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Cancer therapy response monitoring

Bogdan Mitran, Ken Gösta Andersson, Elin Lindström, Javad Garousi, Maria Rosestedt, Vladimir Tolmachev, Stefan Ståhl, Anna Orlova, John Löfblom
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed during prostate cancer (PCa) progression towards androgen‑independence after hormone therapy, but the overexpression is lower than in other types of cancers. Despite the low expression, EGFR has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for patients with castration‑resistant PCa. Non‑invasive methods for determination of EGFR expression in PCa can serve for patient stratification and therapy response monitoring. Radionuclide imaging probes based on affibody molecules (7 kDa) provide high contrast imaging of cancer‑associated molecular targets...
October 15, 2018: Oncology Reports
Karolina Okła, Justyna Surówka, Karolina Frąszczak, Arkadiusz Czerwonka, Katarzyna Kaławaj, Anna Wawruszak, Jan Kotarski, Iwona Wertel
Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. This is due to lack of effective screening, diagnosis predominance in late stage of disease, a high recurrence rate after primary therapy, and poor treatment response in platinum-resistant tumor. Thus, unique biomarkers, predictive of individual disease course, and prognosis are urgently needed. The aim of our study was to assess the clinicopathological significance of plasma, peritoneal fluid, and tumor tissue levels of mesothelin in epithelial ovarian cancer patients...
October 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Anwar R Padhani, Nina Tunariu
Whole-body MR imaging incorporating diffusion-weighted imaging is increasingly recommended as a radiation-free imaging method for assessing bone and soft tissue pathology, and for evaluating response to therapy. Metastasis Reporting and Data System for prostate cancer provides the minimum standards for whole-body MR imaging with diffusion imaging regarding image acquisitions, interpretation, and reporting of baseline and follow-up monitoring examinations of patients with advanced, metastatic cancers, focusing on prostate cancer...
November 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Yong Hong Liu, Ling Bo Xue, Yan Fang Yang, Tian Jiao Zhao, Yang Bai, Bu Yong Zhang, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the potential of diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOT) for monitoring the responses of patients with breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science for relevant studies. Data were extracted for pooled analysis, heterogeneity testing, threshold effect testing, sensitivity analysis, publication bias analysis, and subgroup analysis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Susan Tsai, Ben George, David Wittmann, Paul S Ritch, Ashley N Krepline, Mohammed Aldakkak, Chad A Barnes, Kathleen K Christians, Kulwinder Dua, Michael Griffin, Catherine Hagen, William A Hall, Beth A Erickson, Douglas B Evans
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a prognostic marker for patients with pancreatic cancer (PC), but its value as a treatment biomarker is unclear. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although CA19-9 is an established prognostic marker for patients with PC, it is unclear how CA19-9 monitoring should be used to guide multimodality treatment and what level of change in CA19-9 constitutes a meaningful treatment response. METHODS: CA19-9 measurements at diagnosis (pretx), after completion of all planned neoadjuvant therapy (preop), and after surgery (postop) were analyzed in patients with localized PC who had an elevated CA19-9 (≥35 U/dL) at diagnosis...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Ting-Ting Zhang, Cong-Hui Xu, Wei Zhao, Yu Gu, Xiang-Ling Li, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
Development of tumor microenvironment responsive and modulating theranostic nano-systems is of great importance for specific and efficient cancer therapy. Herein, we report a redox-sensitive nanoagent combining manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) and gold nanoshell coated silicon nanoparticles for synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy of hypoxia solid tumors. In highly reducing tumor tissues, the outer MnO2 nanosheet with the loaded drug would be dissociated by intracellular glutathione (GSH), resulting in on-demand drug release, as well as generating Mn2+ ions which provided high contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorescence imaging (FI) in vitro and in vivo ...
