of G. molesta and S. albicana. The sensilla trichodea with two subtypes were the most abundant sensilla among three fruit borers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307393/a-complex-peripheral-code-for-salt-taste-in-drosophila
#14
Alexandria H Jaeger, Molly Stanley, Zachary F Weiss, Pierre-Yves Musso, Rachel Cw Chan, Han Zhang, Damian Feldman-Kiss, Michael D Gordon
Each taste modality is generally encoded by a single, molecularly defined, population of sensory cells. However, salt stimulates multiple taste pathways in mammals and insects, suggesting a more complex code for salt taste. Here, we examine salt coding in Drosophila . After creating a comprehensive molecular map comprised of five discrete sensory neuron classes across the fly labellum, we find that four are activated by salt: two exhibiting characteristics of 'low salt' cells, and two 'high salt' classes. Behaviorally, low salt attraction depends primarily on 'sweet' neurons, with additional input from neurons expressing the ionotropic receptor IR94e...
October 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304041/four-types-of-vibration-behaviors-in-a-mole-cricket
#15
Yaoko Hayashi, Jin Yoshimura, Derek A Roff, Tetsuro Kumita, Akira Shimizu
Vibrational communication is known in some subterranean insects. Except for their use in sexual signaling, vibration behavior has rarely been reported. We report here four distinct types of substrate-based vibration behaviors in the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, which are not associated with sexual signaling because of the occurrence of these behaviors in nymphs: (1) scraping with the forelegs; (2) foreleg taps (tapping with the forelegs); (3) palpal taps (tapping with the maxillary palpi); and (4) tremulation (back-and-forth movement of the whole body)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303524/effects-of-temporal-variation-in-community-level-fruit-abundance-on-seed-dispersal-by-birds-across-woody-species
#16
Shoji Naoe, Takashi Masaki, Shoko Sakai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In animal-dispersed plants, seed dispersal patterns of the same species in the same habitat can greatly differ among individuals and temporally. Many studies have revealed the pervasive effects of spatial variation in fruit abundance on seed dispersal of individual plants. By contrast, very few studies have investigated the temporal variation in seed dispersal. METHODS: We investigated the effects of conspecific and community-level fruit abundance on fruit removal rate and seed dispersal distance of six bird-dispersed woody species in a Japanese temperate forest for 3 yr...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302815/evaluation-of-the-attractant-effect-and-lipid-profile-modulation-of-natural-fixed-oils-on-the-medfly-ceratitis-capitata-wiedemann
#17
Antonella Rosa, Alessandra Piras, Gianfranca Carta, Paolo Solari, Roberto Crnjar, Carla Masala
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824; Diptera: Tephritidae), is a polyphagous pest in horticulture, mainly targeting Citrus fruits. Natural essential and fixed oils are currently under investigation for their broad-spectrum in pest control. To gain better knowledge about medfly behavior and biochemistry, we examined with behavioral and biochemical assays, the effects on C. capitata from six natural fixed oils obtained from vegetable (five) or animal (one) matrices using the eco-friendly supercritical CO 2 extraction...
October 9, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300606/lingering-effects-of-herbivory-and-plant-defenses-on-pollinators
#18
REVIEW
Deidra J Jacobsen, Robert A Raguso
In order to survive and reproduce, flowering plants must balance the conflicting selective pressures of herbivore avoidance and pollinator attraction. Links between herbivory and reproduction are often attributed to indirect effects of leaf damage on pollination via reductions in floral allocation, or increases in chemical defenses on herbivore-damaged plants. However, the impacts of herbivory on pollinators have the potential to extend beyond initial floral visits when plant defenses impact pollinator health, foraging behavior, and reproductive success...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299456/host-preference-and-olfaction-in-drosophila-mojavensis
#19
Amber Crowley-Gall, Mary Shaw, Stephanie M Rollmann
Many organisms live in complex environments that vary geographically in resource availability. This environmental heterogeneity can lead to changes within species in their phenotypic traits. For example, in many herbivorous insects, variation in host plant availability has been shown to influence insect host preference behavior. This behavior can be mediated in part through the insect olfactory system and the odor-evoked responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), which are in turn mediated by their corresponding odorant receptor genes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298942/is-it-justifiable-to-pool-chironomus-species-in-trace-element-contamination-studies
#20
Isabelle Proulx, Landis Hare, Bruno Dupré
Larvae of the insect Chironomus (Chironomidae, Diptera) have great potential for estimating the bioavailability of sedimentary trace elements since they are common in fine sediments and tolerate high concentrations of these contaminants. Their use as biomonitors is limited by the fact that they are difficult to identify to species, and species can differ in their trace element concentrations. To determine if pooling species would compromise their use as trace element biomonitors, we identified species of Chironomus larvae collected from 22 lakes and measured their concentrations of 9 trace elements...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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