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Structural variation

Christopher D Powell, Secundino López, James France
Two models were derived to describe fish growth while accounting for the effects of fluctuating water temperatures. The models were initially expressed in a rate:state form and subsequently integrated resulting in two analytical solutions, representing two distinct types of growth: exponential (Model 1) and asymptotic (Model 2). Both models share the assumptions that growth machinery works at a rate which varies with water temperature and that growth is irreversible. In addition, in Model 1 it is assumed that quantity of growth machinery is proportional to live body weight and substrate is non-limiting over the period of growth; whereas Model 2 is based on the assumption that quantity of growth machinery is proportional to available substrate...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mouquan Shen, Shen Yan, Yonghui Sun, Guangming Zhang
This paper studies the event-triggered H∞ static output feedback control of linear systems with unreliable communication. The unreliable phenomenon between the event-triggering unit and the controller is described by a stochastic variable with Bernoulli random binary distribution. To cast the considered problem in the robust control framework, the event-triggering scheme is presented by a time-delay form. A vertex structure separation strategy is utilized to handle control gain with interval variations, which could alleviate computation burden heavily...
October 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Jianliang Mao, Shihua Li, Qi Li, Jun Yang
Control performances of inertially stabilized platforms (ISPs) are always affected by various disturbed phenomena such as cross-couplings, mass unbalance, parameter variations, and external disturbances in real applications. To improve the dynamic response and the disturbance rejection ability of the ISP, a continuous finite-time sliding mode control (SMC) approach with cascaded control structure is proposed. By constructing a finite-time disturbance observer, the multiple disturbances are precisely estimated in real time without the complex modeling and calibration work...
October 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Keitaro Kubo
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to examine changes in tendon properties measured during ramp and ballistic contractions after static stretching and to elucidate the relationship between stretching-induced changes in tendon properties (particularly hysteresis) and collagen fiber orientation. METHODS: Thirteen males performed static stretching, in which the ankle was passively flexed to 36° dorsiflexion and remained stationary for 10 min. Before and after stretching, the stiffness and hysteresis of tendon structures in the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography during ramp and ballistic contractions...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Himeshi Samarasinghe, Jianping Xu
The basidiomycetous yeasts of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes (CNSC and CGSC respectively) are the causative agents of cryptococcosis, a set of life-threatening diseases affecting the central nervous system, lungs, skin, and other body sites of humans and other mammals. Both the CNSC and CGSC can be subdivided into varieties, serotypes, molecular types, and lineages based on structural variations, molecular characteristics and genetic sequences. Hybridization between the haploid lineages within and between the two species complexes is known to occur in natural and clinical settings, giving rise to intraspecific and interspecific diploid/aneuploid hybrid strains...
October 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kohei Tamura, Hiroki Takikawa
Unlike other primates, human foragers have an egalitarian society. Therefore, the evolution of egalitarian behaviour has been the subject of long-standing debate in a wide variety of disciplines. A recent hypothesis states that a social control against potentially dominant individuals played an important role in the emergence of an egalitarian society. In the present study, we modelled this hypothesis based on the n-player game framework, in which the owner, who may attempt to monopolise resources, could be punished by a coalition of other group members...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Tsehai A J Grell, Benjamin N Bell, Chi Nguyen, Daniel P Dowling, Nathan A Bruender, Vahe Bandarian, Catherine L Drennan
7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase, QueE, catalyzes the radical mediated ring contraction of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin, forming the characteristic pyrrolopyrimidine core of all 7-deazaguanine natural products. QueE is a member of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) radical enzyme superfamily, which harnesses the reactivity of radical intermediates to perform challenging chemical reactions. Members of the AdoMet radical enzyme superfamily utilize a canonical binding motif, a CX3 CXφC motif, to bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster and a partial (β/α)6 TIM barrel fold for the arrangement of AdoMet and substrates for catalysis...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Maren Dubbert, Christiane Werner
Plants mediate water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. This water transfer in soils, through plants, into the atmosphere can be effectively traced by stable isotopologues of water. However, rapid dynamic processes only recently gained attention, such as adaptations in root water uptake depths (within hours to days) or the imprint of transpirational fluxes on atmospheric moisture, particularly promoted by the development of real-time in situ water vapour stable isotope observation techniques...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Rossella Campobasso, Francesca Condemi, Magalie Viallon, Pierre Croisille, Salvatore Campisi, Stéphane Avril
PURPOSE: It has been reported clinically that rupture or dissections in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) often occur due to hypertension which may be modelled with sudden increase of peripheral resistance, inducing acute changes of blood volumes in the aorta. There is clinical evidence that more compliant aneurysms are less prone to rupture as they can sustain such changes of volume. The aim of the current paper is to verify this paradigm by evaluating computationally the role played by the variation of peripheral resistance and the impact of aortic stiffness onto peak wall stress in ascending TAA...
October 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Merle Spriggs, Lynn Gillam
Labiaplasty is a form of genital surgery to reduce large or protruding labia minora. Internationally, the rates of this surgery among women and girls is increasing and is viewed as a worrying trend. Currently, the main clinical strategy is to reassure adolescents that they are normal by talking about the variation of labia size and appearance and showing pictures demonstrating the wide range of normal female genital appearance. For the most part, policy documents recommend against labiaplasty in adolescents, claiming that it is medically non-essential surgery...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Mikhail Kolmogorov, Joel Armstrong, Brian J Raney, Ian Streeter, Matthew Dunn, Fengtang Yang, Duncan Odom, Paul Flicek, Thomas M Keane, David Thybert, Benedict Paten, Son Pham
Despite the rapid development of sequencing technologies, the assembly of mammalian-scale genomes into complete chromosomes remains one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. To help address this difficulty, we developed Ragout 2, a reference-assisted assembly tool that works for large and complex genomes. By taking one or more target assemblies (generated from an NGS assembler) and one or multiple related reference genomes, Ragout 2 infers the evolutionary relationships between the genomes and builds the final assemblies using a genome rearrangement approach...