September 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Norikazu Matsuo, Koichi Azuma, Satoshi Hattori, Junya Ohtake, Akihiko Kawahara, Hidenobu Ishii, Takaaki Tokito, Kazuhiko Yamada, Yuji Shibata, Tadasuke Shimokawaji, Tetsuro Kondo, Terufumi Kato, Haruhiro Saito, Kouzo Yamada, Tetsuro Sasada, Tomoaki Hoshino
Although programmed death (PD)-1 immune checkpoint therapies target the immune system, the relationship between inflammatory factors and the clinical outcome of anti-PD-1 therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not fully understood. Here we examined the association between soluble immune mediators and the outcome of treatment with PD-1 inhibitors in patients with advanced/recurrent NSCLC. In two independent cohorts, we assessed the levels of 88 different soluble immune mediators in peripheral blood before and after anti-PD-1 treatment, and evaluated their associations with clinical outcomes...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Frédéric E Lecouvet, Daniela E Oprea-Lager, Yan Liu, Piet Ost, Luc Bidaut, Laurence Collette, Christophe M Deroose, Karolien Goffin, Ken Herrmann, Otto S Hoekstra, Gem Kramer, Yolande Lievens, Egesta Lopci, David Pasquier, Lars J Petersen, Jean-Noël Talbot, Helle Zacho, Bertrand Tombal, Nandita M deSouza
Oligometastatic disease represents a clinical and anatomical manifestation between localised and polymetastatic disease. In prostate cancer, as with other cancers, recognition of oligometastatic disease enables focal, metastasis-directed therapies. These therapies potentially shorten or postpone the use of systemic treatment and can delay further metastatic progression, thus increasing overall survival. Metastasis-directed therapies require imaging methods that definitively recognise oligometastatic disease to validate their efficacy and reliably monitor response, particularly so that morbidity associated with inappropriately treating disease subsequently recognised as polymetastatic can be avoided...
October 2018: Lancet Oncology
Yansong Dong, Bin Liu, Youyong Yuan
Fluorescent drug delivery systems provide a means to track drug release, trace processes of translocation, monitor excretion of anticancer agents and predict therapeutic responses. Traditional fluorescent dye-labeled drug delivery systems often suffer from notorious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) with greatly impeded imaging performance. The emerging fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission characteristics (AIEgens) have provided an elegant alternative to tackle this challenge. Recently, fluorescent drug delivery systems based on AIEgens which combine fluorescence imaging and drug delivery have been extensively studied for the development of theranostic nanomedicine...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Zihnil Adha Islamy Mazrad, Pham Thi My Phuong, Cheong A Choi, Insik In, Kang Dae Lee, Sung Young Park
In the present study, pH/redox responsive cationic polymer dot (CD) was successfully prepared for a near-infrared (NIR)-mediated simultaneously controllable photothermal temperature guided imaging off/on system to monitor therapeutic delivery. The carbonized disulfide crosslinked branched-polyethyleneimine (bPEI) with a folic acid (FA) conjugation as the targeting moiety and a partially ionic complex between anionic indocyanine green (ICG) and bPEI-based CD (ICG-CD). This was responsive to mild reductive (GSH) and acidic tumor conditions, which enabled the simultaneous biodegradation of those hydrophobic and complex sites...
October 4, 2018: ChemMedChem
Frances Boyle, Jane Beith, Katie Burslem, Richard de Boer, Rina Hui, Elgene Lim, Nicole McCarthy, Andrew Redfern, Natasha Woodward
Resistance to endocrine therapy is a significant therapeutic challenge in the treatment of women with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4/6 inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy have been shown to improve progression free survival, overall response rate and clinical benefit rate in women with HR+ HER2- metastatic breast cancer compared with endocrine therapy alone. This review examines the clinical evidence to support the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in first and second line settings...
October 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Adam M Swartz, Steven H Shen, Miguel A Salgado, Kendra L Congdon, Luis Sanchez-Perez
Conventional therapies for glioblastoma  (GBM) typically fail to provide lasting antitumor benefits, owing to their inability to specifically eliminate all malignant cells. Cancer vaccines are currently being evaluated as a means to direct the adaptive immune system to target residual GBM cells that remain following standard-of-care treatment. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview of the more noteworthy cancer vaccines that are under investigation for the treatment of GBM, as well as potential future directions that may enhance GBM-vaccine effectiveness...
October 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Mawia Khairalseed, Kulsoom Javed, Gadhvi Jashkaran, Jung-Whan Kim, Kevin J Parker, Kenneth Hoyt
OBJECTIVE: H-scan imaging is a new ultrasound technique used to visualize the relative size of acoustic scatterers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of H-scan ultrasound imaging for monitoring early tumor response to neoadjuvant treatment using a preclinical breast cancer animal model. METHODS: Real-time H-scan ultrasound imaging was implemented on a programmable ultrasound scanner (Vantage 256; Verasonics Inc., Kirkland, WA) equipped with an L11-4v transducer...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Milena Music, Ioannis Prassas, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Cancer immunotherapy, a treatment that selectively augments a patient's anti-tumor immune response, is a breakthrough advancement in personalized medicine. A subset of cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy have displayed robust and long-lasting therapeutic responses. Currently, the spotlight is on the use of blocking antibodies against the T-cell checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which have been effectively used to combat many cancers types...
