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Structural variation

M S Safronova, S G Porsev, M G Kozlov, J Thielking, M V Okhapkin, P Głowacki, D M Meier, E Peik
The isotope ^{229}Th is unique in that it possesses an isomeric state of only a few electron volts above the ground state, suitable for nuclear laser excitation. An optical clock based on this transition is expected to be a very sensitive probe for variations of fundamental constants, but the nuclear properties of both states have to be determined precisely to derive the actual sensitivity. We carry out isotope shift calculations in Th^{+} and Th^{2+} including the specific mass shift, using a combination of configuration interaction and all-order linearized coupled-cluster methods and estimate the uncertainty of this approach...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Anton S Petrov, Elizabeth C Wood, Chad R Bernier, Ashlyn M Norris, Alan Brown, A Amunts
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are essential components of all mitochondria that synthesize proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Unlike other ribosomes, mitoribosomes are highly variable across species. The basis for this diversity is not known. Here, we examine the composition and evolutionary history of mitoribosomes across the phylogenetic tree by combining three-dimensional structural information with a comparative analysis of the secondary structures of mitochondrial rRNAs (mt-rRNAs) and available proteomic data...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Benjamin C Haller, Philipp W Messer
With the desire to model population genetic processes under increasingly realistic scenarios, forward genetic simulations have become a critical part of the toolbox of modern evolutionary biology. The SLiM forward genetic simulation framework is one of the most powerful and widely used tools in this area. However, its foundation in the Wright-Fisher model has been found to pose an obstacle to implementing many types of models; it is difficult to adapt the Wright-Fisher model, with its many assumptions, to modeling ecologically realistic scenarios such as explicit space, overlapping generations, individual variation in reproduction, density-dependent population regulation, individual variation in dispersal or migration, local extinction and recolonization, mating between subpopulations, age structure, fitness-based survival and hard selection, emergent sex ratios, and so forth...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
David Barbado, Belen Irles-Vidal, Amaya Prat-Luri, María Pilar García-Vaquero, Francisco J Vera-Garcia
Although core stability (CS) training is largely used to enhance motor performance and prevent musculoskeletal injuries, the lack of methods to quantify CS training intensity hinders the design of CS programs and the comparison and generalization of their effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of accelerometers integrated into smartphones to quantify the intensity of several CS isometric exercises. Additionally, this study analyzed to what extent the pelvic acceleration data represent the local stability of the core structures or the whole-body postural control...
2018: PloS One
Rabin Kadariya, Michito Shimozuru, Jesús E Maldonado, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed Moustafa, Mariko Sashika, Toshio Tsubota
Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) have a widespread distribution in mountain landscapes, and are considered vulnerable globally, but are low-priority species for conservation in Nepal. Habitat fragmentation, illegal hunting, and human-bear conflict are the major threats to Asiatic black bears across their global range. Having an adequate level of genetic variation in a population helps with adapting to rapidly changing environments, and thus is important for the long-term health of bear populations. Accordingly, we conducted non-invasive surveys of bear populations in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) to elucidate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the phylogenetic relationship of Asiatic black bears from this region of Nepal to other subspecies...
2018: PloS One
Paola Araneda, Walter Sielfeld, Cristián Bonacic, José Tomás Ibarra
Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients lies at the heart of community ecology and conservation. Previous studies have found variation in bird diversity and density along "natural" elevational gradients in the Tropical Andes Hotspot. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how bird communities respond to traditional land-use patterns, in association with other multiple drivers, along elevations. In the present study, we investigated biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sources of variation associated with bird species diversity, density and turnover along a 3000-m elevational gradient, in southern limit of the Tropical Andes Hotspot, northern Chile...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra Serebryakova, Tania Aires, Frédérique Viard, Ester A Serrão, Aschwin H Engelen
Seaweed-associated microbiota experience spatial and temporal shifts in response to changing environmental conditions and seaweed physiology. These shifts may result in structural, functional and behavioral changes in the host with potential consequences for its fitness. They, thus, may help the host to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The current knowledge of seasonal variation of seaweed-associated microbiota is however still limited. In this study, we explored temporal and spatial variation of microbial communities associated with the invasive brown seaweed S...
