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Cancer therapy response monitoring

Michal R Tomaszewski, Marcel Gehrung, James Joseph, Isabel Quiros Gonzalez, Jonathan A Disselhorst, Sarah E Bohndiek
Measuring the functional status of tumour vasculature, including blood flow fluctuations and changes in oxygenation, is important in cancer staging and therapy monitoring. Current clinically approved imaging modalities suffer long procedure times and limited spatio-temporal resolution. Optoacoustic tomography (OT) is an emerging clinical imaging modality that overcomes these challenges. By acquiring data at multiple wavelengths, OT can interrogate haemoglobin concentration and oxygenation directly and resolve contributions from injected contrast agents...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Research
Joe Duffy
Measurement of genetically altered DNA shed from tumours into the circulation can potentially provide a new generation of blood-based cancer biomarkers. Compared with tissue DNA biomarkers which require surgery or biopsy, samples for circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) assays can be obtained with minimal inconvenience and at lower cost. Furthermore, in contrast to tissue, use of ctDNA allows serial monitoring, faster delivery of results and potentially provides an integrative representation of genetic alterations across all tumour sites within a patient...
August 16, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Nikhil Chauhan, Janet Bukovcan, Eveline Boucher, David Cosgrove, Julien Edeline, Bonnie Hamilton, Laura Kulik, Fayaz Master, Riad Salem
BACKGROUND: Globally, hepatocellular carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. It remains challenging to intensify cancer treatment without impairing liver function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the TheraSphere in the Treatment of Patients with Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (STOP-HCC) study is to examine the hypothesis that transarterial radioembolization (TheraSphere yttrium-90 glass microspheres) combined with standard first-line treatment with sorafenib will improve outcomes over treatment with sorafenib alone in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma...
August 15, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Nilgun Yildirim, Aykut Bahceci
Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of breast cancer. Until now, there have been no reports on the use of pertuzumab during pregnancy and on its potential effects on the fetus. Herein, we present a breast cancer patient who received trastuzumab and pertuzumab treatment during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. This 22-year-old patient initially diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found to be negative for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor in the immunohistochemical examination...
September 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Jiajia Zhang, Shafat Quadri, Christopher L Wolfgang, Lei Zheng
Biomarkers refer to a plethora of biological characteristics that can be quantified to facilitate cancer diagnosis, forecast the prognosis of disease, and predict a response to treatment. The identification of objective biomarkers is among the most crucial steps in the realization of individualized cancer care. Several tumor biomarkers for gastrointestinal malignancies have been applied in the clinical setting to help differentiate between cancer and other conditions, facilitate patient selection for targeted therapies, and to monitor treatment response and recurrence...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicines
Tanya T Kwan, Aditya Bardia, Laura M Spring, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Mark Kalinich, Taronish Dubash, Tilak Sundaresan, Xin Hong, Joseph A LiCausi, Uyen Ho, Erin J Silva, Ben S Wittner, Lecia V Sequist, Ravi Kapur, David T Miyamoto, Mehmet Toner, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
The multiplicity of new therapies for breast cancer presents a challenge for treatment selection. We describe a 17-gene digital signature of breast circulating tumor cell (CTC)-derived transcripts enriched from blood, enabling high-sensitivity early monitoring of response. In a prospective cohort of localized breast cancer, an elevated CTC-Score after three cycles of neoadjuvant therapy is associated with residual disease at surgery (p=0.047). In a second prospective cohort with metastatic breast cancer, baseline CTC-Score correlates with overall survival (p= 0...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Bijaya Malla, Daniel M Aebersold, Alan Dal Pra
BACKGROUND: Circulating exosomes from prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radiotherapy are attractive candidate biomarkers for monitoring treatment response. Multiple workflows for isolation and content characterization of exosomes in biofluids have been attempted. We report a protocol to isolate and characterize exosomal miRNAs content and assess radiation-induced changes. METHODS: In this pilot study, we performed targeted exosomal miRNA profiling of 25 serum samples obtained from PCa patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease treated with curative radiotherapy (RT), and controls...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Yao Lu, Lihua Li, Zefeng Lin, Mei Li, Xiaoming Hu, Yu Zhang, Mingying Peng, Hong Xia, Gang Han
Despite its 5-year event-free survival rate increasing to 60-65% due to surgery and chemotherapy, osteosarcoma (OS) remains one of the most threatening malignant human tumors, especially in young patients. Therefore, a new approach that combines early diagnosis with efficient tumor eradication and bioimaging is urgently needed. Here, a new type of mesoporous silica-coated bismuth sulfide nanoparticles (Bi2 S3 @MSN NPs) is developed. The well distributed mesoporous pores and large surface areas hold great promise for drug protection and encapsulation (doxorubicin (DOX), 99...
