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Myeloma And Renal Failure

Romana Ryšavá
AL amyloidosis (light chain; previously also called primary amyloidosis) is a systemic disease characterized by an amyloid deposition process affecting many organs, and which still has unsatisfactory survival of patients. The monoclonal light chains kappa (κ) or lambda (λ) or their fragments form the fibrils that deposit and accumulate in different tissues. Renal involvement is very frequent in AL amyloidosis and can lead to the development of nephrotic syndrome followed by renal failure in some cases. AL amyloidosis ultimately leads to destruction of tissues and progressive disease...
October 8, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Hasan Jalaeikhoo, Morteza Sharifzadeh, Mohsen Rajaeinejad, Manoutchehr Keyhani, Mohammad Zokaasadi
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for a substantial mortality rate among hematological cancers. The prognosis of the disease has been noticeably changed during the past 2 decades. This study reports a retrospective analysis of 345 MM cases from 2 cancer centers. METHODS: Medical records of 345 MM cases were analyzed in retrospect. Diagnosis of MM was defined in presence of at least 10% plasma cells in bone marrow biopsy and one of the CRAB findings (hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia and myeloma bone lesions)...
September 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Sara Bringhen, Massimo Offidani, Salvatore Palmieri, Francesco Pisani, Rita Rizzi, Stefano Spada, Andrea Evangelista, Nicola Di Renzo, Pellegrino Musto, Magda Marcatti, Roberto Vallone, Sergio Storti, Annalisa Bernardini, Riccardo Centurioni, Enrico Aitini, Angelo Palmas, Ombretta Annibali, Emanuele Angelucci, Paola Ferrando, Anna Baraldi, Stefano Rocco, Alessandro Andriani, Agostina Siniscalchi, Valerio De Stefano, Vittorio Meneghini, Antonio Palumbo, Sara Grammatico, Mario Boccadoro, Alessandra Larocca
INTRODUCTION: Early toxic death (≤60 days of diagnosis) in elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients is attributable to active disease, age and co-morbidities. Rate of early toxic deaths is 10% with conventional chemotherapy mainly due to infection and renal failure. Novel agents have improved MM outcome at the expense of newer toxicity. METHODS: We analyzed 1146 individual patient data to assess toxic deaths during induction treatment with first-generation novel agents thalidomide, lenalidomide, bortezomib...
October 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Tobias Wehrhahn, Mario Bargetzi, Carlos Buitrago-Tellez, Gianni Cantelmi
Patients with plasma cell myeloma may initially present to their dentists or dental surgeons with toothache, loose teeth, or gingival masses. An X-ray of the jaw can reveal osteolyses. In addition, accumulation of monoclonal light chains in AL-amyloidosis can lead to macroglossia. It is prudent that the dentist or dental surgeon recognizes the underlying disease and refers the patient to the oncologist or hematologist for further workup to prevent the complications of plasma cell myeloma such as renal impairment, fractures, bone pain, infections, hypercalcemia, anemia, or heart failure...
July 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
Naresh Mullaguri, Anusha Battineni, Raviteja Guddeti
Multiple myeloma is an immunoglobulin-producing plasma cell neoplasm that commonly affects the bones, kidneys, the hematopoietic system, and rarely the nervous system. Peripheral nervous system involvement in the form of cranial neuropathy, radiculopathy, and polyneuropathy are common. Compressive myelopathy constitutes the majority of central nervous system disorders followed by cerebrovascular disorders, intracranial plasmacytomas, and leptomeningeal myelomatosis. Cerebrovascular complications such as acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack are not uncommon...
June 19, 2018: Curēus
N Tahiliani, P Kataria, A Patel, P Kendre
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a monoclonal gammopathy, also known as the malignant proliferation of plasma cells, presenting with typical complications such as hypercalcemia, osteolytic bone lesions, anemia, renal insufficiency, and frequent infections. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in MM in the form of parenchymal involvement is very uncommon and has been reported only in 1% of patients. CNS involvement as an initial presentation is very rare and has poor prognosis. Also specific treatment guidelines do not exist for the treatment of such patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Sarah Farag, Barbara Jeker, Ulrike Bacher, Behrouz Mansouri Taleghani, Beatrice U Mueller, Urban Novak, Thomas Pabst
Consolidation in myeloma patients with high-dose melphalan chemotherapy (Mel HDCT) and autologous transplantation (ASCT) is standard of care since more than 2 decades. However, definite cure remains exceptional despite intensive treatment, and improving effectiveness of HDCT remains an unmet clinical need. Combining intensified bendamustine with melphalan may represent an option. We analyzed safety and efficacy of combining dose-intensified bendamustine (200 mg/m2 on days -4/-3) with high-dose melphalan (100 mg/m2 on days -2/-1) before a second (tandem) ASCT in adverse risk myeloma patients after Mel HDCT/ASCT1...
