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Obesity AND Child*

Leticia E Sewaybricker, Ellen A Schur, Susan J Melhorn, Brunno M Campos, Mary K Askren, Guilherme A S Nogueira, Mariana P Zambon, Maria Angela R G M Antonio, Fernando Cendes, Licio A Velloso, Gil Guerra-Junior
OBJECTIVE: In adults, hypothalamic gliosis has been documented using quantitative T2 neuroimaging, whereas functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a defective hypothalamic response to nutrients. No studies have yet evaluated these hypothalamic abnormalities in children with obesity. METHODS: Children with obesity and lean controls underwent quantitative MRI measuring T2 relaxation time, along with continuous hypothalamic fMRI acquisition to evaluate early response to glucose ingestion...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Lizbeth González-Herrera, Jorge Zavala-Castro, Claudia Ayala-Cáceres, Gerardo Pérez-Mendoza, María José López-González, Doris Pinto-Escalante, Thelma Canto-Cetina, María Guadalupe García-Escalante, Rodrigo Rubi-Castellanos, Silvina Contreras-Capetillo, Fernando Herrera-Sanchez, Nina Méndez-Domínguez, Alberto Alcocer-Gamboa
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variation of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and obesity traits. Distribution of FTO single nutleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1421085T>C, rs9939609T>A, rs8057044G>A and copy number variation (CNV) was evaluated in association with childhood obesity or overweight status in children with Mayan ethnicity. METHODS: We included 318 school-aged children with obesity or overweight status (body mass index [BMI]: >85th percentile) and 303 children with normal weight (BMI: 15th-85th percentile)...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Emilia Hagman, Anna E Ek, Claude Marcus
BACKGROUND: Impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) reflects an intermediate hyperglycemia in the fasting state. Which fasting glucose level that actually is associated with impaired insulin-glucose homeostasis in children and adolescents with obesity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how insulin and glucose homeostasis in children and adolescents with obesity in Sweden varies within different fasting glucose levels in the non-diabetic range...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Dympna Leonard, Petra Buttner, Fintan Thompson, Maria Makrides, Robyn McDermott
AIM: Anaemia during pregnancy is common worldwide. In Australia between 7.1% and 11% of mothers have been reported to have anaemia in pregnancy. Higher rates are reported for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women (Townsville: 34.2%, remote Northern Territory: 50%). The present study describes anaemia in pregnancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women of Far North Queensland. METHODS: Health service information was analysed for 2076 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who gave birth between 2006 and 2010...
November 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Manal Ali, Madi Jaghbir, Mahmoud Salam, Ghada Al-Kadamany, Rana Damsees, Nedal Al-Rawashdeh
Plastic made with bisphenol A (BPA) produces trans-generational changes in genes and behavior. It has been positively linked to obesity and thyroid dysfunction. This study aimed to detect the presence of BPA in polycarbonate plastic (PC) baby bottles. Fifteen PC baby bottles with a clear indication of BPA free/safe/clear were randomly selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tests were used to detect residual or migrating BPA post three stress tests. An estimated intake of BPA among children was calculated then compared to the universal tolerable daily intake (TDI)...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sarah Appel, Jon Grothe, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Maria Wohlfarth, Marion Handwerk, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Alexandra Gellhaus, Jörg Dötsch
Obesity and an unhealthy nutrition are on the rise and affect also women in childbearing age and hence, during pregnancy. Despite normal or even high birth weight the offspring suffers from long term metabolic risks. We hypothesized that fetal growth is disturbed during different intrauterine phases. Underlying molecular events remain elusive. Female mice were fed either a control diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational time points G15...
