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Structural variation

Liran Christine Shan, Claire McCafferty, Mimi Tatlow-Golden, Claire O'Rourke, Robert Mooney, Barbara Livingstone, Kirsty Pourshahidi, Clare Corish, John Kearney, Patrick Wall, Celine Murrin
Consumption of high-energy foods in the absence of hunger has been identified as a key target to address in the area of obesity. For children, such foods are often provided by adults as treats. There is limited understating of adults' treat giving. The present study aimed to understand adults' provision of treats to children on the Island of Ireland. A total of 1039 participants, including parents, grandparents, child minders and education practitioners completed a face-to-face survey in their home. Participants defined their treats for children primarily as 'something nice', 'deserved/earned' and 'something special'...
August 14, 2018: Appetite
John Soghigian, Theodore G Andreadis, Goudarz Molaei
BACKGROUND: Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and wild Passeriformes birds in freshwater swamp habitats. Recently, the northeastern United States has experienced an intensification of virus activity with increased human involvement and northward expansion into new regions. In addition to its principal role in enzootic transmission of EEE virus among avian hosts, recent studies on the blood-feeding behavior of Cs...
August 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Caroline Schlüter, Christoph Fraenz, Marlies Pinnow, Patrick Friedrich, Onur Güntürkün, Erhan Genç
Individuals differ in their ability to initiate self- and emotional-control mechanisms. These differences have been explicitly described in Kuhl's action-control theory. Although interindividual differences in action control make a major contribution to our everyday life, their neural foundation remains unknown. Here, we measured action control in a sample of 264 healthy adults and related interindividual differences in action control to variations in brain structure and resting-state connectivity. Our results demonstrate a significant negative correlation between decision-related action orientation (AOD) and amygdala volume...
August 17, 2018: Psychological Science
Tingting Liu, Hai Liu, Zhaoli Zhang, Sanya Liu
Raman spectroscopy often suffers from the problems of band overlap and random noise. In this work, we develop a nonlocal low-rank regularization (NLR) approach toward exploiting structured sparsity and explore its applications in Raman spectral deconvolution. Motivated by the observation that the rank of a ground-truth spectrum matrix is lower than that of the observed spectrum, a Raman spectral deconvolution model is formulated in our method to regularize the rank of the observed spectrum by total variation regularization...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Allen Y Yi
Chalcogenide glasses are emerging as enabling materials for low-cost infrared optics due to their transparency in shortwave-to-longwave infrared bands and the possibility to be mass produced by precision glass molding (PGM), a near net-shape process. This paper aims to evaluate the thermoforming mechanism of As40 S60 glass around its glass transition temperature (Tg ) and investigate its refractive index change and residual stresses in a molded lens during and after PGM. First, a constitutive model was introduced to precisely predict the material behavior in PGM by integrating subroutines into a commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Sanjay Keshri, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin
A holographic optical element (HOE) was developed to collimate a monochromatic light-emitting diode (LED). The fabrication was achieved by the interference of collimated and diverging beams from a 532 nm laser to produce the required photonic structure in a self-developing photopolymer material. The experimental values of diffraction efficiency and spatial period across the HOE were compared with their expected theoretical values. Good agreement was found for the spatial period; however, the diffraction efficiency varied significantly across the lens...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Ju Yeon Seo, Kyo-Jin Hwang, Sung-Il Baik, Su Ryeon Lee, Byungjin Cho, Euihyun Jo, Minseok Choi, Myung Gwan Hahm, Yoon-Jun Kim
Increased interest in two-dimensional (2-D) materials and heterostructures for use as components of electrical devices has led to the use of an atomically mixed phase between semiconducting and metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that exhibited enhanced interfacial characteristics. To understand the lattice structure and properties of 2-D materials on the atomic scale, diverse characterization methods such as Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy have been applied...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ludmila Brunerová, Renata Lažanská, Petr Kasalický, Jana Verešová, Jana Potočková, Alena Fialová, Ivan Rychlík
PURPOSE: Bone involvement represents one of the complications of end-stage chronic kidney disease, with fractures being its major risk. The aim of our study was to assess the frequency and predictors of low-trauma fractures in a cohort of maintenance hemodialysis patients followed-up on for 2 years. METHODS: 59 patients (67.6 ± 13.1 years, 43 males) treated with hemodiafiltration underwent initially laboratory (markers of calcium-phosphate metabolism and bone turnover markers) and densitometry examination with TBS assessment (Lunar Prodigy, TBS software 2...
August 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Olivier Pahud, Thomas H Rammsayer, Stefan J Troche
Numerous studies reported a positive relationship between speed of information processing (SIP) and the g factor of intelligence. Only very few studies, however, examined SI P's relationship to speed-, capacity-, and memory-related aspects of psychometric intelligence. In order to further elucidate this relationship, a Hick reaction time task and the Berlin Intelligence Structure (BIS) test were administered to 240 participants. From the BIS test, indicators of BIS -Capacity, BIS -Speed, and BIS -Memory were determined...
