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Solar water oxidation

Sacha Juillard, Emilie Planes, Muriel Matheron, Lara Perrin, Solenn Berson, Lionel Flandin
The encapsulation of Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) devices can help mitigate the degradation induced by environmental factors like water and oxygen, and thus potential to increase OPV lifetime. Because flexibility is an important parameter for targeted OPV applications, this paper proposes a fundamental study on the impact of the roll-to-roll (R2R) flexible encapsulation process. Both performance and mechanical reliability of encapsulated devices have been scouted. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a relatively simple peeling technique allows understanding the role of the interfaces inside a multilayered OPV device supported by a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate...
August 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qijing Bu, Shuo Li, Qiannan Wu, Lingling Bi, Dejun Wang, Xiaoxin Zou, Tengfeng Xie
Semiconductor electrodes integrated with cocatalysts are key components of photoelectrochemistry (PEC) based solar-energy conversion. However, efforts to optimize the PEC device have been limited by an inadequate understanding of the interface interactions between semiconductor-cocatalyst (sem|cat) and cocatalyst-electrolyte (cat|ele) interface. In our work, we used ferrihydrite (Fh) modified Ti-Fe2O3 as a model to explore the transfer process of photogenerated charge carriers between Ti-Fe2O3-Fh (Ti-Fe2O3|Fh) interface and Fh-electrolyte (Fh|ele) interface...
August 8, 2018: ChemSusChem
Petr Ashcheulov, Andrew Taylor, Vincent Mortet, Aleš Poruba, Florian Le Formal, Hana Krýsová, Mariana Klementová, Pavel Hubik, Jaromír Kopeček, Jan Lorincik, Jun-Ho Yum, Irena Kratochvilova, Ladislav Kavan, Kevin Sivula
Due to its high sensitivity to corrosion, the use of Si in direct photoelectrochemical water splitting systems that convert solar energy into chemical fuels has been greatly limited. Therefore, the development of low-cost materials resistant to corrosion under oxidizing conditions is an important goal towards a suitable protection of otherwise unstable semiconductors used in photoelectrochemical cells. Here we report on the development of a protective coating based on thin and electrically conductive nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) layers...
August 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Brandon Mahan, Frédéric Moynier, Julien Siebert, Bleuenn Gueguen, Arnaud Agranier, Emily A Pringle, Jean Bollard, James N Connelly, Martin Bizzarro
Chondrites and their main components, chondrules, are our guides into the evolution of the Solar System. Investigating the history of chondrules, including their volatile element history and the prevailing conditions of their formation, has implications not only for the understanding of chondrule formation and evolution but for that of larger bodies such as the terrestrial planets. Here we have determined the bulk chemical composition-rare earth, refractory, main group, and volatile element contents-of a suite of chondrules previously dated using the Pb-Pb system...
August 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Degao Wang, Michael S Eberhart, Matthew V Sheridan, Ke Hu, Benjamin D Sherman, Animesh Nayak, Ying Wang, Seth L Marquard, Christopher J Dares, Thomas J Meyer
Stabilized photoanodes for light-driven water oxidation have been prepared on nanoparticle core/shell electrodes with surface-stabilized donor-acceptor chromophores, a water oxidation catalyst, and an electron-transfer mediator. For the electrode, fluorine-doped tin oxide FTO|SnO2 /TiO2 |-Org1-|1.1 nm Al2 O3 |-RuP2+ -WOC (water oxidation catalyst) with Org1 (1-cyano-2-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl)phosphonic acid), the mediator RuP2+ ([Ru(4,4-(PO3 H2 )2 -2,2-bipyridine)(2,2-bipyridine)2 ]2+ ), and the WOC, Ru(bda)(py(CH2 )(3or10) P(O3 H)2 )2 (bda is 2,2-bipyridine-6,6-dicarboxylate with x = 3 or 10), solar excitation resulted in photocurrents of ∼500 µA/cm2 and quantitative O2 evolution at pH 4...
August 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antonio Durán, José María Monteagudo, Israel San Martín
The removal of pharmaceuticals present in wastewater is receiving more and more attention since most of them are refractory to traditional biological treatments. Many advanced oxidation processes have been reported in literature. However, cost estimations are not available for most of them. Recently, more environment friendly processes using solar radiation are gaining importance. The solar photo-Fenton process has been used with different reactor configurations and scales and seems to be the most promising technology for reducing operation costs...