August 13, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Deepa Narayanan, Wendie A Berg
Recent advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation have led to the emergence of improved molecular imaging techniques to image breast cancer: dedicated gamma cameras using γ-emitting 99m Tc-sestamibi and breast-specific PET cameras using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose. This article focuses on the current role of such approaches in the clinical setting including diagnosis, assessing local extent of disease, monitoring response to therapy, and, for gamma camera imaging, possible supplemental screening in women with dense breasts...
July 2018: PET Clinics
Francesca Maria Rizzo, Tim Meyer
Effective management of neuroendocrine tumors depends on early diagnosis, personalized risk stratification, and monitoring response to therapy. During cancer progression, tumors shed circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and microRNAs into the bloodstream. Analysis of these biomarkers offers the prospect of a liquid biopsy to predict/monitor therapeutic responses, assess drug resistance, and quantify residual disease. Compared with single-site biopsies, these entities have the potential to inform intratumor heterogeneity and tumor evolution in a reproducible and less invasive way...
September 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Adina Elena Stanciu, Marcel Marian Stanciu, Radu Gabriel Vatasescu
PURPOSE: Heart failure (HF) is considered to be a complex syndrome associated with neurohormonal and cytokine activation, that contribute to its progression. There are evidences which showed that, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125), a tumor marker widely used for ovarian cancer therapy monitoring, was significantly elevated in HF patients. We hypothesized that inflammatory stimuli may be responsible for amino-terminal fragment of the prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and CA-125 production and release in chronic HF (CHF)...
August 8, 2018: Cytokine
Rajiv Raja, Michael Kuziora, Philip Brohawn, Brandon W Higgs, Ashok Gupta, Phillip A Dennis, Koustubh Ranade
PURPOSE: Immunotherapy has transformed the treatment of many solid tumors, with some patients deriving long-term benefit, but how to identify such patients remains unclear. Somatic mutations detected in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from plasma can be an indicator of disease progression, response to therapy and clonality of primary and metastatic lesions. Hence, ctDNA analysis can provide a valuable noninvasive and tumor-specific marker for longitudinal monitoring of tumor burden. We explored the use of ctDNA to predict survival on durvalumab, an anti-PD-L1 therapy...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Laura Muinelo-Romay, Carlos Casas-Arozamena, Miguel Abal
The identification of new molecular targets and biomarkers associated with high risk of recurrence and response to therapy represents one of the main clinical challenges in the management of advanced disease in endometrial cancer. In this sense, the field of liquid biopsy has emerged as a great revolution in oncology and is considered "the way" to reach personalised medicine. In this review, we discuss the promising but already relatively limited advances of liquid biopsy in endometrial cancer compared to other types of tumours like breast, colorectal or prostate cancer...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiao Zheng, Fan Zhang, Yawei Zhao, Jing Zhang, Jianati Dawulieti, Yue Pan, Lianzhi Cui, Madi Sun, Dan Shao, Mingqiang Li, Kan He, Ming Zhang, Jing Li, Li Chen
Despite the vital role miRNA-27a plays in driving the development and progress of liver cancer, miRNA-based inhibition therapy is hampered due to its undesired degradation and off-target effects. Herein, a multifunctional nanoparticle for noninvasive tracking of targeted delivery of anti-miR-27a oligonucleotides against liver cancer was constructed. Methods: Dual-fluorescent conjugates (QD-HA-PEI) were first fabricated through crosslinking hyaluronic acid (HA), polyethyleneimine (PEI) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) via a facile one-pot approach...
