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Aging muscle

Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Baubak Shamim, Brooke L Devlin, Ryan G Timmins, Paul Tofari, Connor Lee Dow, Vernon G Coffey, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
BACKGROUND: We implemented a high-protein diet (2 g·kg-1 ·d-1 ) throughout 12 weeks of concurrent exercise training to determine whether interferences to adaptation in muscle hypertrophy, strength and power could be attenuated compared to resistance training alone. METHODS: Thirty-two recreationally active males (age: 25 ± 5 years, body mass index: 24 ± 3 kg·m-2 ; mean ± SD) performed 12 weeks of either isolated resistance (RES; n = 10) or endurance (END; n = 10) training (three sessions·w-1 ), or concurrent resistance and endurance (CET; n = 12) training (six sessions·w-1 )...
October 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
Akihiko Hiyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Daisuke Sakai, Masato Sato, Masahiro Tanaka, Tadashi Nukaga, Masahiko Watanabe
We investigated how skeletal muscle mass (SMM) affects spinal sagittal balance (radiographic parameters) in symptomatic spinal patients. The first purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition and the spinal sagittal alignment in symptomatic spinal patients. The second purpose of this study was to compare whether the body composition and the spinal sagittal alignment is different in patients with cervical spine disease and lumbar spine disease. We retrospectively evaluated 313 patients who were hospitalized for surgery to treat spinal degenerative disease, who were divided into cervical and lumbar spine disease groups...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Akio Sakamoto, Ryuzo Arai, Takeshi Okamoto, Yosuke Yamada, Hodaka Yamakado, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND Ischemic fasciitis is a rare condition that occurs in debilitated and immobilized individuals, usually overlying bony protuberances. Because the histology shows a pseudosarcomatous proliferation of atypical fibroblasts, and because the lesion can increase in size, ischemic fasciitis can mimic sarcoma. Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) arises in infancy and is due to mutations in the WDR45 gene on the X chromosome. BPAN results in progressive symptoms of dystonia, Parkinsonism, and dementia once the individual reaches adolescence or early adulthood, and is usually fatal before old age...
October 20, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Murat Akkuş, Kaan Yağmurlu, Melek Özarslan, M Yashar S Kalani
In total, 665 of 680 (97%) patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) improved with conservative treatment. The remaining (3%) patients (15 of 680 patients) did not benefit after 3 months of conservative treatment and were referred for transaxillary first rib resection. We retrospectively compared the preoperative and postoperative (3 months) electromyelography and Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands results of operated NTOS patients. Three of the 15 (20%) patients in the surgical cohort were male, with a median age of 25...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Tomohiro Yamada, Goro Sugiyama, Ken Higashimoto, Azusa Nakashima, Hiroyuki Nakano, Tomoki Sumida, Hidenobu Soejima, Yoshihide Mori
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital disorder with 3 main features-overgrowth in infancy, macroglossia, and abdominal wall defects. Here, we report on a 5-month old girl with hemihyperplasia and macroglossia caused by paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) asymmetric mosaic on chromosome 11p15.5. She could not retract her tongue into her mouth and the midline of the tongue was shifted to the left. Glossectomy was performed at age 1 year. A specimen of the tongue showed normal skeletal muscle, but the muscle fibers were closely spaced, and there were fewer stroma components in the tissue from the right side of the tongue than that from the left side...
August 22, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
B M Button, A E Holland, M S Sherburn, J Chase, J W Wilson, A T Burge
OBJECTIVES: To determine in women with clinically stable chronic lung disease (CLD) and healthy women; (1) prevalence of urinary incontinence; (2) risk factors for urinary incontinence; (3) effects of a standard course of specialised physiotherapy treatment (PT) in women with CLD. DESIGN: Prospective prevalence study; PT study in CLD subgroup. SETTING: Tertiary metropolitan public hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Women with cystic fibrosis (CF, n=38), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n=27) and 69 healthy women without CLD...
July 30, 2018: Physiotherapy
Xingchen Zhou, Xiaoqian Yang, Huihui Chen, Xuhong Fang, Xipeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Although vaginal repair has been conducted to manage caesarean scar diverticula, most studies evaluated only the gynaecological outcomes post-surgery, and their obstetrical outcomes were unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the obstetrical outcomes in vaginal repair-treated caesarean scar diverticula patients. METHODS: A series of 51 symptomatic women with caesarean scar defects or a thickness of the remaining muscular layer of less than 3 mm according to transvaginal ultrasound were included...