2018: PloS One
Yousheng Rao, Zhangfeng Wang, Wen Luo, Wentao Sheng, Rendian Zhang, Xuewen Chai
In the present study, we carried out an examination of the amino acid usage in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) proteome. We found that tRNA abundance, base composition, hydrophobicity and aromaticity, protein second structure, cysteine residue (Cys) content and protein molecular weight had significant impact on the amino acid usage of the zebra finch. The above factors explained the total variability of 22.85%, 25.37%, 10.91%, 5.06%, 4.21%, and 3.14%, respectively. Altogether, approximately 70% of the total variability in zebra finch could be explained by such factors...
2018: PloS One
Luca Francaviglia, Gözde Tütüncüoglu, Federico Matteini, Anna Fontcuberta I Morral
Nanoscale variations in the composition of an Al x Ga1-x As shell around a GaAs nanowire affect the nanowire functionality and can lead to the formation of localized quantum emitters. These composition fluctuations can be the consequence of variations of crystal phase and/or nanoscale adatom mobility. By applying electron-microscopy-related techniques we correlate the optical, compositional and structural properties at the nanoscale on the same object. The results indicate a clear correlation between the twin density in the nanowire and the quantum-emitter density as well as a significant redshift in the emission...
February 1, 2019: Nanotechnology
Bernd Bittersohl, Chiara Benedikter, Alexander Franz, Tobias Hesper, Christoph Schleich, Gerald Antoch, Harish S Hosalkar, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens
BACKGROUND: Rowing exposes the femoral head and acetabulum to high levels of repetitive abutment motion and axial loading that may put elite athletes at an increased risk for developing early hip osteoarthritis. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Do elite rowers demonstrate characteristic hip cartilage lesions on T2 MRI sequences compared with asymptomatic individuals who do not row? METHODS: This study included 20 asymptomatic rowers (mean age, 23 ± 3 years; nine females, 11 males) who had a minimum of 5 years of intensive (≥ 12 hours/week) training...
November 27, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Stacey L Rowe, Nicola Stephens, Benjamin C Cowie, Terry Nolan, Karin Leder, Allen C Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To review the use of data linkage by Australian state and territory communicable disease control units, and to identify barriers to and enablers of data linkage to inform communicable disease surveillance and control activities. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with one key informant from communicable disease control units in all eight Australian states and territories between October 2017 and January 2018. RESULTS: Key informants from all Australian states and territories participated in the interview...
December 5, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Duarte S Viana, Jonathan M Chase
The abundance and distribution of species across the landscape depend on the interaction between local, spatial and stochastic processes. However, empirical syntheses relating these processes to spatio-temporal patterns of structure in metacommunities remains elusive. One important reason for this lack of synthesis is that the relative importance of the core assembly processes (dispersal, selection and drift) critically depends on the spatial grain and extent over which communities are studied. To illustrate this, we simulated different aspects of community assembly on heterogeneous landscapes, including the strength of response to environmental heterogeneity (inherent to niche theory) versus dispersal and stochastic drift (inherent to neutral theory)...
December 5, 2018: Ecology
Vladyslava Kovalska, Marina Kuperman, Mykhaylo Losytskyy, Serhii Vakarov, Slawomir Potocki, Sergiy Yarmoluk, Yan Voloshin, Oleg Varzatskii, Elzbieta Gumienna-Kontecka
An ability of inherently achiral macrobicyclic metal complexes iron(ii) clathrochelates to acquire an induced CD (ICD) output in the visible spectral range upon interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was recently discovered. In the present work, the CD-reporting properties of iron(ii) clathrochelates to proteins and the thermodynamic parameters of their binding to albumins are evaluated. It is shown that iron(ii) clathrochelates functionalized by six ribbed carboxyphenylsulfide groups are able to discriminate between serum albumins of relative structure (here human and bovine albumins) by giving distinct ICD spectra...
December 5, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Sen Ma, Wen Han, Li Li, Xueling Zheng, Xiaoxi Wang
Wheat bran dietary fiber (WBDF) has been reported to be responsible for the low quality of whole wheat flour products due to its destructive effect on the gluten matrix. Glutenin and gliadin are the major components of gluten protein and contribute to a proper gluten structure. In this study, the thermostability, surface hydrophobicity, fluorescence characteristics, free sulfhydryl contents, and molecular weight distributions of glutenin- and gliadin-rich fractions were determined after the addition of WBDF...
