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bemisia or aphid

Xianliang Huang, Deguang Liu, Rongfang Zhang, Xiaoqin Shi
Many aphids can adapt on plants of differential resistance levels, but molecular interactions underlying host plant utilization and shift of aphids are still not well understood. Here, we sequenced the transcriptome and compared global gene expression profiles of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) feeding on wheat (i.e., the susceptible plant) and barley (i.e., the resistant plant). In total, 65,200 high-quality unigenes were identified from the merged transcriptomes, and 861 of them were differentially expressed...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ning Di, Kai Zhang, Fan Zhang, Su Wang, Tong-Xian Liu
Herbivores respond differently to the level of plant diversity encountered. Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are highly polyphagous herbivores which cause considerable damage to various crops. Herein, we reared this species both in polyculture and monoculture, including preferred and less preferred host plants such as Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L.), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.), kidney bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and summer squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.). Trends in survival and oviposition were recorded, and impact of plants on growth and development of B...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhao-Qun Li, Shuai Zhang, Xiao-Ming Cai, Jun-Yu Luo, Shuang-Lin Dong, Jin-Jie Cui, Zong-Mao Chen
Chrysoperla sinica is an important natural predator of many notorious agricultural pests. Understanding its olfactory mechanism can help enhance the effectiveness of C. sinica in biological control. In the present study, we investigated the tissue expression patterns of 12 odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes from C. sinica (CsinOBPs). The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that CsinOBP1, CsinOBP2, CsinOBP3, CsinOBP4, CsinOBP6, CsinOBP7, CsinOBP9, CsinOBP10, and CsinOBP12 were predominantly expressed in the antennae of both sexes, indicating their roles in olfaction...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Keigo Uematsu, Mayako Kutsukake, Takema Fukatsu
Many animals and plants have evolved elaborate water-repellent microstructures on their surface, which often play important roles in their ecological adaptation. Here, we report a unique type of water-repellent structure on a plant surface, which develops as an insect-induced plant morphology in a social context. Some social aphids form galls on their host plant, in which they produce large amounts of hydrophobic wax. Excreted honeydew is coated by the powdery wax to form 'honeydew balls', which are actively disposed by soldier nymphs through an opening on their gall...
October 17, 2018: Biology Letters
Gong Chen, Qi Su, Xiaobin Shi, Huipeng Pan, Xiaoguo Jiao, Youjun Zhang
Diverse pathogens, plant hosts, insect vectors, and non-vector herbivores coexist and interact in natural systems. An example is the cooccurrence of insects Bemisia tabaci Q and Frankliniella occidentalis and the pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on the same plant. In addition, both TYLCV and TSWV are persistently transmitted in these insect species. However, TSWV reduces the fitness of B. tabaci Q; therefore, we investigated whether TSWV affects the transmission of TYLCV to tomato...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
S Barriault, A O Soares, S D Gaimari, E Lucas
The silver fly Leucopis glyphinivora Tanasijtshuk (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) is an aphidophagous predator during its larval stage. Our study describes the life cycle of L. glyphinivora and evaluates its potential as a biocontrol agent. The development, survival and longevity of L. glyphinivora were observed and compared with those of the aphid gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Tests were conducted under laboratory conditions in Petri dishes with the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on potato leaves...
October 16, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Casey McGrath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Chuan-Xi Zhang, Jennifer A Brisson, Hai-Jun Xu
Many insects are capable of developing into either long-winged or shortwinged (or wingless) morphs, which enables them to rapidly match heterogeneous environments. Thus, the wing polymorphism is an adaptation at the root of their ecological success. Wing polymorphism is orchestrated at various levels, starting with the insect's perception of environmental cues, then signal transduction and signal execution, and ultimately the transmitting of signals into physiological adaption in accordance with the particular morph produced...
October 12, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Mary E Ferguson, Kristopher L Giles, Norman C Elliott, Mark E Payton, Tom A Royer
Winter canola Brassica napus L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) was introduced to U.S. Southern Great Plains (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas) growers to manage some difficult-to-control grassy weeds in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). Two braconid parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are active in this cropping landscape. Both wasps move between crops but D. rapae has a limited ability to develop in the main wheat aphid hosts, so L...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Kaitlin M Chapman, Lia Marchi-Werle, Thomas E Hunt, Tiffany M Heng-Moss, Joe Louis
Plant resistance can provide effective, economical, and sustainable pest control. Tolerance to the soybean aphid has been identified and confirmed in the soybean KS4202. Although its resistance mechanisms are not fully understood, evidence suggests that enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an active system under high aphid infestation. We further explored tolerance by evaluating the differences in constitutive and aphid-induced defenses in KS4202 through the expression of selected defense-related transcripts and the levels of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), and salicylic acid (SA) over several time points...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cervin Guyomar, Fabrice Legeai, Emmanuelle Jousselin, Christophe Mougel, Claire Lemaitre, Jean-Christophe Simon
BACKGROUND: Most metazoans are involved in durable relationships with microbes which can take several forms, from mutualism to parasitism. The advances of NGS technologies and bioinformatics tools have opened opportunities to shed light on the diversity of microbial communities and to give some insights into the functions they perform in a broad array of hosts. The pea aphid is a model system for the study of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It is organized in a complex of biotypes, each adapted to specific host plants...