October 19, 2018: Genome Research
Ketevan Glonti, Darko Hren
INTRODUCTION: Despite dealing with scientific output and potentially having an impact on the quality of research published, the manuscript peer-review process itself has at times been criticised for being 'unscientific'. Research indicates that there are social and subjective dimensions of the peer-review process that contribute to this perception, including how key stakeholders-namely authors, editors and peer reviewers-communicate. In particular, it has been suggested that the expected roles and tasks of stakeholders need to be more clearly defined and communicated if the manuscript review process is to be improved...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Bernard-Antonin Dupont Cyr, France Dufresne, Felix Christen, Véronique Desrosiers, Émilie Proulx, Nathalie R Le François, Grant W Vandenberg, Pierre U Blier
Hybridization between closely related species can generate genetic and phenotypic variation, providing valuable biological material to assess the physiological impact of the structural or functional variability of different organs. In the present study, we examined growth rates of various organs and whole body in brook char, Arctic char and their reciprocal hybrids over a period of 281 days. Parental species achieved significantly higher body mass than their hybrids. Hybridization significantly reduced the relative size of the heart, liver and spleen...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Masahiko Okumura, Sebastien Kerisit, Ian C Bourg, Laura N Lammers, Takashi Ikeda, Michel Sassi, Kevin M Rosso, Masahiko Machida
Insights at the microscopic level of the process of radiocesium adsorption and interaction with clay mineral particles have improved substantially over the past several years, triggered by pressing social issues such as management of huge amounts of waste soil accumulated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In particular, computer-based molecular modeling supported by advanced hardware and algorithms has proven to be a powerful approach. Its application can now generally encompass the full complexity of clay particle adsorption sites from basal surfaces to interlayers with inserted water molecules, to edges including fresh and weathered frayed ones...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hong-Yi Li, Hang Wang, Hai-Tiao Wang, Pei-Yong Xin, Xin-Hua Xu, Yun Ma, Wei-Ping Liu, Chang-Yun Teng, Cheng-Liang Jiang, Li-Ping Lou, Wyatt Arnold, Lauren Cralle, Yong-Guan Zhu, Jin-Fang Chu, Jack A Gilbert, Zhi-Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Paddy soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major hotspot for soil biogeochemistry, yet we know little about its chemodiversity let alone the microbial community that shapes it. Here, we leveraged ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, amplicon, and metagenomic sequencing to characterize the molecular distribution of DOM and the taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in paddy soils across China. We hypothesized that variances in microbial community significantly associate with changes in soil DOM molecular composition...
October 19, 2018: Microbiome
Martí Cortey, Gastón Arocena, Emanuela Pileri, Gerard Martín-Valls, Enric Mateu
This paper describes the results of two experiments regarding porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV1): the first one studied the existence of bottlenecks in an experimental one-to-one model of transmission in pigs; while the second analysed the differences between viral quasi-species in vaccinated pigs that developed shorter or longer viraemias after natural challenge. Serum samples, as well as the initial inoculum, were deep-sequenced and a viral quasi-species was constructed per sample...
October 19, 2018: Veterinary Research
Salam Y Abu Zaitoun, Rana M Jamous, Munqez J Shtaya, Omar B Mallah, Imad S Eid, Mohammed S Ali-Shtayeh
BACKGROUND: Crop landraces embody a source of beneficial genes potentially providing endurance to environmental stress and other agronomic qualities including yield. Our study included 88 snake melon accessions (Cucumis melo var. flexuosus) collected from 9 districts in the Palestinian West-Bank. These accessions represent four landraces of Palestinian snake melon: Green, and White Baladi, and Green, and White Sahouri. RESULTS: This is the first report on successful application of genotyping by sequencing in snake melon...
October 19, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jianchao Wu, Weijie Li, Qian Feng
Interlayer slide damage is one of the main causes of landslide hazard, inflicting huge economic losses and casualties. It is urgent to accurately detect the initiation and development of the interlayer slide damage in real time. In this paper, a study on the feasibility of using the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique to detect the interlayer slide damage was presented. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the application of the EMI technique for interlayer slide detection using piezoceramic smart aggregates (SAs)...
October 18, 2018: Sensors
Dan Li, Ming Shi, Feng Xu, Chengcheng Liu, Jianqiu Zhang, Dean Ta
In this paper, a new approach to guided wave ray tomography for temperature-robust damage detection with time-of-flight (TOF) temperature compensation is developed. Based on the linear relationship between the TOF of a guided wave and temperature, analyses show that the TOF of the baseline signal can be compensated by the temperature measurement of the inspected materials without estimating the temperature compensation parameters. The inversion is based on the optimization of the TOF misfit function between the inspected and compensated baseline TOFs of the guided waves, and is applied by the elastic net penalty approach to perform thickness change mapping in a structural health monitoring (SHM) application...
October 18, 2018: Sensors
Angeliki Gerede, Alexandros Sotiriadis, Aikaterini Karavida, Stamatios Petousis, Themistoklis Mikos, Efstratios Assimakopoulos, Basil C Tarlatzis, Apostolos P Athanasiadis
PURPOSE:  This study aimed to explore the feasibility of implementation of the ISUOG 2013 guidelines on routine second-trimester examination of the fetal heart. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This was a prospective study in 357 women with singleton pregnancy undergoing their routine second-trimester scan. The fetal heart was examined using B-mode in different planes according to the guidelines. Potential maternal and fetal factors that can affect the rates of diagnostic-quality imaging for each of the recommended views were tested, using regression analysis...
October 19, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
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