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Dor David Abelman
As postsecondary students' use of "study drugs" becomes more popular with increasingly reported negative effects on health and academic performance, failing prohibitionist policies to reduce consumption, and ambiguity in literature towards best practices to address this population, we present a literature review that seeks effective solutions educational institutions can apply to improve outcomes for students who use drugs. Motivations for use, effects of the substances, an analysis of efforts to control use from educational institutions, and suggestions on promoting most effective outcomes based on harm reduction, are described...
October 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
Alexander M Ponizovsky, Eli Marom, Israel Fitoussi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe trends in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs consumption in Israel (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Vyvanse, Focalin, and Adderall) over the 8 years, 2005-2012, and to explore explanations for changes in amounts and patterns of the utilization. METHODS: Data for the period from 2005 to 2012 were extracted from the database maintained by the Israel Ministry of Health's Pharmaceutical Administration...
May 2014: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Andre Jackson
PURPOSE: Investigate the performance of partial area under the drug concentration-time curve (PAUC) metrics (0-3 h) and (3-24 h), for Concerta, Ritalin LA and Focalin XR (different Methylphenidate modified-release formulations). The metrics have been chosen as additional BE metrics for Ritalin LA by the FDA to establish BE for these products due to the early and late peak concentrations critical for treatment of morning and afternoon symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2014: Pharmaceutical Research
Andres G Viana, Lindsay Trent, Matthew T Tull, Laurie Heiden, John D Damon, Terry L Hight, John Young
OBJECTIVE: The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) among youth is a significant public health concern, ranking as the second most frequently used class of drug in youth after marijuana. Given the complex and multiple pathways that may lead to NMUPD in youth, this study examines predictors of NMUPD across constitutional, psychological, and family/peer domains. METHOD: An ethnically diverse sample of 6790 youth in the 6th-12th grades enrolled in public schools throughout Mississippi completed a battery of questionnaires as part of a broader school-based mental health screening initiative in Mississippi (Behavioral Vital Signs Project)...
December 2012: Addictive Behaviors
Josephine Elia
Pharmacotherapy, one of the effective modalities of treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was discovered serendipitously and, until recently, consisted primarily of short-acting methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine compounds. The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of Concerta in 2000 followed by approval of additional long-acting methylphenidate (Ritalin LA; Metadate CD) and amphetamine formulations (Adderall XR) expanded the repertoire. By providing sustained efficacy for most of the school day, mid-day administration is avoided, privacy is preserved, and adherence to treatment improves...
January 2005: Psychiatry
Marit D Moen, Susan J Keam
Dexmethylphenidate extended release (XR) [Focalin XR] is a CNS stimulant indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients aged > or = 6 years. Dexmethylphenidate contains the d-threo-enantiomer of methylphenidate. Dexmethylphenidate XR capsules have a bimodal release profile, which mimics two doses of dexmethylphenidate immediate release (IR) given 4 hours apart, and allows once-daily administration. Once-daily dexmethylphenidate XR was effective and generally well tolerated in the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in placebo-controlled trials...
December 2009: CNS Drugs
Ann C Childress, Thomas Spencer, Frank Lopez, Ortrud Gerstner, Anuradha Thulasiraman, Rafael Muniz, Anke Post
OBJECTIVE: This 5-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group investigation is the first fixed-dose study to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of three doses of (10, 20, or 30 mg, once daily [o.d.]) dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (HCl) extended-release (d-MPH XR; Focalin XR) across multiple settings to treat pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). RESULTS: ADHD pediatric outpatients (n = 253) diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) edition, criteria were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive d-MPH XR (10, 20, or 30 mg o...
August 2009: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Benjamin Chavez, Michael A Sopko, Megan J Ehret, Raphael E Paulino, Kyle R Goldberg, Kristine Angstadt, Gregory T Bogart
OBJECTIVE: To review recent literature on the different stimulant preparations regarding efficacy and safety in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and describe advantages and disadvantages of the many available dosage formulations. DATA SOURCES: Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed/MEDLINE (2005-December 2008) using the terms methylphenidate, amphetamines, central nervous system stimulants, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
June 2009: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2009: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
Anthony L Rostain
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in educational, occupational, neuropsychological, and social functioning in adults. Successful diagnosis and treatment of the disorder in adults can be a challenge because recent and integrative clinical guidelines are lacking and diagnostic criteria are based on making a retrospective diagnosis of childhood-onset ADHD. To develop evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in adults, the scientific literature was reviewed, including primary clinical studies, meta-analyses, and available clinical guidelines...