October 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Zi-Hao Qi, Hua-Xiang Xu, Shi-Rong Zhang, Jin-Zhi Xu, Shuo Li, He-Li Gao, Wei Jin, Wen-Quan Wang, Chun-Tao Wu, Quan-Xing Ni, Xian-Jun Yu, Liang Liu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of cancer. The 5-year survival rate for PDAC remains low because it is always diagnosed at an advanced stage and it is resistant to therapy. A biomarker, which could detect asymptomatic premalignant or early malignant tumors and predict the response to treatment, will benefit patients with PDAC. However, traditional biopsy has its limitations. There is an urgent need for a tumor biomarker that could easily and repeatedly sample and monitor, in real time, the progress of tumor development...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Agata Swiatly, Szymon Plewa, Jan Matysiak, Zenon J Kokot
Ovarian cancer has emerged as one of the leading cause of gynecological malignancies. So far, the measurement of CA125 and HE4 concentrations in blood and transvaginal ultrasound examination are essential ovarian cancer diagnostic methods. However, their sensitivity and specificity are still not sufficient to detect disease at the early stage. Moreover, applied treatment may appear to be ineffective due to drug-resistance. Because of a high mortality rate of ovarian cancer, there is a pressing need to develop innovative strategies leading to a full understanding of complicated molecular pathways related to cancerogenesis...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Young Kwang Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Benny Ryplida, Cheong A Choi, Zihnil Adha Islamy Mazrad, Gibaek Lee, Sangkug Lee, Insik In, Ji Hoon Jeong, Sung Young Park
Redox-responsive polymer dot (PD) were synthesized from disulfide cross-linked polymers in a carbonized process to allow quenching effects by loading of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) onto the matrix. The disulfide linkage facilitated degradation of the PD system by intracellular glutathione (GSH), leading to fluorescence recovery by BODIPY and intracellular drug release. The paclitaxel release profile showed that approximately 100% of the drug escaped from the matrix in response to 10 mM GSH, whereas less than 10% was released in the absence of GSH...
November 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Qian Zhang, Yan Gong, Xin-Jie Guo, Peng Zhang, Caifeng Ding
Drug delivery system has profound significance for imaging capabilities and monitoring apoptosis process precisely in cancer therapeutic field. Herein, we designed cysteamine-stabilized gold nanoparticles, CS-AuNPs-doxorubicin, for fluorescence-enhanced cell imaging and target drug delivery. For cancer therapy, doxorubicin (DOX) was incorporated to CS-AuNPs by disulfide linkages which could be cleaved by glutathione (GSH) in cancer cells specifically. In addition, red emissive DOX was quenched effectively by particular quenching effect of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from DOX to AuNPs, rendering monitoring target drug release by visual luminescence...
September 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Melissa A Frick, Gary D Kao, Louise Aguarin, Chimbu Chinniah, Samuel Swisher-McClure, Abigail T Berman, William P Levin, Keith A Cengel, Cristina DeCesaris, Stephen M Hahn, Jay F Dorsey, Charles B Simone
PURPOSE: In patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for presumed early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), detection and monitoring of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be useful for assessing treatment response safely and noninvasively. No published reports of CTC trends in this patient population exist to date. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with clinically diagnosed stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT were eligible for this institutional review board-approved prospective clinical trial...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jyoti Bajpai, Arun Chandrasekharan, Vijai Simha, Vikas Talreja, Ashay Karpe, Nikihil Pandey, Ashish Singh, Bharat Rekhi, Tushar Vora, Jaya Ghosh, Shripad Banavali, Sudeep Gupta
PURPOSE: Metastatic osteosarcoma is largely treated with high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based therapy, especially in the pediatric population. This mandates complex pharmacokinetic monitoring in a costly inpatient setting to mitigate unpredictable serious toxicities. Hence, a non-HDMTX-based regimen is worth exploring, especially in India and low- and middle-income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive treatment-naïve patients with metastatic osteosarcoma were prospectively treated on the novel OGS-12 protocol consisting of sequential doublets of doxorubicin, cisplatin, and ifosfamide...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
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