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Solar water oxidation

Junsang Cho, Aaron Sheng, Nuwanthi Suwandaratne, Linda Wangoh, Justin L Andrews, Peihong Zhang, Louis F J Piper, David F Watson, Sarbajit Banerjee
The development of efficient solar energy conversion to augment other renewable energy approaches is one of the grand challenges of our time. Water splitting, or the disproportionation of H2 O into energy-dense fuels, H2 and O2 , is undoubtedly a promising strategy. Solar water splitting involves the concerted transfer of four electrons and four protons, which requires the synergistic operation of solar light harvesting, charge separation, mass and charge transport, and redox catalysis processes. It is unlikely that individual materials can mediate the entire sequence of charge and mass transport as well as energy conversion processes necessary for photocatalytic water splitting...
December 13, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Forrest A L Laskowski, Michael R Nellist, Jingjing Qiu, Shannon W Boettcher
Solar-water-splitting provides a mechanism to convert and store solar energy in the form of stable chemical bonds. Water-splitting systems often include semiconductor photoanodes, such as n-Fe2O3 and n-BiVO4, which use photogenerated holes to oxidize water. These photoanodes often exhibit improved performance when coated with metal-oxide/(oxy)hydroxide overlayers that are catalytic for the water oxidation reaction. The mechanism for this improvement, however, remains a controversial topic. This is, in part, due to a lack of experimental techniques that are able to directly track the flow of photogenerated holes in such multicomponent systems...
December 11, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Takeo Arai, Shunsuke Sato, Keita Sekizawa, Tomiko M Suzuki, Takeshi Morikawa
Photoelectrochemical CO2 to CO reduction was demonstrated with 3.4% solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency using polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells connected with earth-abundant catalysts: a manganese complex polymer for CO2 reduction and iron oxyhydroxide modified with a nickel compound for water oxidation. The system operated around neutral pH in a single-compartment reactor.
December 7, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yeongkyu Choi, Dasom Jeon, Yuri Choi, Dongseok Kim, Nayeong Kim, Minsu Gu, Sanghyun Bae, Taemin Lee, Hyun-Wook Lee, Byeong-Su Kim, Jungki Ryu
An efficient water oxidation photoanode based on hematite has been designed and fabricated by tailored assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and cobalt polyoxometalates (Co-POM) water oxidation catalysts into a nacre-like multilayer architecture on a hematite photoanode. The deposition of catalytic multilayers provides a high photocatalytic efficiency and photoelectrochemical stability to underlying hematite photoanodes. Compared to the bare counterpart, the catalytic multilayer electrode exhibits a significantly higher photocurrent density and large cathodic shift in onset potential (~ 369 mV) even at neutral pH conditions due to the improved charge transport and catalytic efficiency from the rational and precise assembly of GO and Co-POM...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Marcella Bonchio, Zois Syrgiannis, Max Burian, Nadia Marino, Erica Pizzolato, Konstantin Dirian, Francesco Rigodanza, Giulia Alice Volpato, Giuseppina La Ganga, Nicola Demitri, Serena Berardi, Heinz Amenitsch, Dirk M Guldi, Stefano Caramori, Carlo Alberto Bignozzi, Andrea Sartorel, Maurizio Prato
The oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is there primarily because of water oxidation performed by photosynthetic organisms using solar light and one specialized protein complex, photosystem II (PSII). High-resolution imaging of the PSII 'core' complex shows the ideal co-localization of multi-chromophore light-harvesting antennas with the functional reaction centre. Man-made systems are still far from replicating the complexity of PSII, as the majority of PSII mimetics have been limited to photocatalytic dyads based on a 1:1 ratio of a light absorber, generally a Ru-polypyridine complex, with a water oxidation catalyst...
December 3, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Xiaoyan Jiang, Alex Guenther, Mark Potosnak, Chris Geron, Roger Seco, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Lianhong Gu, Stephen Pallardy
Biogenic isoprene emissions play a very important role in atmospheric chemistry. These emissions are strongly dependent on various environmental conditions, such as temperature, solar radiation, plant water stress, ambient ozone and CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture. Current biogenic emission models (i.e., Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature, MEGAN) can simulate emission responses to some of the major driving variables, such as short-term variations in temperature and solar radiation, but the other factors are either missing or poorly represented...
