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bemisia or aphid

Qian Li, Jia Fan, Jingxuan Sun, Man-Qun Wang, Julian Chen
Hamiltonella defensa is mainly vertically transmitted, but evidence suggests that horizontal transmission may occur. Here, the first case of plant-mediated horizontal transmission of H. defensa between wheat aphids, Sitobion miscanthi, is reported. H. defensa was harbored in sheath cells, secondary bacteriocytes and hemolymph. After Hamiltonella-infected aphids fed on wheat leaves, H. defensa was observed in aphid stylets and plant phloem. H. defensa persisted in wheat leaves for at least 10 days. Most Hamiltonella-uninfected aphids became infected with H...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mohammad Munir Mostafiz, Pijush Kanti Jhan, Jae-Kyoung Shim, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
Methyl benzoate (MB) is a plant-derived volatile organic compound with insecticidal properties, but such activity has not been evaluated against the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a major crop pest. In this study, we tested methyl benzoate control efficacy on B. tabaci infecting tomato plants in a greenhouse, specifically measuring contact and fumigant toxicity, as well as repellent activity. For direct spray applications of 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% MB onto tomato leaves infested with adults of B...
2018: PloS One
Anthony A Hanson, Aaron J Lorenz, Louis S Hesler, Siddhi J Bhusal, Raman Bansal, Andy P Michel, Guo-Liang Jiang, Robert L Koch
Soybean aphid [ Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is the most damaging insect pest of soybean [ (L.) Merr.] in the Upper Midwest of the United States and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., genes) has been documented in some soybean accessions but more sources of resistance are needed. Incorporation of the resistance into marketed varieties has also been slow. Genome-wide association mapping can aid in identifying resistant accessions by correlating phenotypic data with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a genome...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Jun-Yu Cao, Kun Xing, Hui-Ping Liu, Fei Zhao
Most ectotherms are able to increase their tolerance to heat stress via the acclimation response. However, there is ongoing debate about whether the acclimation response is associated with fitness costs, and what factors can affect the consequences of acclimation are still unclear. To elucidate this, we sought to determine whether fitness costs varied with acclimation conditions in two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Thus, the basal and inducible thermal tolerances (maximum critical temperature [CTmax ]) and fitness traits (proportion of adult emergence, adult longevity, fecundity, and population parameters) of adult aphids were measured under three conditions of developmental acclimation: 1) 22 °C constant temperature (no acclimation), 2) 22 °C + 34 °C for 2 h per day (low daytime temperature), and 3) 22 °C + 38 °C for 2 h per day (high daytime temperature)...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Xoaquín Moreira, Colleen S Nell, Maria M Meza-Lopez, Sergio Rasmann, Kailen A Mooney
Plants are able to adjust their anti-herbivore defenses in response to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by herbivore-damaged neighbors, and some of these changes increase resistance against subsequent herbivory. This phenomenon of plant-plant communication is thought to be widespread, but recent investigations have cautioned that it can be context dependent, including variation in the strength of communication based on the identity of plants and their associated herbivores. Here, we performed three greenhouse experiments using multiple male and female genotypes of the dioecious woody shrub Baccharis salicifolia and its specialist aphid Uroleucon macolai to test for specificity of plant-plant communication with respect to plant sex and genotype...
December 2018: Ecology
Yaofa Li, Jingjie An, Zhihong Dang, Haiying Lv, Wenliang Pan, Zhanlin Gao
Wheat aphids damage wheat plants directly by feeding on them and indirectly by transmitting plant pathogenic viruses, both of which result in low yield and plant death. Due to their high root absorption and systemic characteristics, neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments are increasingly applied to control wheat aphids throughout the growing season in China. Ecological concerns are raised in some research, because neonicotinoids can persist and accumulate in soils. They are prone to leach into waterways, and are found in crop nectars and pollens, where they may be harmful to pollinators...
2018: PloS One
Reut Shavit, Zhaniya S Batyrshina, Nitsan Dotan, Vered Tzin
Aphids are major pests in cereal crops that cause direct and indirect damage leading to yield reduction. Despite the fact that wheat provides 20% of the world's caloric and protein diet, its metabolic responses to aphid attack, in general, and specifically its production of benzoxazinoid defense compounds are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic diversity of durum wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) under attack by three different cereal aphids: i) the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae Fabricius), ii) the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L...
2018: PloS One
Varvara Fazalova, Bruno Nevado, Ailsa McLean, H Charles J Godfray
Human activities may weaken or destroy reproductive isolation between young taxa, leading to their fusion with consequences for population and community ecology. Pea aphid host races are adapted to different legume taxa, providing a degree of pre-mating isolation mediated by habitat choice. Yet, all races can feed and reproduce on the broad bean ( Vicia faba ), a major crop which represents a 'universal host plant', which can promote hybridization between races. Here, we ask if pea aphid host races have reproductive barriers which prevent or reduce gene flow when they co-occur on the universal host plant...
