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Obesity AND Child*

Hannah G Lane, Rachel Deitch, Yan Wang, Maureen M Black, Genevieve F Dunton, Linda Aldoory, Lindsey Turner, Elizabeth A Parker, Shauna C Henley, Brit Saksvig, Hee-Jung Song, Erin R Hager
Schools are a recommended place for childhood obesity prevention. Local Wellness Policies (LWPs) establish guidelines for schools to provide opportunities for students to access nutritious foods and be physically active. Little is known about the impact of LWPs, when implemented, on students' behavior and body mass index (BMI). The Wellness Champions for Change trial assesses the student-level impact of providing theory-based training and technical assistance to help schools implement LWPs. This 3-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial will take place in 30 low- or middle-income schools (15 elementary and 15 middle) in five Maryland school districts...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Martha Y Kubik, Jayne A Fulkerson, John R Sirard, Ann Garwick, Judy Temple, Olga Gurvich, Jiwoo Lee, Bonnie Dudovitz
Rising levels of severe obesity among children, worsening disparities by race and ethnicity and reluctance of primary care clinicians' to provide obesity management to children are compelling reasons to consider alternatives to primary care management of childhood obesity. The Students Nurses and Parents Seeking Healthy Options Together (SNAPSHOT) trial will test the efficacy of an elementary school-based, school nurse-led, healthy weight management program to reduce excess weight gain among children, 8- to 12-years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥75th percentile, by increasing healthy dietary practices and physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Annie Ro, Rachel E Goldberg, Jennifer Buher-Kane
Both low birthweight (<2500 g; LBW) and macrosomia (>4000 g) are considered adverse birth outcomes and are associated with later poor health conditions, yet the social determinants of macrosomia are understudied. In this study, we explore patterning of LBW, normal birthweight, and macrosomia by race/ethnicity and nativity. We examined data from all live births between 1999 and 2014 in New Jersey with a non-missing, plausible value of birthweight (n = 1,609,516). We compared the risk for LBW and macrosomia among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian mothers, and between the US- and native-born...
October 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Lukas Zlatohlavek, Vit Maratka, Eva Tumova, Richard Ceska, Vera Lanska, Michal Vrablik, Jaroslav A Hubacek
BACKGROUND This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the common TMEM-18 (rs4854344, G>T) and NYD-SP18 (rs6971091, G>A) gene variants and weight loss after lifestyle interventions (increased physical activity in conjunction with optimal dietary intake) in overweight/obese children/adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS We genotyped 684 unrelated, white, non-diabetic children (age 12.7±2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 30.66±4.80 kg/m²). Anthropometric and biochemical examinations were performed before and after 4 weeks of an intensive lifestyle intervention...
October 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
An-Ru Wang, Xue-Qin Yan, Cai Zhang, Cai-Qi Du, Wen-Jun Long, Di Zhan, Jie Ren, Xiao-Ping Luo
Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP1), a member of the CCN family, is increasingly being recognized as a potential target for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have shown that WISP1 can regulate low-grade inflammation in obese mice, and circulating WISP1 levels are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. Herein, we measured serum WISP1 levels in obese youth and explored its relationships with pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 18 (IL-18) and other metabolic indexes...
October 2018: Current medical science
Li Cai, Jun Tao, Xiuhong Li, Lizi Lin, Jun Ma, Jin Jing, Yajun Chen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association between high birth weight and obesity is well known, but few studies have assessed the relationship across the full range of birth weight or in different gestational groups. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the full range of birth weight and childhood weight status stratified by gestational age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A national survey of 65 347 children aged 6-18 years was conducted in China, 2013. Weight and height were objectively measured...
October 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Victoria A Farrow, Jeane Bosch, Jennifer N Crawford, Carrie Snead, Jay Schulkin
BACKGROUND: A history of childhood abuse is strongly linked to adult health problems. Obstetrician-gynecologists will undoubtedly treat abuse survivors during their careers, and a number of patient presenting problems may be related to a history of childhood abuse (e.g., chronic pelvic pain, sexual dysfunction, mental health disorders, obesity, and chronic diseases). Knowledge of abuse history may assist with treatment planning and the delivery of trauma-informed care. The current study sought to explore obstetrician-gynecologists' training, knowledge, beliefs, practice patterns, and barriers around screening for history of childhood abuse in their adult patients...
October 16, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Nadia Panera, Barbara Barbaro, Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifaceted disorder that ranges from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis, which may evolve toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is currently considered a "global" and "epidemic" disease, whose prevalence is progressively increasing even in pediatric age. The incidence of NAFLD is very high in overweight/obese children, and a greater risk of disease progression is associated with severe obesity, highlighting the role of nutrition...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Giacomo Lazzeri, Claudia Tosti, Andrea Pammolli, Gianmarco Troiano, Alessio Vieno, Natale Canale, Paola Dalmasso, Patrizia Lemma, Alberto Borraccino, Felice Petraglia, Stefano Luisi
BACKGROUND: A unique standardized national dataset on adolescent girls (21 regions) participating in the Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) was used to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and age at menarche. METHODS: Two independent nationally representative survey datasets: one on 15-year-olds (n = 6907, in 21 regions, year 2013/2014) and one on 11-year-olds (n = 10,128, in 20 regions, year 2009/2010) were analysed...