June 2018: Atmospheric Environment
Nagappagari Lakshmanareddy, Vempuluru Navakoteswara Rao, Kanakkampalayam Krishnan Cheralathan, Ellappalayam Palanisamy Subramaniam, Muthukonda Venkatakrishnan Shankar
Direct conversion of solar energy into clean fuels is emerging as an efficient way for the future energy generation and solving environmental issues. Especially, photocatalytic splitting of water into H2 under solar light irradiation is one of the best techniques for clean energy production. Also, decomposition of organic pollutants using solar light is an urgent need to protect the environment. Hence, in the present study, we studied Pt-TiO2 nanotubes based composites for H2 generation and methyl orange dye degradation under solar light irradiation and compared the effect of deposition methods namely photo-deposition and chemical reduction methods...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dong Ki Lee, Dongho Lee, Margaret A Lumley, Kyoung-Shin Choi
Solar water splitting using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) has emerged as one of the most promising routes to produce hydrogen as a clean and renewable fuel source. Among various semiconductors that have been considered as photoelectrodes for use in PECs, oxide-based photoanodes are particularly attractive because of their stability in aqueous media in addition to inexpensive and facile processing compared to other types of semiconductors. However, they typically suffer from poor charge carrier separation and transport...
November 30, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Xingxing Hong, Jun Tan, Huaze Zhu, Ningdong Feng, Yongqiang Yang, John Irvine, Lianzhou Wang, Gang Liu, Hui-Ming Cheng
The strong band-to-band absorption of photocatalysts spanning the whole visible light region (400-700 nm) is critically important for solar-driven photocatalysis. Although it is actively and widely used as photocatalyst for various reactions in the past four decades, TiO2 has a very poor ability to capture the whole-spectrum visible light. Here, by controlling the spatially homogeneous distribution of boron and nitrogen heteroatoms in anatase TiO2 microspheres with a predominance of high-energy {001} facets, a strong visible light absorption spectrum with a sharp edge beyond 680 nm is achieved...
November 29, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Suset Barroso-Solares, Javier Pinto, Despina Fragouli, Athanassia Athanassiou
Superhydrophobic and oleophilic polyurethane foams were obtained by spray-coating their surfaces with solutions of thermoplastic polyurethane and hydrophobic silicon oxide nanoparticles. The developed functionalized foams were exploited as reusable oil absorbents from stable water-in-oil emulsions. These foams were able to remove oil efficiently from a wide range of emulsions with oil contents from 10 to 80 v.%, stabilized using Span80. The modified foams could reach oil absorption capacities up to 29 g/g, becoming a suitable candidate for water-in-oil stable emulsions separation...
November 27, 2018: Materials
Haiqing Ma, Mahadeo A Mahadik, Jin Woo Park, Manish Kumar, Hee Suk Chung, Weon Sik Chae, Gi Won Kong, Hyun Hwi Lee, Sun Hee Choi, Jum Suk Jang
In this study, we present an advanced strategy of low-temperature hydrogen annealing combined with high- temperature quenching in air for activating α-Fe2O3 nanorod photoanodes to boost the photoelectrochemical performance. We report that various low-temperature annealing conditions (340, 360, 380, and 400 °C) under hydrogen gas flow convert β-FeOOH into magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as introduce Sn4+ diffusion from FTO substrates to its surface. Furthermore, high-temperature quenching (800 °C) resulted in the phase change of magnetite (Fe3O4) into hematite (α-Fe2O3) and self Sn4+ doping into the hematite lattice...
November 27, 2018: Nanoscale
Yuhang Wang, Junlang Liu, Yifei Wang, Yonggang Wang, Gengfeng Zheng
Solar-driven electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction is capable of producing value-added chemicals and represents a potential route to alleviate carbon footprint in the global environment. However, the ever-changing sunlight illumination presents a substantial impediment of maintaining high electrocatalytic efficiency and stability for practical applications. Inspired by green plant photosynthesis with separate light reaction and (dark) carbon fixation steps, herein, we developed a redox-medium-assisted system that proceeds water oxidation with a nickel-iron hydroxide electrode under light illumination and stores the reduction energy using a zinc/zincate redox, which can be controllably released to spontaneously reduce CO2 into carbon monoxide (CO) with a gold nanocatalyst in dark condition...