July 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Andreas Hajduk, Mikhail V Lebedev, Bernhard Kaiser, Wolfram Jaegermann
High-resolution surface-sensitive synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of water with the p-GaInP2(100) surface covered with submonolayer residual native oxide in order to get insight into water dissociation at the solar water-splitting photocathodes in real liquid environment. In the surface-sensitive valence band spectra features related to Ga-OH, In-OH, and H-In-OH bonds appear after emersion of the p-GaInP2(100) surface from liquid water at room temperature. Indium core levels remain intact after emersion, while the gallium core levels indicate transformation of gallium oxides to hydroxides, as well as the accumulation of metallic gallium...
August 6, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mercè Martin-Sabi, Joaquín Soriano-López, Ross S Winter, Jia-Jia Chen, Laia Vilà-Nadal, De-Liang Long, José Ramón Galán-Mascarós, Leroy Cronin
Water oxidation is a key reaction for the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels, but effective water-oxidation catalysts are often based on rare and costly precious metals such as Pt, Ir or Ru. Developing strategies based on earth-abundant metals is important to explore critical aspects of this reaction, and to see whether different and more efficient applications are possible for energy systems. Herein, we present an approach to tuning a redox-active electrocatalyst based on the doping of molybdenum into the tungsten framework of [Co4 (H2 O)2 (PW9 O34 )2 ]10- , known as the Weakley sandwich...
March 8, 2018: Nature Catalysis
Tolesa Fita Chala, Chang-Mou Wu, Min Hui Chou, Zhen Lin Guo
The development of efficient photothermal materials is the most important issue in solar water evaporation. In this work, melt electrospun reduced tungsten oxide-Polylactic acid (WO2.72/PLA) fiber membranes were successfully prepared with improved near-infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion properties owing to strong NIR photoabsorption by the metal oxide. WO2.72 powder nanoparticles were incorporated into PLA matrix by melt processing, following which the composites were extruded into wires using a single screw extruder...
July 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zongkai Wu, Ghunbong Cheung, Jiarui Wang, Zeqiong Zhao, Frank E Osterloh
The understanding of the photochemical charge transfer properties of powdered semiconductors is of relevance to artificial photosynthesis and the production of solar fuels. Here we use surface photovoltage spectroscopy to probe photoelectrochemical charge transfer between bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles as a function of wavelength and film thickness. Optimized conditions produce a -2.10 V photovoltage under 2.5 eV (0.1 mW cm-2) illumination, which suggests the possibility of a water splitting system based on a BiVO4-Cu2O direct contact particle tandem...
July 26, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Elias Doukas, Paraskevi Balta, Dimitrios Raptis, George Avgouropoulos, Panagiotis Lianos
The production of hydrogen by water splitting has been a very attractive idea for several decades. However, the energy consumption that is necessary for water oxidation is too high for practical applications. On the contrary, the oxidation of organics is a much easier and less energy-demanding process. In addition, it may be used to consume organic wastes with a double environmental benefit: renewable energy production with environmental remediation. The oxidation of organics in a photoelectrochemical cell, which in that case is also referenced as a photocatalytic fuel cell, has the additional advantage of providing an alternative route for solar energy conversion...
July 24, 2018: Materials
S Gebauer, J L Grenfell, R Lehmann, H Rauer
Earth-like planets orbiting M dwarfs are prominent targets when searching for life outside the Solar System. We apply our Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical model to investigate the coupling between the biosphere, geosphere, and atmosphere in order to gain insight into the atmospheric evolution of Earth-like planets orbiting M dwarfs and to understand the processes affecting biosignatures and climate on such worlds. This is the first study applying an automated chemical pathway analysis quantifying the production and destruction pathways of molecular oxygen (O2 ) for an Earth-like planet with an Archean O2 concentration orbiting in the habitable zone of the M dwarf star AD Leonis, which we take as a type-case of an active M dwarf...
July 2018: Astrobiology
Hou Wang, Yan Wu, Mingbao Feng, Wenguang Tu, Tong Xiao, Ting Xiong, Huixiang Ang, Xingzhong Yuan, Jia Wei Chew
Water and energy are key sustainability issues that need to be addressed. Photocatalysis represents an attractive means to not only remediate polluted waters, but also harness solar energy. Unfortunately, the employment of photocatalysts remains a practical challenge in terms of high cost, low efficiency, secondary pollution and unexploited water matrices influence. This study investigated the feasibility of photocatalysis to both treat water and produce hydrogen with practical water systems. Polymeric carbon nitride foam (CNF) with large surface area and mesoporous structure was successfully prepared via the bubble-template effect of ammonium chloride decomposition during thermal condensation...