December 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Dan Liu, Anne Mason, Linda Marks, Howard Davis, David J Hunter, Llinos Mary Jehu, Joanne Smithson, Shelina Visram
Background: Under the 2013 reforms introduced by the Health and Social Care Act (2012), public health responsibilities in England were transferred from the National Health Service to local authorities (LAs). Ring-fenced grants were introduced to support the new responsibilities. The aim of our study was to test whether the level of expenditure in 2013/14 affected the prevalence of childhood obesity in 2016/17. Methods: We used National Child Measurement Programme definitions of childhood obesity and datasets...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Anna Pearce, Steven Hope, Lucy Griffiths, Mario Cortina-Borja, Catherine Chittleborough, Catherine Law
Background: The World Health organization (WHO) recommends that children engage in 60 min daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (dMVPA). Just half of children in the UK achieve these levels (with similarly low levels in other high-income countries). Thus, the dMVPA target is a focus of national obesity strategies. However, the potential impact of increased physical activity on prevalence and inequalities in childhood overweight is unknown. Using objective data from the Millennium Cohort Study (∼18 000 children born 2000-02) we simulated a series of hypothetical physical activity intervention scenarios: achievement of the target, and more realistic increases demonstrated in trials...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Reinette Tydeman-Edwards, Francois Cornel Van Rooyen, Corinna May Walsh
This study compared the diet and anthropometric status of adults (25-64 years) in rural and urban South Africa. Anthropometric status of adults and preschool children (<7 years old) from the same households were also determined. A descriptive cross-sectional design was applied. All adults from three towns in the rural southern Free State (n = 553) and a stratified proportional cluster sample from urban Mangaung (n = 419) participated. Anthropometric assessments included body mass index and waist circumference...
December 2018: Heliyon
Simone Rampelli, Kathrin Guenther, Silvia Turroni, Maike Wolters, Toomas Veidebaum, Yiannis Kourides, Dénes Molnár, Lauren Lissner, Alfonso Benitez-Paez, Yolanda Sanz, Arno Fraterman, Nathalie Michels, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Wolfgang Ahrens
It is widely accepted that the intestinal microbiome is connected to obesity, as key mediator of the diet impact on the host metabolic and immunological status. To investigate whether the individual gut microbiome has a potential in predicting the onset and progression of diseases, here we characterized the faecal microbiota of 70 children in a two-time point prospective study, within a four-year window. All children had normal weight at the beginning of this study, but 36 of them gained excessive weight at the subsequent check-up...
2018: Communications biology
Xiaoli Liu, Zheng Xiang, Chaoneng Liu, Xiangrong Shi, Xinfeng Yi, Mingyan Cheng, Hannah Schenck, Jonathan Bates
Background: Physical fitness has been recognized not only as an integrated predictor of the body's functional status, but also as an important marker of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with physical fitness among 3-6-year-old children within the Tujia-Nationality settlement in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014. Methods: Demographics questionnaires and fitness assessment were performed to identify the risk factors for poor physical fitness (PPF) among 3- to 6-year-old children in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014 in the area of southwest Hubei of China...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jaime Nieto-Zermeño, Ricardo Ordorica Flores, Blanca Del Río-Navarro, Betzabé Salgado-Arroyo, Jorge Mario Molina-Díaz
Introduction: Obesity is a world pandemic; in Mexico 3 out of 10 adolescents suffer from it. Conservative management of morbid obesity is not effective and bariatric surgery is the only useful therapy. International pediatric bariatric surgery series are scarce and in Mexico there is limited experience. Method: We analyze the metabolic repercussions, comorbidities and complications in our series of Mexican adolescents with morbid obesity who underwent a gastric sleeve between 2011 and 2015...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Marwa Elhady, Amira Aly Ahmed Mahmoud Elazab, Karima Abdelfattah Bahagat, Naglaa Abdelmoneam Abdallah, Gamil El-Sayed Ibrahim
Background Ectopic visceral fat is a major risk factor for obesity complications including insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Ultrasonography is a simple bedside screening tool used for the assessment of ectopic visceral fat including fatty pancreas. This study investigates the association between insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and fatty pancreas detected by ultrasound in children with obesity. Methods This case-control study included 50 prepubertal obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥95th age- and sex-specific percentiles) and 30 lean children (BMI 5th-85th age- and sex-specific percentiles) as the control group...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Ramona F Stroescu, Otilia Mărginean, Teofana Bizerea, Mihai Gafencu, Adrian Voicu, Gabriela Doroș