November 27, 2018: Nature Communications
José A Murillo Pulgarín, Luisa F García Bermejo, Armando Carrasquero Durán
This work proposes a new method for the in vitro evaluation of the effect of UV irradiation on the production of free radicals and other reactive species during the photodecomposition of drugs. The method was based on the UV irradiation of antibiotics molecules to generate excited states that undergo to homolytic bond cleavages. These reactive species can be detected by their ability to oxidize the luminol, producing the electronically excited aminophtalate, which decays to the ground state releasing electromagnetic radiation in the visible zone of the spectrum...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Rodrigo Poblete, Isabel Oller, Manuel I Maldonado, Ernesto Cortes
Advanced oxidation processes based on ozonation, UV solar radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and persulfate were tested for the complete treatment of a specific landfill leachate. As a post-treatment of the advanced oxidation process, an additional adsorption process was carried out using a natural zeolite. Application of the UVsolar /O3 /H2 O2 process required 140 min of irradiation and the consumption of 0.67 g/L H2 O2 to eliminate 56% and 17% of colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively. When adding persulfate to the system (UVsolar /O3 /H2 O2 /S2 O8 -2 ), colour and COD were reduced by 29% and 77%, respectively, with a 0...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Luigi Rizzo, Teresa Agovino, Samira Nahim-Granados, María Castro-Alférez, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, María Inmaculada Polo-López
Photo-driven advanced oxidation process (AOP) with peracetic acid (PAA) has been poorly investigated in water and wastewater treatment so far. In the present work its possible use as tertiary treatment of urban wastewater to effectively minimize the release into the environment of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was investigated. Different initial PAA concentrations, two light sources (sunlight and UV-C) and two different water matrices (groundwater (GW) and wastewater (WW)) were studied...
November 14, 2018: Water Research
Yanting Yin, David A Lewis, Gunther G Andersson
MoO3 is widely used in polymer-based organic solar cells as an anode buffer layer due to its high workfunction and formation of a strong dipole at the MoO3 /polymer interface facilitating the charge transfer across the MoO3 /polymer interface. In the present work we show that exposure of the MoO3 /polymer interface to moisture attracts water molecules to the interface via diffusion. Due to their own strong dipole water molecules counter the dipole at the MoO3 /polymer interface. As a consequence, the charge transfer across the MoO3 /polymer will reduce and affect the charge transport across the interface...
November 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nada Al-Jassim, David Mantilla-Calderon, Giantommaso Scarascia, Peiying Hong
Bacteriophages active against a New Delhi metallo beta lactamase (NDM)-positive E. coli PI-7 were isolated from municipal wastewater and tested for their lytic effect against the bacterial host. Bacteriophages were highly specific to E. coli PI-7 when tested for host-range. After determining host-specificity, bacteriophages were tested for their ability to sensitize E. coli PI-7 to solar irradiation. Solar irradiation coupled with bacteriophages successfully reduced the length of the lag-phase for E. coli PI-7 from 4...
November 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Katarzyna P Sokol, William E Robinson, Ana R Oliveira, Julien Warnan, Marc M Nowaczyk, Adrian Ruff, Inês A C Pereira, Erwin Reisner
Solar-driven coupling of water oxidation with CO2 reduction sustains life on our planet and is of high priority in contemporary energy research. Here, we report a photoelectrochemical tandem device that performs photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to formate. We employ a semi-artificial design, which wires a W-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) cathode to a photoanode containing the photosynthetic water oxidation enzyme, Photosystem II, via a synthetic dye with complementary light absorption. From a biological perspective, the system achieves a metabolically inaccessible pathway of light-driven CO2 fixation to formate...
November 27, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Magdalena Brzezińska, Patricia García-Muñoz, Agnieszka M Ruppert, Nicolas Keller
In this work, the solar light-induced redox photoactivity of ZnO semiconductor material was used to prepare Cux O-ZnO composite catalysts at room temperature with a control of the chemical state of the copper oxide phase. Cu₂(I) O-ZnO and Cu(II) O-ZnO composite catalysts were prepared by using Cu(acac)₂ in tetrahydrofuran-water and Cu(NO₃)₂ in water as metallic precursor, respectively. Prior to the implementation of the photon-assisted synthesis method, the most efficient photoactive ZnO material was selected from among different ZnO materials prepared by the low temperature polyol and precipitation methods with carbonates and carbamates as precipitation agents...
November 13, 2018: Materials
Rhiannon M Evans, Bhavin Siritanaratkul, Clare F Megarity, Kavita Pandey, Thomas F Esterle, Selina Badiani, Fraser A Armstrong
The reasons for using enzymes as tools for solar fuels research are discussed. Many oxidoreductases, including components of membrane-bound electron-transfer chains in living organisms, are extremely active when directly attached to an electrode, at which they display their inherent catalytic activity as electrical current. Electrocatalytic voltammograms, which show the rate of electron flow at steady-state, provide direct information on enzyme efficiency with regard to optimising use of available energy, a factor that would have driven early evolution...
November 14, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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