October 2018: Hematological Oncology
Sara Bringhen, Alberto Milan, Claudio Ferri, Ralph Wäsch, Francesca Gay, Alessandra Larocca, Marco Salvini, Evangelos Terpos, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Michele Cavo, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Heinz Ludwig, Holger W Auner, Jo Caers, Martin Gramatzki, Mario Boccadoro, Hermann Einsele, Pieter Sonneveld, Monika Engelhardt
Cardiovascular disease in patients with multiple myeloma may derive from factors unrelated to the disease (age, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, prior cardiovascular diseases), related to the disease (cardiac AL-amyloidosis, hyperviscosity, high-output failure, arteriovenous shunting, anemia, renal dysfunction) and/or related to anti-myeloma treatment (anthracyclines, corticosteroids, alkylating agents, immunomodulatory drugs, proteasome inhibitors). Good knowledge of cardiovascular events, effective dose reductions, prevention and management of early and late cardiovascular side effects of chemotherapeutic agents are essential in current clinical practice...
September 2018: Haematologica
Takanori Fukuta, Takayuki Tanaka, Yoshinori Hashimoto, Hiromi Omura
While cases of multiple myeloma (MM) with metastatic calcification have been reported, the mechanisms for this calcification have yet to be explained. We observed a case of MM in a patient with end-stage renal failure who developed vascular and pulmonary calcification. A 51-year-old male was diagnosed with Bence-Jones type MM and required maintenance hemodialysis. He was treated with bortezomib-dexamethasone, vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone, the M2 protocol, and lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd) therapy...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
A Maturana-Ramírez, A V Ortega, F C Labbé, Ê de Moraes, J P Aitken-Saavedra
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases characterized by an irreversible and extracellular deposition of fibrillar, amorphous protein known as amyloid in different organs and tissues. Amyloid deposits may occur locally in tissues or may involve various organs, resulting in a wide range of clinical manifestations. Amyloidosis of the head and neck is rarely seen and can reflect some plasma cell dyscrasia that affects B lymphocytes. Deposition of amyloid on the tongue is very rare and accounts for less than 9% of all types of amyloidosis...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Braden J Lawrence, Emily L Petersen, Wayne G Riches, David C Pfeiffer
Plasmacytomas are rare immunoproliferative monoclonal plasma cell diseases of lymphoid lineage that may present in an isolated or systemic manner. Systemic involvement is much more common than occurrences isolated to a particular organ, and for this reason, it is imperative to rule out systemic involvement for osseous and nonosseous isolated neoplasms. These neoplasms present unique challenges due to their location, extent of involvement, vague presentation, and dearth of treatment protocol. We report the case of a 69-year-old man who developed chronic kidney disease stage 4 between 2009 and 2012...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Sandhya Manohar, Samih H Nasr, Nelson Leung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update and evaluate the current knowledge on pathogenesis and management of light chain cast nephropathy. Light chain cast nephropathy (LCCN) is the leading cause of acute renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma and is currently recognized as a myeloma defining event. RECENT FINDINGS: The immunoglobulin free light chain plays an integral role in the pathogenesis of LCCN. The level of free light chain (FLC) in the blood and urine is directly associated with the risk of developing LCCN...
