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Aging muscle

Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Kaihui Zhang, Hongying Li, Xiaoying Li, Yi Liu, Zhongtao Gai
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features and genetic basis of a female neonate with muscle weakness, abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging and elevated blood lactate. METHODS: The patient was subjected to clinical and laboratory examination. Next generation sequencing was carried out for the patient and her relatives. RESULTS: The proband was diagnosed as small for gestational age, with clinical features including muscle weakness, abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging, increased blood lactate, and acidosis...
August 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Yuki Fukuoka, Takuma Narita, Hiroki Fujita, Tsukasa Morii, Takehiro Sato, Mariko Harada Sassa, Yuichiro Yamada
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia, its related factors, and indicators of physical evaluation in elderly diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observation study. Total 267 diabetic patients (159 men, 108 women) aged > 65 years were recruited in our study. Skeletal muscle mass index, grip strength, and usual gait speed were measured to diagnose sarcopenia according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Marlene Elmelund, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Mette Hornum Bing, Niels Klarskov
STUDY DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: Due to weakened pelvic floor muscles, the risk of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may increase after a spinal cord injury (SCI); hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of POP after SCI and to evaluate the need for urogynecological consultations offered to women with SCI. SETTING: Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. METHODS: Women with SCI who visited our SCI-clinic during January 2013-January 2018 were offered a specialized urogynecological consultation...
August 10, 2018: Spinal Cord
Sophie C Broome, Jonathan S T Woodhead, Troy L Merry
One of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle is the mitochondria. Prolonged or very high ROS exposure causes oxidative damage, which can be deleterious to muscle function, and as such, there is growing interest in targeting antioxidants to the mitochondria in an effort to prevent or treat muscle dysfunction and damage associated with disease and injury. Paradoxically, however, ROS also act as important signalling molecules in controlling cellular homeostasis, and therefore caution must be taken when supplementing with antioxidants...
August 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Egor Y Plotnikov, Anna A Brezgunova, Irina B Pevzner, Ljubava D Zorova, Vasily N Manskikh, Vasily A Popkov, Denis N Silachev, Dmitry B Zorov
Neonatal sepsis is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in newborns, greatly associated with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and failure. Handling of newborns with kidney damage can be significantly different compared to adults, and it is necessary to consider the individuality of an organism's response to systemic inflammation. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute kidney injury model to study mechanisms of kidney cells damage in neonatal and adult rats. We found LPS-associated oxidative stress was more severe in adults compared to neonates, as judged by levels of carbonylated proteins and products of lipids peroxidation...
August 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Vida Naderi-Boldaji, Siyavash Joukar, Ali Noorafshan, Alireza Raji-Amirhasani, Samaneh Naderi-Boldaji, Mohammad-Abbas Bejeshk
AIMS: Low-intensity aerobic training along with limbs blood flow restriction can improve mass and strength of skeletal muscle, but its effects on aging heart structure and performance is unidentified. We investigated the effects of this model of training on myocardial function, histology and angiogenesis in old male rats. MAIN METHODS: Animals randomly were divided into control (Ctl), sham-operated (Sh), limbs blood flow restriction (BFR), sham-operated plus 10 weeks low intensity treadmill exercise (Sh + Ex), and BFR plus exercise (BFR + Ex) groups...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Luciano Ramos, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Romildo Torres-Silva, Rodney Capp Pallota, Tatiana Magacho, Fernando Francisco Pazello Mafra, Michel Monteiro Macedo, Rodrigo Leal de Paiva Carvalho, Jan Magnus Bjordal, Rodrigo Alvaro B Lopes-Martins
BACKGROUND: Unusual and exhaustive physical exercise can lead to muscle lesions depending on the type of contraction, intensity, duration, age, and level of conditioning. Different therapies have been proposed to prevent or reduce exercise-induced muscle damage. In this study, we investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle strain in an experimental model in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200 g) were used. The animals were randomized into groups of six animals...
August 10, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Jaakko Piesanen, Tarja Kunnas, Seppo T Nikkari
AIMS: Since desmin expression is diminished in vascular smooth muscle cells during reparative processes, we wanted to study whether a common intragenic single nucleotide polymorphism at nucleotide position 828 (rs1058261) of the DES gene associates with hypertension, cerebrovascular complications, and all cardiovascular events in the Tampere adult population cardiovascular risk (TAMRISK) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Finnish periodic health examination cohort of 336 subjects with diagnosed hypertension and 473 controls were analyzed...
August 10, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Hongwei Si, Xiaoyong Wang, Longyun Zhang, Laurence D Parnell, Bulbul Admed, Tanya LeRoith, Twum-Ampofo Ansah, Lijuan Zhang, Jianwei Li, José M Ordovás, Hongzong Si, Dongmin Liu, Chao-Qiang Lai
We recently reported that epicatechin, a bioactive compound that occurs naturally in various common foods, promoted general health and survival of obese diabetic mice. It remains to be determined whether epicatechin extends health span and delays the process of aging. In the present study, epicatechin or its analogue epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (0.25% w/v in drinking water) was administered to 20-mo-old male C57BL mice fed a standard chow. The goal was to determine the antiaging effect. The results showed that supplementation with epicatechin for 37 wk strikingly increased the survival rate from 39 to 69%, whereas EGCG had no significant effect...
