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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107140/evaluation-of-aib-and-peg-polymer-insect-kinin-analogs-on-mosquito-and-tick-gpcrs-identifies-potent-new-pest-management-tools-with-potentially-enhanced-biostability-and-bioavailability
#1
Caixing Xiong, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Janusz Zabrocki, Patricia V Pietrantonio, Ronald J Nachman
Insect kinins modulate aspects of diuresis, digestion, development, and sugar taste perception in tarsi and labellar sensilla in mosquitoes. They are, however, subject to rapid biological degradation by endogenous invertebrate peptidases. A series of α-aminoisobutyric (Aib) acid-containing insect kinin analogs incorporating sequences native to the Aedes aegypti mosquito aedeskinins were evaluated on two recombinant kinin invertebrate receptors stably expressed in cell lines, discovering a number of highly potent and biostable insect kinin mimics...
August 11, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087282/the-aphid-transmitted-turnip-yellows-virus-differentially-affects-volatiles-emission-and-subsequent-vector-behavior-in-two-brassicaceae-plants
#2
Patricia Claudel, Quentin Chesnais, Quentin Fouché, Célia Krieger, David Halter, Florent Bogaert, Sophie Meyer, Sylvaine Boissinot, Philippe Hugueney, Véronique Ziegler-Graff, Arnaud Ameline, Véronique Brault
Aphids are important pests which cause direct damage by feeding or indirect prejudice by transmitting plant viruses. Viruses are known to induce modifications of plant cues in ways that can alter vector behavior and virus transmission. In this work, we addressed whether the modifications induced by the aphid-transmitted Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana also apply to the cultivated plant Camelina sativa , both belonging to the Brassicaceae family. In most experiments, we observed a significant increase in the relative emission of volatiles from TuYV-infected plants...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085015/differential-bee-attraction-among-crape-myrtle-cultivars-lagerstroemia-spp-myrtales-lythraceae
#3
S Kristine Braman, James C Quick
Lagerstroemia is a genus of plants comprised of deciduous shrubs or small trees native to China southward into Southeast Asia. There is a wide range among cultivars of tolerance to key pests and diseases, such as powdery mildew, Erysiphe australiana (McAlpine), flea beetle, Altica spp., crape myrtle aphid, Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). We found variation in bee visitation to 40 cultivars evaluated in a 2-yr study in north Georgia...
August 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083179/jasmonic-acid-dependent-defenses-play-a-key-role-in-defending-tomato-against-bemisia-tabaci-nymphs-but-not-adults
#4
Peng-Jun Zhang, Yu-Chen He, Chan Zhao, Zi-Hong Ye, Xiao-Ping Yu
The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an important and invasive crop pest in many countries. Previous laboratory studies with Arabidopsis demonstrated that B. tabaci can suppress jasmonic acid (JA) defenses and thereby enhance B. tabaci performance. Whether B. tabaci can suppress JA-regulated host plant defenses in field is unknown. In the present study, we found that, relative to wild-type (WT) tomato plants, transgenic tomato mutants that activated JA defenses ( 35s::prosys ) or impaired JA defenses ( spr-2 and def-1 ) did not affect the survival or reproduction of B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083141/rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-differ-according-to-fertilizer-regimes-and-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-var-capitata-l-harvest-time-but-not-aphid-herbivory
#5
Flora J M O'Brien, Marc G Dumont, Jeremy S Webb, Guy M Poppy
Rhizosphere microbial communities are known to be highly diverse and strongly dependent on various attributes of the host plant, such as species, nutritional status, and growth stage. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has been used to characterize the rhizosphere bacterial community of many important crop species, but this is the first study to date to characterize the bacterial and archaeal community of Brassica oleracea var. capitata . The study also tested the response of the bacterial community to fertilizer type (organic or synthetic) and N dosage (high or low), in addition to plant age (9 or 12 weeks) and aphid ( Myzus persicae ) herbivory (present/absent)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079547/ecosystem-function-in-predator-prey-food-webs-confronting-dynamic-models-with-empirical-data
#6
Alva Curtsdotter, H T Banks, J E Banks, Mattias Jonsson, Tomas Jonsson, A N Laubmeier, Michael Traugott, Riccardo Bommarco
1.Most ecosystem functions and related services involve species interactions across trophic levels, e.g. pollination and biological pest control. Despite this, our understanding of ecosystem function in multi-trophic communities is poor, and research has been limited to either manipulations in small communities or statistical descriptions in larger ones. 2.Recent advances in food web ecology may allow us to overcome the trade-off between mechanistic insight and ecological realism. Molecular tools now simplify the detection of feeding interactions, and trait-based approaches allow the application of dynamic food web models to real ecosystems...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079442/quinolizidine-and-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-chemical-ecology-a-mini-review-on-their-similarities-and-differences
#7
REVIEW
Michael Wink