October 10, 2018: Microbiome
Masakazu Sano, Takehiro Ohki, Kenji Takashino, Shingo Toyoshima, Tetsuo Maoka
Many studies have evaluated transmission abilities of laboratory-reared aphids for potato virus Y (PVY), but few have focused on PVY-harboring species of field-collected aphids and the strains of PVY harbored by aphids. In the present study, we collected alate aphids in yellow pan traps in potato fields with Japanese commercial cultivars in Hokkaido, northern Japan in single 24-h periods during the tuber bulking stage and examined whether individual whole aphids harbored PVY by nested RT-PCR. PVY-positive individuals were identified to species using the gene sequence for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and, when needed, morphological data and distribution records...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Benoit Guénard, François Dumont, Bruno Fréchette, André Francoeur, Éric Lucas
In furtive predation, a predator is able to exploit its prey without generating significant defensive behaviors from them. However, in aphidophagous guild, if furtive predator can benefit from dilution effects generated by the aphids, they also suffer from intraguild predation from more mobile and active-searching predators. In this context ant-tended aphid colonies might not only represent an important food source but also potentially an enemy-free space for furtive predators if they remain unharmed by ants while other active predators are being repelled...
2018: PloS One
Andrew Kalyebi, Sarina Macfadyen, Hazel Parry, Wee Tek Tay, Paul De Barro, John Colvin
Cassava is a staple food for people across sub-Saharan Africa. Over the last 20 years, there has been an increased frequency of outbreaks and crop damage in this region caused by the cassava-adapted Bemisia tabaci putative species. Little is known about when and why B. tabaci adults move and colonize new cassava crops, especially in farming systems that contain a mixture of cultivar types and plant ages. Here, we assessed experimentally whether the age and variety of cassava affected the density of B. tabaci...
2018: PloS One
Serine Alfaress, Craig R Brodersen, El-Desouky Ammar, Michael E Rogers, Nabil Killiny
Aphids are an attractive food source to many predators and parasitoids because of their small size, soft bodies and slow movement. To combat predation, aphids evolved both behavioral and chemical defensive mechanisms that are operated via siphunculi (cornicles), differently developed structures that more or less extend from their abdomen. Although both direct and indirect linkages between siphunculi and their defensive mechanisms have been explored, their ultimate effects on aphid fitness are still broadly debated...
2018: PloS One
Zohreh Davoodi, Nicolás Bejerman, Cécile Richet, Denis Filloux, Safaa G Kumari, Elisavet K Chatzivassiliou, Serge Galzi, Charlotte Julian, Samira Samarfard, Verónica Trucco, Fabián Giolitti, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Nader Asaad, Abdul Rahman Moukahel, Jomana Hijazi, Samia Mghandef, Jahangir Heydarnejad, Hossein Massumi, Arvind Varsani, Ralf G Dietzgen, Gordon W Harkins, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV), which causes severe disease symptoms in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) and is transmitted by the widespread aphid species, Aphis craccivora Koch, has been found throughout the Mediterranean basin as well as in Iran and Argentina. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of ALCV and attempt to determine whether the recent discovery and widespread detection of ALCV is attributable either to past diagnostic biases or to the emergence and global spread of the virus over the past few years...
October 4, 2018: Viruses
Clay M Perkins, Sandra J Steckel, Scott D Stewart
Several species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infesting wheat may reduce yield by the transmission of barley yellow dwarf (BYD). Neonicotinoid seed treatments and foliar application of insecticides are two common methods to control aphid infestations and reduce BYD. An analysis was carried out across 33 insecticide efficacy tests performed in west Tennessee during the last 11 yr to determine how insecticide seed treatments and/or a late-winter foliar insecticide application affected aphid populations, incidence of BYD, and yield...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
François Renoz, Inès Pons, Alain Vanderpoorten, Gwennaël Bataille, Christine Noël, Vincent Foray, Valentin Pierson, Thierry Hance
Many insects engage in symbiotic associations with diverse assemblages of bacterial symbionts that can deeply impact on their ecology and evolution. The intraspecific variation of symbionts remains poorly assessed while phenotypic effects and transmission behaviors, which are key processes for the persistence and evolution of symbioses, may differ widely depending on the symbiont strains. Serratia symbiotica is one of the most frequent symbiont species in aphids and a valuable model to assess this intraspecific variation since it includes both facultative and obligate symbiotic strains...
October 1, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Letícia Aparecida de Moraes, Cristiane Muller, Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno, Antônio Santos, Vinicius Henrique Bello, Bruno Rossitto De Marchi, Luís Fernando Maranho Watanabe, Julio Massaharu Marubayashi, Beatriz Rosa Santos, Valdir Atsushi Yuki, Hélio Minoru Takada, Danielle Ribeiro de Barros, Carolina Garcia Neves, Fábio Nascimento da Silva, Mayra Juline Gonçalves, Murad Ghanim, Laura Boykin, Marcelo Agenor Pavan, Renate Krause-Sakate
The Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous insect and a successful vector of plant viruses. B. tabaci is a species complex and in Brazil native species from the New World (NW) group, as well as the invasive species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) were reported. For better understanding the distribution of the different species four years after the Mediterranean species invasion in Brazil, whiteflies were collected from 237 locations throughout the country between the years of 2013 and 2017, species were identified and the facultative endosymbionts detected...
October 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Shadmany, Laura M Boykin, R Muhamad, Dzolkhifli Omar
The tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex with members capable of inducing huge economic losses. Precise identification of members of this complex proves essential in managing existing populations and preventing new incursions. Despite records of serious outbreaks of this pest in Malaysia little is known about species status of B. tabaci in this region. To address this, a comprehensive sampling of B. tabaci from different host plants was conducted in 10 states of Malaysia from 2010 to 2012...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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