August 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Annelise L Meneses, Michael C Y Nam, Tom G Bailey, Rebecca Magee, Jonathan Golledge, Ylva Hellsten, Michelle A Keske, Kim Greaves, Christopher D Askew
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by stenosis and occlusion of the lower limb arteries. While leg blood flow is limited in PAD, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion is affected. We compared whole-leg blood flow and calf muscle microvascular perfusion following cuff occlusion and submaximal leg exercise between PAD patients (n=12, 69{plus minus}9 years) and healthy age-matched control participants (n=12, 68{plus minus}7 years). Microvascular blood flow (microvascular volume x flow velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured before and immediately after: 1) 5 min of thigh-cuff occlusion; and 2) a 5-min bout of intermittent isometric plantar-flexion exercise (400N) using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Michael I Polkey, Jens Praestgaard, Amy Berwick, Frits M E Franssen, Dave Singh, Michael C Steiner, Richard Casaburi, Hanns-Christian Tillmann, Estelle Lach-Trifilieff, Ronenn Roubenoff, Daniel S Rooks
RATIONALE: Bimagrumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that blocks the activin type II receptors, preventing the activity of myostatin and other negative skeletal muscle regulators. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bimagrumab on skeletal muscle mass and function in patients with COPD and reduced skeletal muscle mass. METHODS: Sixty-seven COPD patients (mean FEV1 1.05 L [41.6% predicted]; aged 40-80 years; body mass index <20 kg/m2 or appendicular skeletal muscle mass index ≤7...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Luca Ruggiero, Chris J McNeil
PURPOSE: At high-altitude, Lowlanders exhibit exacerbated fatigue and impaired performance. Conversely, Sherpa (native Highlanders) are known for their outstanding performance at altitude. Presently, there are no reports comparing neuromuscular fatigue and its etiology between Lowlanders and native Sherpa at altitude. METHODS: At 5050 m, nine age-matched Lowlanders and Sherpa (31±10 vs. 30±12 years, respectively) completed a 4-minute sustained isometric elbow flexion at 25% maximal voluntary (MVC) torque...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
E Normandin, D Yow, C Crotts, J Kiel, K M Beavers, B J Nicklas
BACKGROUND: While intentional weight loss in older adults with obesity yields clinically important health benefits there is a need to minimize the negative effects of weight loss on concomitant loss of muscle mass and strength. Data show wearing weighted vests during exercise improves lean mass and lower extremity strength, however the efficacy of wearing a weighted vest during a period of weight loss to mitigate muscle and strength loss is not known. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the feasibility of daily weighted vest use during a dietary weight loss intervention, and examined effects of vest use on body composition and physical function in well-functioning older adults with obesity...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
M Locquet, C Beaudart, L Delandsheere, J-Y Reginster, O Bruyère
BACKGROUND: It seems that sleep quality could impact the physiological process related to loss of muscle mass. OBJECTIVES: We seek to compare subjective sleep quality of sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic subjects diagnosed according to 6 definitions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data used in this analysis were collected from the SarcoPhAge (Sarcopenia and Physical Impairment with Advancing Age) cohort, a prospective study aiming to assess clinical parameters linked to sarcopenia...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Eimear Dolan, Craig Sale
Bone health is determined by the rate of accrual in early life, followed by the rate of age-associated bone loss. Dietary protein intake might have a role in bone health across both of these phases via pleiotropic mechanistic pathways. Herein we summarise the pathways through which protein may exert either a positive or negative influence on bone. In the introduction, we describe the acid-ash hypothesis, which states that a high-protein intake may lead to an acidic residue that must be neutralised through the leaching of calcium and other minerals from the bone, subsequently leading to demineralisation and bone weakening...
August 10, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Sarah Palsen, Albert Wu, Sascha S Beutler, Robert Gimlich, H Keri Yang, Richard D Urman
There is a growing body of literature documenting the use of deep neuromuscular block (NMB) during surgery. Traditional definitions of depth of NMB rely on train-of-four assessment, which can be less reliable in retrospective studies. The goal of our study was to investigate the real-world practice pattern of dosing of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), utilizing the amount of NMBA used during the course of a case, adjusted for patient weight and case duration, as a surrogate measure of depth of NMB. We also aimed to identify case factors associated with larger NMBA doses...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Masatsugu Ohara, Koji Ogawa, Goki Suda, Megumi Kimura, Osamu Maehara, Tomoe Shimazaki, Kazuharu Suzuki, Akihisa Nakamura, Machiko Umemura, Takaaki Izumi, Naoki Kawagishi, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Kenichi Morikawa, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Naoya Sakamoto
Liver cirrhosis (LC) is a major cause of secondary sarcopenia. Sarcopenia makes the prognosis worse; thus, novel therapeutic options for sarcopenia in patients with LC are urgently required as they are currently limited. In this retrospective study, 158 patients with LC were screened, and 35 of those patients who were treated with L-carnitine for more than 6 months and for whom skeletal muscle mass changes could be evaluated by computer tomography were enrolled. Of the 158 patients, 79 patients who did not receive L-carnitine supplementation served as controls...
August 2018: Hepatology communications
Anne-Violette Bruyneel, Simone C Gafner, Serge Ferrari, Gabriel Gold, Dominique Monnin, Philippe Terrier, Caroline H Bastiaenen, Lara Allet
Background: Reduced hip muscle strength has been shown to be a major factor related to falls in older persons. However, comprehensive assessment of hip abduction strength in the clinical setting is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and intra-rater reliability of a quick and simple hip abductor strength test in a functional standing position. Methods: Individuals over 65 years of age were recruited from the geriatric department of a university hospital and an outpatient clinic...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Ali H Eid, Ahmed F El-Yazbi, Fouad Zouein, Abdelilah Arredouani, Allal Ouhtit, Md M Rahman, Hatem Zayed, Gianfranco Pintus, Haissam Abou-Saleh
Chronic hypertension remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. It is a complex disease that is the clinical manifestation of multiple genetic, environmental, nutritional, hormonal, and aging-related disorders. Evidence supports a role for vascular aging in the development of hypertension involving an impairment in endothelial function together with an alteration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcium homeostasis leading to increased myogenic tone. Changes in free intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+ ] i ) are mediated either by the influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space or release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, mainly the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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