December 5, 2018: Food & Function
Yimin Mao, Peter Y Zavalij
Two ZnII -based coordination polymers (CPs) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method, using Zn(NO3 )2 ·6H2 O and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, at 95 °C. Poly[tetrakis(dimethylazanium) [tetrakis(μ2 -furan-2,5-dicarboxylato-κ2 O2 :O5 )dizinc(II)]], {(C2 H8 N)4 [Zn2 (C6 H2 O5 )4 ]}n or {[DMA]4 [ZnII 2 (FDC)4 ]}n (DMA = dimethylazanium and FDC = furan-2,5-dicarboxylate), (1), was obtained with a 1:1 molar ratio of ZnII and FDCA. It crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/c...
December 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Khaled Itani, Birger Svihus
1. A 2x2 factorial design was used to test the hypothesis that impaired intestinal starch digestibility is attributable to rapid passage of digesta from the gizzard to the intestine, and that, compared to steam pelleting, increasing the availability of starch through extrusion cooking may alleviate the potential negative effect of rapid digesta flow on starch utilisation. 2. Thus, 7-d-old broilers chickens were distributed to 48 cages and given a wheat-based (WB) pelleted diet containing either coarse oat hulls (OH-Pel) or fine cellulose (Cel-Pel) until d 19 to stimulate divergent development of the gizzard...
December 5, 2018: British Poultry Science
Milan Ghosh, Sabyasachi Ta, Sisir Lohar, Sudipta Das, Paula Brando, Vitor Felix, Debasis Das
Tuning of ligand structures through controlled variation of ring number in fused-ring aromatic moiety appended to antipyrine allows detection of 7.8 × 10-12  M pyrene via aggregation-induced emission (AIE) associated with 101-fold fluorescence enhancement. In one case, antipyrine unit is replaced by pyridine to derive bis-methylanthracenyl picolyl amine. The structures of four molecules have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Among them, pyrene-antipyrine conjugate (L) undergoes pyrene triggered inhibition of photo-induced electron transfer (PET) leading to water-assisted AIE...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Adam Taylor Smith, Alex Dumas
Men in economically advanced societies are more at-risk of dying prematurely due to heart disease than women, and this risk is inversely related to their socioeconomic status (SES). While the strong influence of socioeconomic factors on self-management of chronic diseases is important, the impact of masculinity must also be considered. This study examines the social variation in preventive health lifestyles of men from two contrasting socioeconomic groups who have suffered from a cardiovascular incident requiring hospitalization...
December 4, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Mario Vitor Buzete Gardinal, Thalles Fernando Rocha Ruiz, Sandro Estevan Moron, Eliane Tie Oba Yoshioka, Ligia Uribe Gonçalves, Irene Bastos Franceschini Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
The fish heart ventricle has varied morphology and may have a specific morpho-functional design in species adapted to extreme environmental conditions. In general, the Amazonian ichthyofauna undergoes constant variations in water temperature, pH and oxygen saturation, which makes these species useful for investigations of cardiac morphology. Arapaima gigas, a member of the ancient teleost group Osteoglossomorpha, is one of the largest freshwater fish in the world. This species has a specific heart metabolism that uses fat as the main fuel when O2 supplies are abundant but also can change to glycogen fermentation when O2 content is limiting...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Lily J Doershuk, Jaap P P Saers, Colin N Shaw, Tea Jashashvili, Kristian J Carlson, Jay T Stock, Timothy M Ryan
OBJECTIVE: This project investigates trabecular bone structural variation in the proximal humerus and femur of hunter-gatherer, mixed-strategy agricultural, medieval, and human groups to address three questions: (a) What is the extent of trabecular bone structural variation in the humerus and femur between populations with different inferred activity levels? (b) How does variation in the proximal humerus relate to variation in the proximal femur? (c) Are trabecular bone microstructural variables sexually dimorphic? METHODS: The proximal humerus and femur of 73 adults from five human groups with distinct subsistence strategies were scanned using a micro-computed tomography system...
January 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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