July 17, 2018: Water Research
Johannes G Vos, Tim A Wezendonk, Adriaan W Jeremiasse, Marc T M Koper
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and chlorine evolution reaction (CER) are electrochemical processes with high relevance to water splitting for (solar) energy conversion and industrial production of commodity chemicals, respectively. Carrying out the two reactions separately is challenging, since the catalytic intermediates are linked by scaling relations. Optimizing the efficiency of OER over CER in acidic media has proven especially difficult. In this regard, we have investigated the OER versus CER selectivity of manganese oxide (MnOx ), a known OER catalyst...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ayan Mukherjee, Sankalpita Chakrabarty, Neetu Kumari, Wei-Nien Su, Suddhasatwa Basu
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-supported bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3 ) (RGO-BFO) nanocomposite is synthesized via a two-step chemical route for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting and photocatalytic dye degradation. The detailed structural analysis, chemical coupling, and morphology of BFO- and RGO-supported BFO are established through X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. The modified band structure in RGO-BFO is obtained from the UV-vis spectroscopy study and supported by density functional theory (DFT)...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Maryam Zare, Shahram Solaymani, Azizollah Shafiekhani, Slawomir Kulesza, Ştefan Ţălu, Miroslaw Bramowicz
Nowadays, increasing awareness of environment and fossil fuels protection stimulates intensive research on clean and renewable sources of energy. Production of hydrogen from water through solar-driven splitting reactions is one of the most promising approaches in the field of photoelectrochemistry (PEC). In this work we have fabricated well-aligned, highly-ordered, smooth-mouth TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) in a two-step anodization process of titanium foil, which were then used as photoelectrodes for PEC water splitting...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher J Ostaszewski, Natalie M Stuart, Daniel M B Lesko, Deborah Kim, Matthew J Lueckheide, Juan G Navea
Nitric acid, a well-known sink of NO x gases in the atmosphere, has been found to be photoactive while adsorbed on tropospheric particles. When adsorbed onto semiconductive metal oxides, nitrate's photochemical degradation can be interpreted as a photocatalytic process. Yet, the photolysis of nitrate ions on the surface of aerosols can also be initiated by changes in the symmetry of the ion upon adsorption. In this study, we use quantum chemistry to model the vibrational spectra of adsorbed nitrate on TiO2 , a semiconductor component of atmospheric aerosols, and determine the kinetics of the heterogeneous photochemical degradation of nitrate under simulated solar light...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Ainhoa Cots, Pedro Bonete, Roberto Gómez
Cupric oxide (CuO) is considered as a promising photocathode material for photo(electro)chemical water splitting because of its suitable band gap, low cost related to copper earth abundancy, and straightforward fabrication. The main challenge for the development of practical CuO-based photocathodes for solar hydrogen evolution is to enhance its stability against photocorrosion. In this work, stable and efficient CuO photocathodes have been developed by using a simple and cost-effective methodology. CuO films, composed of nanowires and prepared by chemical oxidation of electrodeposited Cu, develop relatively high photocurrents in 1 M NaOH...
August 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jing Li, Tongle Bu, Yifan Liu, Jing Zhou, Jielin Shi, Zhiliang Ku, Yong Peng, Jie Zhong, Yi-Bing Cheng, Fuzhi Huang
Low-temperature solution-processed SnO2 as a promising electron-transport material for planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has attracted particular attention because of its outstanding properties such as high optical transparency or high electron mobility. However, low-temperature sol-gel processes used in the synthesis are inevitably affected by the humidity of the atmosphere, which results in a wide distribution in the performance of the prepared PSCs owing to the inability to control crystallinity and defects...
July 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Haiguang Zhu, Dongyun Chen, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Hua Li, Jinghui He, Jianmei Lu
The application of visible light-induced photocatalysts for photocatalytic pollution mitigation has become a promising strategy due to the inexhaustible solar energy. And how to improve pollutants degradation rate is still a meaningful work. Many researchers dealt with this issue by enhancing visible light absorption of photocatalysts. However, few studies focus on this issue by improving semiconductor's absorption property of organic pollutants. Hence, in this work, we prepared the Ag/AgCl foam coated per-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-β-CD) to improve the photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgCl foam...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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