October 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Naomi Yoshii, Koji Sato, Riki Ogasawara, Yusuke Nishimura, Yasushi Shinohara, Satoshi Fujita
Dietary protein intake is critical for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Plasma amino acid concentrations increase with protein intake and increases in muscle protein synthesis are dependent on leucine concentrations. We aimed to investigate the effect of a mixed meal and free amino acids intake on plasma leucine concentrations. In this randomized crossover study, 10 healthy young men (age 25 ± 1 years, height 1.73 ± 0.02 m, weight 65.8 ± 1.5 kg) underwent tests under different conditions-intake of 2 g of leucine (LEU), intake of a mixed meal (protein 27...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Gulcan Harput, Hande Guney-Deniz, Hamza Ozer, Gul Baltaci, Carl Mattacola
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) levels on quadriceps and hamstring strength and functional outcomes up to 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with hamstring tendon autograft (HTG). DESIGN: Prospective, controlled study. SETTING: University clinical laboratory. PATIENTS: Ninety-one participants who had undergone unilateral ACLR with HTG were divided into 2 groups according to their BMI...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Erkan Karatas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks from cochleostomy after cochlear implantation intraoperatively and postoperatively. METHODS: Three hundred seven patients (age ranges 13 months to 18 years) were undergone cochlear implantation and 14 (4.56%) of them had CSF leakage intraoperatively (2 normal, 12 anomalous cochlea). Complete packing of the around electrode in cochleostomy with muscle had performed to control CSF leak intraoperatively for primary surgery in 10 patients...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Matthew F Jacques, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Neil D Reeves, Georgina K Stebbings, Jonathon Smith, Christopher I Morse
BACKGROUND: Muscular dystrophy (MD) is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness, yet few comparisons to non-MD controls (CTRL) of muscle strength and size in this adult population exist. Physical activity (PA) is promoted to maintain health and muscle strength within MD; however, PA reporting in adults with MD is limited to recall data, and its impact on muscle strength is seldom explored. METHODS: This study included 76 participants: 16 non-MD (CTRL, mean age 35...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Sapna Pathak, James B Caress, Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Carol Milligan, Delaney Willia, Michael S Cartwright
INTRODUCTION: This study explores the reliability and responsiveness of neuromuscular ultrasound in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Investigations were conducted on 10 healthy controls, 10 ALS patients (single point in time), and 10 different ALS patients (followed over six months; 4 completed follow-up). Ultrasound was used to measure the thickness of the geniohyoid, bilateral biceps/brachialis, bilateral tibialis anterior, and bilateral hemidiaphragms (at inspiration and expiration)...
October 19, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Yudiana Wayan, Pratiwi Dinar Ayu, Oka A A Gde, Niryana Wayan, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for nonmetastatic bladder cancer (muscle-invasive and selective superficial bladder cancer). There are many types of urinary diversion after this procedure; the ileal conduit is the most and simplest one. AIM: To asses clinical, pathological profile, early complication, functional and oncological outcome after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. METHOD: Between January 2013 and December 2016, there were 68 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Jie-Hua Chen, Xu Lin, Cuihong Bu, Xuguang Zhang
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a group of compounds that are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and free amino groups of proteins, lipids or nucleic acids, can be obtained exogenously from diet or formed endogenously within the body. AGEs accumulate intracellularly and extracellularly in all tissues and body fluids and can cross-link with other proteins and thus affect their normal functions. Furthermore, AGEs can interact with specific cell surface receptors and hence alter cell intracellular signaling, gene expression, the production of reactive oxygen species and the activation of several inflammatory pathways...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Mary F O'Leary, Graham R Wallace, Edward T Davis, David P Murphy, Thomas Nicholson, Andrew J Bennett, Kostas Tsintzas, Simon W Jones
Adiposity and adipokines are implicated in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with age and in several chronic disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of human obese and lean subcutaneous adipose tissue secretome on myogenesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells derived from both young (18-30 yr) and elderly (>65 yr) individuals. Obese subcutaneous adipose tissue secretome impaired the myogenesis of old myoblasts but not young myoblasts. Resistin was prolifically secreted by obese subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired myotube thickness and nuclear fusion by activation of the classical NFκB pathway...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natzi Sakalihasan, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Athanasios Katsargyris, Helena Kuivaniemi, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Alain Nchimi, Janet T Powell, Koichi Yoshimura, Rebecka Hultgren
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation of the infrarenal aorta. AAA is a multifactorial disease, and genetic and environmental factors play a part; smoking, male sex and a positive family history are the most important risk factors, and AAA is most common in men >65 years of age. AAA results from changes in the aortic wall structure, including thinning of the media and adventitia due to the loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix. If the mechanical stress of the blood pressure acting on the wall exceeds the wall strength, the AAA ruptures, causing life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage - the mortality for patients with ruptured AAA is 65-85%...
October 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Jacob M Babu, Saisanjana Kalagara, Wesley Durand, Valentin Antoci, Matthew E Deren, Eric Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, an age-related loss of muscle mass and function, has been previously linked to an increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and infection after a variety of surgical procedures. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of the psoas-lumbar vertebral index (PLVI), a validated marker for central sarcopenia, on determining post-arthroplasty infection status. METHODS: This is a case-control, retrospective review of 30 patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosed by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria compared to 69 control patients who underwent a total hip or knee arthroplasty...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Alexandar Iliev, Georgi Kotov, Iva N Dimitrova, Boycho Landzhov
The hypertrophy of the cardiac muscle is one of the most significant maladaptive mechanisms activated in response to increased workload. It is associated with histological and ultrastructural alterations, changes in the quantitative parameters and the expression of different enzymes. While the structural and functional consequences of systemic hypertension on the left ventricle have been well evaluated, the right ventricle has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to analyse and compare the changes in the left and right ventricle during the development of cardiac hypertrophy initiated by systemic hypertension in different age groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
October 15, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Ji Eun Heo, Hyeon Chang Kim, Jee-Seon Shim, Bo Mi Song, Hye Yoon Bae, Ho Jae Lee, Il Suh
Objectives: The combined effects of obesity and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) on atherosclerosis, especially in middle-aged populations, remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ASM on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean adults. Methods: Herein, 595 men and 1,274 women aged 30-64 years completed questionnaires and underwent health examinations as part of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center (CMERC) cohort...
October 7, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
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