Background Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disorder in which leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) play an important role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between markers of adiposity such as leptin, adiponectin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in obese children, and to determine whether these adipokines are significant markers in defining metabolic syndrome (MetS) in pediatric population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year, between July 2013 and June 2014, on 122 cases of obesity in children diagnosed at the Louis Ţurcanu Emergency Hospital for Children Timişoara, in the departments of Diabetes and Nutritional Diseases, Endocrinology and Cardiology...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Yvette E Lentferink, Lisa van Teeseling, Catherijne A J Knibbe, Marja M J van der Vorst
Background Obesity is associated with oxidative stress, which is related to increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. AGEs accumulated in skin collagen can be measured with skin autofluorescence (sAF). There are conflicting reports on the influence of obesity on sAF in adults and no data in children. Therefore, this study evaluated sAF in pediatric patients with and without obesity. Methods In this cross-sectional study, participants aged 4-18 years were included: patients with obesity (body mass index standard deviation score [BMI-SDS] >2...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Ada L García, Gabriela Morillo-Santander, Alison Parrett, Antonina N Mutoro
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in the UK, to explore the use of health and nutrition claims, and to assess their healthiness. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was carried out in seven UK supermarkets: Tesco, Aldi, Sainsbury's, Morrisons, Asda, Lidl and Waitrose. Products marketed as healthy to children above the age of 1 year containing child-oriented imagery including cartoon characters and terms such as 'one of 5-a-day' on product packaging were identified both in stores and online...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Scott M Lippman, Cory Abate-Shen, Karen L Colbert Maresso, Graham A Colditz, Andrew J Dannenberg, Nancy E Davidson, Mary L Disis, Raymond N DuBois, Eva Szabo, Anna R Giuliano, William N Hait, J Jack Lee, Thomas W Kensler, Barnett S Kramer, Paul Limburg, Anirban Maitra, Maria Elena Martinez, Timothy R Rebbeck, Kathryn H Schmitz, Eduardo Vilar, Ernest T Hawk
The recent pace, extent, and impact of paradigm-changing cancer prevention science has been remarkable. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) convened a 3-day summit, aligned with five research priorities: (i) Precancer Atlas (PCA). (ii) Cancer interception. (iii) Obesity-cancer linkage, a global epidemic of chronic low-grade inflammation. (iv) Implementation science. (v) Cancer disparities. Aligned with these priorities, AACR co-led the Lancet Commission to formally endorse and accelerate the NCI Cancer Moonshot program, facilitating new global collaborative efforts in cancer control...
December 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Raven Cooksey, Susan Y Wu, Laura Klesse, Jon D Oden, Ross E Bland, Joseph C Hodges, Lynn Gargan, Gloria Lena Vega, Daniel C Bowers
Survivors of childhood brain tumors may be at risk for early onset of metabolic syndrome, possibly secondary to surgery and/or radiation exposure. This study examines effects of radiation exposure to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) on metabolic risk among survivors of childhood brain tumors. One hundred forty-two met inclusion criteria; 60 had tumor surgery plus radiation exposure (<u>></u>1 Gray (Gy)) to HPA. The second subgroup of 82 subjects had surgery only and were not exposed to radiation...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Daphné Michelet, Florence Julien-Marsollier, Thomas Vacher, Myriam Bellon, Alia Skhiri, Béatrice Bruneau, Julien Fournier, Thierno Diallo, Virginie Luce, Christopher Brasher, Souhayl Dahmani
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy of the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) Scale in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. PATIENTS/METHODS: A literature search of studies comparing SRBD to polysomnography for the diagnosis of OSAS in children was performed. Risks of biases were quantified using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. Analyses determined the summary receiver operator characteristic area under the curve (SROC), the pooled sensitivity (Se), the specificity (Sp), and the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-)...
October 28, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Anastasia Polytarchou, Georgia Katsouli, Marina Tsaoussoglou, Evangelia Charmandari, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos, Athanasios G Kaditis
OBJECTIVE: Children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In most typically developing children with OSAS, more obstructive apneas and hypopneas occur during rapid eye movement (REM) than during non-REM (NREM) sleep. It was hypothesized that patients with PWS are even more prone to obstructive events in REM sleep than otherwise healthy subjects with OSAS. METHODS: Polysomnographic data of patients with PWS and of typically developing children (controls) with OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 1 episode/h) were analyzed...
October 28, 2018: Sleep Medicine
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