2018: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Huaihai Chen, Qing Xia, Tianyou Yang, Wei Shi
Soil microbes have critical influence on the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, yet the magnitude and direction to which management practices affect the soil microbial community remain unclear. This work aimed to examine the impacts of three farming systems, conventional grain cropping (CON), organic grain cropping (ORG), and grain cropping-pasture rotation (ICL), on the soil microbial community structure and putative gene abundances of N transformations using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leonard Rogers, Adetayo E Obasa, Graeme B Jacobs, Stefan G Sarafianos, Anders Sönnerborg, Ujjwal Neogi, Kamalendra Singh
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) integrates viral DNA into the host genome using its 3'-end processing and strand-transfer activities. Due to the importance of HIV-1 IN, it is targeted by the newest class of approved drugs known as integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). INSTIs are efficient in maintaining low viral load; however, as with other approved antivirals, resistance mutations emerge in patients receiving INSTI-containing therapy. As INSTIs are becoming increasingly accessible worldwide, it is important to understand the mechanism(s) of INSTI susceptibility...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Leonardo Joaquim van Zyl, Yoonus Abrahams, Emily Amor Stander, Bronwyn Kirby-McCollough, Roland Jourdain, Cécile Clavaud, Lionel Breton, Marla Trindade
Recent skin metagenomic studies have investigated the harbored viral diversity and its possible influence on healthy skin microbial populations, and tried to establish global patterns of skin-phage evolution. However, the detail associated with the phages that potentially play a role in skin health has not been investigated. While skin metagenome and -metavirome studies have indicated that the skin virome is highly site specific and shows marked interpersonal variation, they have not assessed the presence/absence of individual phages...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam Ameur, Wigard P Kloosterman, Matthew S Hestand
In the past several years, single-molecule sequencing platforms, such as those by Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore Technologies, have become available to researchers and are currently being tested for clinical applications. They offer exceptionally long reads that permit direct sequencing through regions of the genome inaccessible or difficult to analyze by short-read platforms. This includes disease-causing long repetitive elements, extreme GC content regions, and complex gene loci. Similarly, these platforms enable structural variation characterization at previously unparalleled resolution and direct detection of epigenetic marks in native DNA...
August 13, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Anupriya Kaur Thind, Thomas Wicker, Thomas Müller, Patrick M Ackermann, Burkhard Steuernagel, Brande B H Wulff, Manuel Spannagl, Sven O Twardziok, Marius Felder, Thomas Lux, Klaus F X Mayer, Beat Keller, Simon G Krattinger
BACKGROUND: Recent improvements in DNA sequencing and genome scaffolding have paved the way to generate high-quality de novo assemblies of pseudomolecules representing complete chromosomes of wheat and its wild relatives. These assemblies form the basis to compare the dynamics of wheat genomes on a megabase scale. RESULTS: Here, we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the 700-megabase chromosome 2D between two bread wheat genotypes-the old landrace Chinese Spring and the elite Swiss spring wheat line 'CH Campala Lr22a'...
August 17, 2018: Genome Biology
Lingxi Ouyang, Chong Wang, Xiaoxu Feng, Jie Yang, Mengwei Zhou, Feng Qiu, Rongfei Wang, Yu Yang
The photoluminescence (PL) properties of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) samples, modified by the Si+ self-ion-implantation (SII) into Si thin film followed by annealing, have been well investigated. The well-known W-line can also be observed in SII SOI samples, its emitting behavior and structural evolution have been discussed in this article. The parallel PL pattern trend and the similar changes of temperature-dependent intensity suggest that luminescence center of I1 and I2 peaks located in the near-infrared band originates from the same interstitial-clusters (In Cs)...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Chien-Yuan Han, Cheng-You Du, De-Fu Chen
Starch is an essential and widely distributed natural material, but its detailed conformation and thermal transition properties are not yet well understood. We present a rapid Mueller matrix imaging system to explore the structural characteristics of starch granules by using 16 measurements with different incoming and outgoing polarizations. Due to the minimum rotation of the optical elements and the self-calibration ability of this system, the full Mueller matrix images can be accurately obtained within ten-odd seconds...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Giulia Acconcia, Alessandro Cominelli, Massimo Ghioni, Ivan Rech
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is an essential tool in many scientific applications, where the recording of optical pulses with picosecond precision is required. Unfortunately, a key issue has to be faced: distortion phenomena can affect TCSPC experiments at high count rates. In order to avoid this problem, TCSPC experiments have been commonly carried out by limiting the maximum operating frequency of a measurement channel below 5% of the excitation frequency, leading to a long acquisition time...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Yeşerin Yıldırım, Marti J Anderson, Bengt Hansson, Selina Patel, Craig D Millar, Paul B Rainey
Pleurobranchaea maculata is a rarely studied species of the Heterobranchia found throughout the south and western Pacific-and recently recorded in Argentina-whose population genetic structure is unknown. Interest in the species was sparked in New Zealand following a series of dog deaths caused by ingestions of slugs containing high levels of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin. Here we describe the genetic structure and demographic history of P. maculata populations from five principle locations in New Zealand based on extensive analyses of 12 microsatellite loci and the COI and CytB regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
2018: PloS One
Joel T Minion, Frances Butcher, Nicholas Timpson, Madeleine J Murtagh
PURPOSE: Recall by genotype (RbG) research recruits on the basis of genetic variation. Increased use of this approach presents an ethical conundrum for cohort studies/biobanks: whether to inform individuals of their genetic information and deviate from standard practice of non-disclosure of results, or mask this information at the level of the individual participant. This paper examines the perspectives of research study participants on RbG research. METHODS: Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adult participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2018: PloS One
Dong Wu, Yachao Chen, Sukriti Manna, Kevin Talley, Andriy Zakutayev, Geoff Brennecka, Cristian V Ciobanu, Paul Constantine, Corinne E Packard, Corinne E Packard
Knowledge of accurate values of elastic modulus of (Al1-xScx)N is required for design of piezoelectric resonators and related devices. Thin films of (Al1-xScx)N across the entire composition space are deposited and characterized. Accuracy of modulus measurements is improved and quantified by removing the influence of substrate effects and by direct comparison of experimental results with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The 5-30% Sc compositional range is of particular interest for piezoelectric applications and is covered at higher compositional resolution here than in previous work...
August 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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