September 2008: Postgraduate Medicine
D Tuerck, Y Wang, M Maboudian, Y Wang, G Sedek, F Pommier, S Appel-Dingemanse
OBJECTIVE: The d-isomer of methylphenidate (d-MPH) is the pharmacologically active part of the racemic mixture of methylphenidate (d,l-MPH), which has been used for decades in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A modified release formulation with bimodal release for the pure d-enantiomer (Focalin XR) has been developed to enable a fast onset of action and a sustained activity for once-daily administration. It was intended to achieve a bimodal concentration-time profile as observed after administration of two immediate release Focalin tablets...
December 2007: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
James J McGough, Caroly S Pataki, Robert Suddath
Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) currently represent the ninth largest segment of the CNS market by sales, with 2.4 billion USD spent annually on this condition and 40% annual growth. Stimulant medications remain the most effective ADHD therapies and provide robust improvement in ADHD symptoms in both youth and adults. Current prescribing practices favor extended release preparations due to increased convenience, compliance and tolerability with once-daily dosing. Dexmethylphenidate extended release is a long-acting preparation of the ADHD medication Focalin (dexmethylphenidate immediate release) and was approved for marketing by the US Food and Drug administration in June 2005...
July 2005: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Paul E A Glaser, Theresa C Thomas, B Matthew Joyce, F Xavier Castellanos, Greg A Gerhardt
RATIONALE: Current medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include some single isomer compounds [dextroamphetamine (D: -amphetamine, dexedrine) and dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)] and some racemic compounds [methylphenidate and mixed-salts amphetamine (Adderall)]. Adderall, which contains approximately 25% L: -amphetamine, has been successfully marketed as a first-line medication for ADHD. Although different clinical effects have been observed for D: -amphetamine, Adderall, and benzedrine; potential psychopharmacological differences on the level of neurotransmission between D: -amphetamine and L: -amphetamine have not been well characterized...
March 2005: Psychopharmacology
L Eugene Arnold, Ronald L Lindsay, C Keith Conners, Sharon B Wigal, Alan J Levine, Diane E Johnson, Scott A West, R Bart Sangal, Timothy P Bohan, Jerome B Zeldis
OBJECTIVES: d,l-threo-methylphenidate HCl (D,L-MPH) is the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A previous report showed placebo-controlled efficacy for the purified d-isomer (dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, d-MPH, Focalin) with a 2:1 potency compared to dl, and suggested a 6-hour duration of action. This study complements that report by studying the effect of placebo-controlled discontinuation and retesting the duration of action. METHODS: A 6-week, open-label titration of d-MPH (2...
2004: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Margaret Weiss, Michael Wasdell, John Patin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). METHOD: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on clinician ratings of improvement/deterioration, teacher ratings of remission, and duration of action...
November 2004: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sharon Wigal, James M Swanson, David Feifel, R Bart Sangal, Josephine Elia, Charles D Casat, Jerome B Zeldis, C Keith Conners
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH). METHOD: This was a randomized, double-blind study conducted at 12 U.S. centers. One hundred thirty-two subjects received d-MPH (n=44), d,l-MPH (n=46), or placebo (n=42) twice daily for 4 weeks, with titration of the dose based on weekly clinic visits...
November 2004: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
J M Swanson, M Lerner, T Wigal, K Steinhoff, L Greenhill, K Posner, J Freid, S Wigal
Recently, new long-acting formulations of racemic methylphenidate (MPH: Ritalin LA, Metadate CD and Concerta) and amphetamine (AMP: Adderall XR) were developed and are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, dexmethylphenidate (Focalin), the pharmacologically active d-threo enantiomer of MPH, also was approved by the FDA. In the initial phases of development, prototypes of these five new formulations were evaluated using the University of California, Irvine (UCI) Laboratory School Protocol (LSP), in which surrogate measures of efficacy are collected in highly controlled settings rather than clinical measures of effectiveness in the less-controlled, natural environments of home or school...
2002: Journal of Attention Disorders
Steve K Teo, David I Stirling, Steve D Thomas, Vikram D Khetani
D,L-methylphenidate (Ritalin) is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The therapeutic effect is predominantly due to the d enantiomer. Dexmethylphenidate (D-MPH; Focalin) was therefore developed for its better therapeutic index. The present study determined and compared the acute behavioral toxicity of D,L-MPH, D-MPH and L-MPH in rats after oral dosing. Comprehensive functional observational battery (FOB) evaluations and rota-rod tests were performed 30, 60 and 120 min after dosing...
February 2003: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
(no author information available yet)
Celgene has developed a chirally pure form of methylphenidate (Ritalin), called dexmethylphenidate [d-methylphenidate, d-methylphenidate hydrochloride, d-MPH; Focalin]. The drug has been launched in the USA and is undergoing registration in Canada for the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dexmethylphenidate is the single isomer version of racemic methylphenidate (Ritalin), which contains the active d isomer of Ritalin. Dexmethylphenidate acts via the inhibition of reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine...
2002: Drugs in R&D
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2002: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
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