This mini-review summarizes over 40 years of research on quinolizidine (QAs) and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Emphasis is on the chemical ecology of both groups of alkaloids, which serve as general defense compounds against herbivores for the plants producing them. For QAs and PAs, a number of insects (aphids, moths, beetles) have acquired tolerance. These specialists store the alkaloids and use them as defense chemicals against predators. In some PA sequestering moths, the adaptation is even more intricate and advanced...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076391/a-plant-virus-bydv-promotes-trophic-facilitation-in-aphids-on-wheat
#8
Mitzy Porras, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher, Edwin G Rajotte, Tomás A Carlo
Pathogens and other parasites can have profound effects on biological communities and ecosystems. Here we explore how two strains of a plant virus - Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, BYDV - influence the foraging performance and fecundity of two aphid species: Rhopalosiphum maidis and R. padi. We found that pre-inhabitation by R. padi on plants facilitates the subsequent foraging of conspecifics and R. maidis. Without the virus, the occurrence of facilitation is asymmetric because it depends on the order of species arrival...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072921/physiological-and-evolutionary-changes-in-a-biological-control-agent-during-prey-shifts-over-several-generations
#9
Mei-Lan Chen, Tao Wang, Yu-Hao Huang, Bo-Yuan Qiu, Hao-Sen Li, Hong Pang
Biological control agents usually suffer from a shortage of target prey or hosts in their post-release stage. Some predatory agents turn to attacking other prey organisms, which may induce physiological and evolutionary changes. In this study, we investigated life history traits, gene expression and genotype frequency in the predatory ladybird beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri during experimental prey shifts. C. montrouzieri were either continuously fed on aphids Megoura japonica as an alternative prey for four generations or were shifted back to the initial prey mealybugs Planococcus citri in each generation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065748/corrigendum-o-3-induced-leaf-senescence-in-tomato-plants-is-ethylene-signaling-dependent-and-enhances-the-population-abundance-of-bemisia-tabaci
#10
Honggang Guo, Yucheng Sun, Hongyu Yan, Chuanyou Li, Feng Ge
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00764.].
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065178/cloning-and-functional-characterisation-of-the-duplicated-rdl-subunits-from-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#11
Silvia G Del Villar, Andrew K Jones
The insect GABA receptor, RDL (resistance to dieldrin), is a cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) that plays a central role in neuronal signaling, and is the target of several classes of insecticides. Many insects studied to date possess one Rdl gene; however, there is evidence of two Rdls in aphids. To characterise further this insecticide target from pests that cause millions of dollars' worth of crop damage each year, we identified the complete cysLGIC gene superfamily of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , using BLAST analysis...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064346/first-report-of-cucurbit-aphid-borne-yellows-virus-affecting-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-in-sudan
#12
S G Kumari, A R Moukahel, A A Hamed, M Sharman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Plant Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063740/genotypic-variation-in-plant-traits-shapes-herbivorous-insect-and-ant-communities-on-a-foundation-tree-species
#13
Hilary L Barker, Liza M Holeski, Richard L Lindroth
Community genetics aims to understand the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on community composition and diversity, thereby connecting community ecology with evolutionary biology. Multiple studies have shown that different plant genotypes harbor different communities of associated organisms, such as insects. Yet, the mechanistic links that tie insect community composition to plant genetics are still not well understood. To shed light on these relationships, we explored variation in both plant traits (e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061909/sweet-scents-nectar-specialist-yeasts-enhance-nectar-attraction-of-a-generalist-aphid-parasitoid-without-affecting-survival
#14
Islam S Sobhy, Dieter Baets, Tim Goelen, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Lien Bosmans, Wim Van den Ende, Kevin J Verstrepen, Felix Wäckers, Hans Jacquemyn, Bart Lievens
Floral nectar is commonly inhabited by microorganisms, mostly yeasts and bacteria, which can have a strong impact on nectar chemistry and scent. Yet, little is known about the effects of nectar microbes on the behavior and survival of insects belonging to the third trophic level such as parasitoids. Here, we used five nectar-inhabiting yeast species to test the hypothesis that yeast species that almost solely occur in nectar, and therefore substantially rely on floral visitors for dispersal, produce volatile compounds that enhance insect attraction without compromising insect life history parameters, such as survival...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057304/low-levels-of-artificial-light-at-night-strengthen-top-down-control-in-insect-food-web
#15
Dirk Sanders, Rachel Kehoe, Dave Cruse, F J Frank van Veen, Kevin J Gaston
Artificial light has transformed the nighttime environment of large areas of the earth, with 88% of Europe and almost 50% of the United States experiencing light-polluted night skies [1]. The consequences for ecosystems range from exposure to high light intensities in the vicinity of direct light sources to the very widespread but lower lighting levels further away [2]. While it is known that species exhibit a range of physiological and behavioral responses to artificial nighttime lighting [e.g., 3-5], there is a need to gain a mechanistic understanding of whole ecological community impacts [6, 7], especially to different light intensities...