October 19, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Nikki Milne, Michael J Simmonds, Wayne Hing
With accumulating evidence that exercise capacity decreases all-cause mortality independent of adiposity, benefits may be gained by developing cardiorespiratory fitness measures that are specifically and sensitively designed for use with pediatric populations when cardiorespiratory fitness may be a contributing factor for obesity. This study aimed to examine the criterion validity of the Modified Shuttle Test-Paeds (MSTP) as a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in children, against the gold-standard reference; VO₂peak, compared to the commonly used field-test; 20-m Multi-Stage-Shuttle-Run-Test (20-m MSRT)...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hae Sang Lee, Jong Seo Yoon, Kyu Jung Park, Jung Sub Lim, Jin Soon Hwang
Long-term effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on bone health remain unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the possible association of bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple sites with T2D after correcting for several potential confounders such as age, sex, Tanner stage, and BMI known to affect BMD in adolescents with newly developed T2D. In this cross-sectional study, 17 children and adolescents with T2D and 59 age, sex, and BMI-matched controls were included. All subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure regional and whole-body composition with Lunar Prodigy at the time of initial diagnosis...
October 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Mausam Ghosh, Sanjay Das, K V L Narasinga Rao, Nupur Pruthi, V J Ramesh, Trichur R Raju, T N Sathyaprabha
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare, epithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) that could lead to manifestation of multiple post-operative symptoms, ranging from hormonal imbalance to obesity, diabetes, visual, neurological and neurocognitive impairments. CP is more frequent in children, and has been reported in middle aged adults as well. In fact, arterial laceration and/or brain stroke which may occur following the removal of some CPs is mainly due to calcification of that CPs along with strong attachments to the blood vessels...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Margarida Vieira, Graça S Carvalho
School-based programmes for preventing childhood obesity have been shown to be effective in improving eating habits and nutritional status, but few intervention programmes with a controlled design have included an economic evaluation. In this study, we conducted a cost-consequence analysis to evaluate the costs and the health benefits of the 'Planning Health in School' programme (PHS-pro) implemented in the Northern region of Portugal to 449 children of 10-14 years old. Previous study has showed that after PHS-pro, several anthropometric measures significantly improved in the intervention group (height, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) compared with the control group, followed by significant improvements on soft drinks, fruit and vegetables daily consumptions...
October 18, 2018: Health Promotion International
Serene En Hui Tung, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir, Yit Siew Chin, Mohd Shariff Zalilah, Jamil Osman Zubaidah, Hip Seng Yim
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that a negative relationship exists between adiposity and cognitive function in children. However, limited information is known on how they are related. This study aimed to examine the mediators of the relationship between overweight/obesity and cognitive function among school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional comparison study whereby 225 overweight/obese children matched for age, sex, and ethnicity with 225 normal weight children participated in this study...
October 19, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Vibeke Naeser, Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Bo Nyhuus, Lise Borgwardt, Marianne Hørby Jørgensen, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases is well described after adult liver transplantation, whereas the risk in the pediatric population still is discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pediatric liver transplant recipients and whether measurements of carotid intima media thickness and pulse wave velocity were increased compared to healthy controls. METHODS: We included 42 pediatric liver transplantation recipients and examined them for markers of metabolic syndrome, liver fibrosis measured by shear wave velocity, body fat measured by DXA scans and carotid intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity (n = 41 for the carotid scans)...
October 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Thomas Reinehr, Christian Ludwig Roth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A...
October 18, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Nicola Ullmann, Virginia Mirra, Antonio Di Marco, Martino Pavone, Federica Porcaro, Valentina Negro, Alessandro Onofri, Renato Cutrera
Childhood asthma remains a multifactorial disease with heterogeneous clinical phenotype and complex genetic inheritance. The primary aim of asthma management is to achieve control of symptoms, in order to reduce the risk of future exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function, which results especially challenging in patients with difficult asthma. When asthma does not respond to maintenance treatment, firstly, the correct diagnosis needs to be confirmed and other diagnosis, such as cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, immunodeficiency conditions or airway and vascular malformations need to be excluded...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Cristina Oana Mǎrginean, Claudiu Mǎrginean, Lorena Elena Meliţ
Introduction: Childhood obesity is occurring at alarming rates in both developed and developing countries. "Obesogenic" environmental factors must be associated with variants of different risk alleles to determine polygenic or common obesity, and their impact depends on different developmental stages.The interaction between obesogenic environment and genetic susceptibility results in the so-called polygenic forms of obesity. In contrast, monogenic and syndromic obesity are not influenced by environmental events...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
H Borgeraas, L H Barstad, R Størdal Lund, J M Fredheim, J K Hertel, J Hjelmesæth
Objectives: Early obesity onset is a risk factor for specific comorbidities in adulthood, but whether this relationship is present in men and women with severe obesity is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether obesity onset in childhood or adolescence, as compared with adulthood, is associated with higher odds of comorbidities in men and women with severe obesity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking men and women with severe obesity attending a tertiary care centre in Norway, from 2006 to 2017, was performed...
October 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S Turner, C Jones
We report a case of public health activism which began as a formal complaint lodged with the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) on 24 June 2017 against Nestlé, a major global ultra-processed food manufacturer. A television advertisement for Nestlé's Milkybar included the copy 'It's the simple things that are the most fun. That's why milk is now our No.1 ingredient'. However, the main nutritional constituent in Milkybar is sugar at 53%, and therefore we complained to the ASA that the advert was misleading...
October 19, 2018: British Dental Journal
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