2018: Theranostics
Brígida Gomes de Almeida Schirmer, Marina Rios de Araujo, Marina Bicalho Silveira, Jousie Michel Pereira, Lorena Carla Vieira, Clarice Gregório Alves, William Tshisuaka Mbolela, Andrea Vidal Ferreira, Armando Silva-Cunha, Sílvia Ligório Fialho, Juliana Batista da Silva, Carlos Malamut
The [18 F]Fluorocholine ([18 F]FCH) tracer for PET imaging has been proven to be effective for several malignances. However, there are only a few studies related to its breast tumor applicability and they are still limited. The aim of this study was investigate the efficacy of [18 F]FCH/PET compared to [18 F]FDG/PET in a murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma model treated and nontreated. [18 F]FCH/PET showed its applicability for primary tumor and lung metastasis detection and their use for response monitoring of breast cancer therapeutics at earlier stages...
July 29, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Victoria El-Khoury, Mélanie Béland, Anna Schritz, Sang-Yoon Kim, Petr V Nazarov, Louis Gaboury, Katriina Sertamo, François Bernardin, Roxane Batutu, Laurent Antunes, Catherine W Bennett, François Faÿs, Guy Berchem, Yeoun Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has a tremendous therapeutic implication. Sometimes, the commonly used immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers fail to discriminate between them, urging for the identification of new diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: We performed IHC on tissue microarrays from two cohorts of lung cancer patients to analyse the expression of beta-arrestin-1, beta-arrestin-2 and clinically used diagnostic markers in ADC and SCC samples...
August 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Rimas V Lukas, Jordi Rodon, Kevin Becker, Eric T Wong, Kent Shih, Mehdi Touat, Marcella Fassò, Stuart Osborne, Luciana Molinero, Carol O'Hear, William Grossman, Joachim Baehring
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. No standard treatment exists for recurrent disease. Glioblastoma is associated with an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including atezolizumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1), have demonstrated clinical activity in various cancers. Here, we present the safety and efficacy of atezolizumab in patients with glioblastoma from the phase 1a PCD4989g clinical trial (NCT01375842). METHODS: Eligible patients had confirmed recurrent glioblastoma and measurable disease per RANO criteria...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Peggy M Kostakou, Nikos T Kouris, Vassilios S Kostopoulos, Dimitrios S Damaskos, Christoforos D Olympios
Cardio-oncology is a new field of interest in cardiology that focuses on the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cardiovascular disease occurring as a side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Both cancer treatment modalities can cause cardiac dysfunction, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the oncologic population. It is necessary to periodically monitor cancer patients under treatment, especially those receiving anthracyclines and trastuzumab (monoclonal antibody), using mainly 3D echocardiography to calculate left ventricular ejection fraction and to estimate myocardial deformation...
August 2, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Mustafa Kahraman, Anne Röske, Thomas Laufer, Tobias Fehlmann, Christina Backes, Fabian Kern, Jochen Kohlhaas, Hannah Schrörs, Anna Saiz, Cassandra Zabler, Nicole Ludwig, Peter A Fasching, Reiner Strick, Matthias Rübner, Matthias W Beckmann, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller, Michael G Schrauder
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with distinct molecular subtypes including the aggressive subtype triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We compared blood-borne miRNA signatures of early-stage basal-like (cytokeratin-CK5-positive) TNBC patients to age-matched controls. The miRNAs of TNBC patients were assessed prior to and following platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). After an exploratory genome-wide study on 21 cases and 21 controls using microarrays, the identified signatures were verified independently in two laboratories on the same and a new cohort by RT-qPCR...
August 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gahee Park, Joo Kyung Park, Dae-Soon Son, Seung-Ho Shin, Yeon Jeong Kim, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Jae Lee, Woong-Yang Park, Kwang Hyuck Lee, Donghyun Park
Targeted deep sequencing across broad genomic regions has been used to detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. However, since most PDACs harbor a mutation in KRAS, sequencing of broad regions needs to be systemically compared to analyzing only KRAS mutations for PDAC. Using capture-based targeted deep sequencing, we detected somatic tumor mutations in 17 fine needle aspiration biopsy and 69 longitudinal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples from 17 PDAC patients. KRAS mutations were detected in 10 out of 17 pretreatment patient plasma samples...
August 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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