July 16, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055176/genetic-diversity-and-geographic-distribution-of-the-bemisia-tabaci-species-complex-in-bangladesh
#16
M S Fatema Khatun, S M Hemayet Jahan, Sukchan Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex consisting of at least 40 cryptic species. Although the genetic diversity of B. tabaci has been studied in various regions, little is known about distribution in Bangladesh, which is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. We conducted an extensive survey throughout the country and determined the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) from 110 individuals. We then examined phylogenetic relationships. The results identified four cryptic species that expressed distinct interspecific variation but low intraspecific variation...
July 25, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30052670/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-genetic-diversity-in-the-endosymbiont-hamiltonella-between-native-and-exotic-populations-of-bemisia-tabaci-from-brazil
#17
Bruno Rossitto De Marchi, Tonny Kinene, James Mbora Wainaina, Renate Krause-Sakate, Laura Boykin
The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a species complex of more than 40 cryptic species and a major agricultural pest. It causes extensive damage to plants mainly by transmitting plant viruses. There is still a lack of genomic data available for the different whitefly species found in Brazil and their bacterial endosymbionts. Understanding the genetic and transcriptomic composition of these insect pests, the viruses they transmit and the microbiota is crucial to sustainable solutions for farmers to control whiteflies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051587/-e-%C3%AE-farnesene-synthase-gene-affects-aphid-behavior-in-transgenic-medicago-sativa
#18
Xuemin Wang, Yuhao Gao, Zhihong Chen, Jindong Li, Jianping Huang, Jiangbo Cao, Miaomiao Cui, Liping Ban
BACKGROUND: Pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) is one of the major pests in alfalfa crops, causing significant yield losses. (E)-β-farnesene (EβF), an alarm pheromone released by pea aphid, is generic to many species of aphids, and used to minimise potential danger from predators and parasitoids by avoiding the source of the pheromone. RESULTS: In this study, EβF synthase gene was constructed into a plant expression vector, and overexpressed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L...
July 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050454/induction-of-resistance-against-plutella-xylostella-l-lep-plutellidae-by-jasmonic-acid-and-mealy-cabbage-aphid-feeding-in-brassica-napus-l
#19
Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani, Ehsan Borzoui, Maryam Shahnavazi, Alireza Nouri
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has become the most destructive insect pest of cruciferous plants, such as B. napus throughout the world including Iran. In this study, the induction of resistance was activated in oilseed rape plants ( Brassica napus L.) using foliar application of jasmonic acid (JA) and mealy cabbage aphid either individually or in combination against diamondback moth. Induced resistance by inducers significantly reduced the population growth parameters, as well as the survival rate of immature P...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049746/mtor-complex-1-implicated-in-aphid-buchnera-host-symbiont-integration
#20
Edward B James, Honglin Feng, Alex C C Wilson
Obligate nutritional endosymbioses are arguably the most intimate of all interspecific associations. While many insect nutritional endosymbioses are well studied, a full picture of how two disparate organisms, a bacterial endosymbiont and a eukaryotic host, are integrated is still lacking. The mTOR pathway is known to integrate nutritional conditions with cell growth and survival in eukaryotes. Characterization and localization of amino acid transporters in aphids suggest the mTOR pathway as point of integration between an aphid host and its amino acid-provisioning endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola The mTOR pathway is unannotated in aphids and unstudied in any nutritional endosymbiosis...
July 26, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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