June 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Alexander Zheleznyak, Monica Shokeen, Samuel Achilefu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an age-related hematological malignancy with an estimated 30,000 new cases and 13,000 deaths per year. A disease of antibody-secreting malignant plasma B-cells that grow primarily in the bone marrow (BM), MM causes debilitating fractures, anemia, renal failure, and hypercalcemia. In addition to the abnormal genetic profile of MM cells, the permissive BM microenvironment (BMM) supports MM pathogenesis. Although advances in treatment options have significantly enhanced survival in MM patients, transient perfusion of small-molecule drugs in the BM does not provide sufficient residence to enhance MM cell-drug interaction, thus allowing some myeloma cells to escape the first line of treatment...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Serena Rocchi, Paola Tacchetti, Lucia Pantani, Katia Mancuso, Beatrice Zannetti, Michele Cavo, Elena Zamagni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Haematologica
Mir Sadaqat Hassan Zafar, Afaq Ahmed Khan, Shyam Aggarwal, Manorama Bhargava
Background: Outcome in multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over recent years as a result of the availability of multiple novel agents with acceptable safety profile. Study Design: Prospective observational study at a tertiary care institute. Methods: Twenty-five newly diagnosed patients of MM were treated with bortezomib and dexamethasone induction with monitoring for response and safety, followed by peripheral blood autologous stem cell transplant (PBASCT) in eligible patients or maintenance...
January 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
L Ratiani, N Intskirveli, L Goliadze, T Chkhikvadze, L Koptonashvili, E Khuchua
A 65-year-old male patient, unconscious, was admitted into the clinic by the Ambulance. From the patient's medical history it was revealed that several hours before the admission in the clinic the following symptoms were present: shortness of breath, fever, hypotonia, consciousness inhibition, because of which emergency brigade was called and was brought by the Emergency Brigade. The history is loaded by chronic pathologies: myeloma disease, prostate cancer, ciliary arrhythmia, heart failure; received several courses of polichemotherapy, last ten days has been treated for pneumonia with antibiotics of ceftriaxone group in outpatient setting...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
Karine Augeul-Meunier, Marie-Lorraine Chretien, Anne-Marie Stoppa, Lionel Karlin, Lofti Benboubker, Jose Miguel Torregrosa Diaz, Mohamad Mohty, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Aurore Perrot, Claude-Eric Bulabois, Anne Huynh, Mélanie Mercier, Laurent Frenzel, Hervé Avet-Loiseau, Régis Peffault de Latour, Jérôme Cornillon
Renal impairment is a common complication of multiple myeloma (MM), accounting for 20-30% of MM patients at diagnosis and 40-50% of patients during the course of their disease. This feature is associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival as compared to patients with normal renal function (NRF). Therefore, therapeutic management is challenging as autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is often not considered as a valuable strategy, mainly due to concerns of toxicity. In this retrospective and multicenter study, we included 55 MM patients with dialysis-dependent or independent renal failure who underwent high-dose melphalan-based ASCT in order to assess the efficacy outcomes and toxicities of this strategy...
June 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Sanda Mrabet, Narjess Ben Aicha, Nihed Abdessayed, Moncef Mokni, Abdellatif Achour
BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN), the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, is characterized by the deposition of subepithelial immune deposits. Most of the cases are primary, while only approximately 25% of the cases are secondary to some known diseases. Recently, MN has been considered to be a possible presentation of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the kidney in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. In autologous HSCT populations, there have been scarce reports of associated MN, as a result of immune dysregulation leading to systemic autoimmunity and miming chronic GVHD...
March 9, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Bita Fakhri, Mark A Fiala, Sascha A Tuchman, Tanya M Wildes
BACKGROUND: With the expanding armamentarium of therapeutic agents for multiple myeloma (MM), it is important to identify any undertreated patient populations to mitigate outcome disparities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted the data for all plasma cell myeloma cases (International Classification of Disease for Oncology, third revision [ICD-O-3] code 9732) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results (SEER)-Medicare database from 2007 to 2011. The ICD-O-3 histologic code 9732 captures both active MM and smoldering/asymptomatic myeloma...
March 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Adrien Joseph, Stephanie Harel, Marion Venot, Sandrine Valade, Eric Mariotte, Claire Pichereau, Akli Chermak, Lara Zafrani, Elie Azoulay, Emmanuel Canet
Background: Despite substantial improvements in the management of multiple myeloma, renal failure remains an important burden that tremendously impairs prognosis. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and to establish prognostic factors of renal recovery in myeloma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for acute kidney injury (AKI) Stage 3 treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT). Methods: A retrospective single-centre cohort study was performed, including consecutive myeloma patients admitted to one medical ICU between 1 January 2007 and 1 September 2015 and treated with RRT...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
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