November 28, 2018: Biology Letters
Liang Niu, Lei Pan, Wenfang Zeng, Zhenhua Lu, Guochao Cui, Meili Fan, Qiang Xu, Zhiqiang Wang, Guohuai Li
BACKGROUND: The green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus persicae (Sülzer), is a widespread phloem-feeding insect that significantly influences the yield and visual quality of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Single dominant gene (Rm3)-based resistance provides effective management of this invasive pest, although little is known about the molecular responses of plants to GPA feeding. RESULTS: To illustrate the molecular mechanisms of monogenic resistance in peach to young tissue-infecting GPAs, aphid-resistant/aphid-susceptible peach lines from a segregating population with Rm3/rm3 and rm3/rm3 genotypes were infested with GPAs for 3 to 72 h...
November 28, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mariusz Kanturski, Shalva Barjadze
We present the first records from Iran of Macrosiphoniella (Asterobium) davazhamci Holman Szelegiewicz, 1974 and M. (Ramitrichophorus) nikolajevi Kadyrbekov, 1999 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae) from samples collected by the late Prof. G. Remaudière. Previously, Macrosiphoniella davazhamci was known from Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China, whereas M. nikolajevi only from south Kazakhstan. The Iranian material includes hitherto unknown or poorly known morphs of those two species. We describe and illustrate for the first time the alate vivipara of M...
November 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Sajjan Grover, Vikas Jindal, Geetika Banta, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Guy Smagghe, Olivier Christiaens
Whiteflies cause considerable losses to crops, directly by feeding, and indirectly by transmission of viruses. The current control methods consist of a combination of different control tactics, mainly still relying on unsafe and non-ecofriendly chemical control. RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene-silencing strategy in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), corresponding specifically to a target gene, is introduced in a target organism. Research on RNAi in the previous decade has shown its success as a potential insect control strategy, which can be highly species-specific and environment friendly...
November 28, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Sylvia M Petersen, Cory Keith, Kaylie Austin, Susanne Howard, Li Su, Wenping Qiu
Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is associated with a vein-clearing and vine-decline disease. In this study, we surveyed wild Ampelopsis cordata from the Vitaceae family and found that 31% (35 of 113) of native A. cordata plants are infected with GVCV. The full-length genome sequence of one GVCV isolate from A. cordata shared 99.8% identical nucleotides with an isolate from a nearby cultivated 'Chardonel' grapevine, suggesting the occurrence of an insect vector. To identify a vector, we collected Aphis illinoisensis (common name: grape aphids) from wild A...
November 28, 2018: Plant Disease
Hongran Li, Xiaoying Wei, Tianbo Ding, Dong Chu
Although the bacterial symbiont Cardinium has profound effects on the ecological adaptation of its host, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype Q (hereafter referred to as B. tabaci Q), the molecular mechanism underlying interactions between these two organisms is not yet fully understood. In this study, sRNA libraries were constructed, amplified, and sequenced for Cardinium -infected (C+ ) and uninfected (C∗- ) B. tabaci Q with identical genetic backgrounds. Subsequently, the genes targeted by the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by integrating the B...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shoulin Jiang, Yang Dai, Yongqing Lu, Shuqin Fan, Yanmin Liu, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Megha N Parajulee, Fajun Chen
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is likely to influence insect-plant interactions. Aphid, as a typical phloem-feeding herbivorous insect, has shown consistently more positive responses in fitness to elevated CO2 concentrations than those seen in leaf-chewing insects. But, little is known about the mechanism of this performance. In this study, the foliar soluble constituents of cotton and the life history of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and its mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and feeding behavior were measured, as well as the relative transcript levels of target genes related appetite, salivary proteins, molting hormone (MH), and juvenile hormone, to investigate the fitness of A...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ryo Horikoshi, Kimihiko Goto, Masaaki Mitomi, Kazuhiko Oyama, Toshiaki Sunazuka, Satoshi Ōmura
We previously reported the strong insecticidal activity of a microbial secondary metabolite, pyripyropene A (PP-A), against aphids. Pyripyropenes (PPs) have been known to show weak feeding inhibition against lepidopteran pests, but their strong aphicidal activities were first reported in our former study. Here we investigated the details of the insecticidal property of PP-A. Our biological evaluation of PP-A found that it shows high insecticidal activities against some sucking pests, such as whiteflies, as well as aphids, and preferable biological profiles as agricultural insecticides...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Pesticide Science
I Hamim, W Borth, M J Melzer, J Hu
Aphid-transmitted papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is the greatest disease threat to the commercial production of papaya worldwide. Specific ultrasensitive assays are important for the early detection of PRSV in the field. We have developed a single-tube nested PCR (STNP) assay to address this need. Two nested PCR primer sets were designed to target the P3 gene of PRSV. The annealing temperatures and concentrations of both primer pairs were optimized to reduce potential competition between primer sets in STNP...
2018: Acta Virologica
Toru Miura
Phenotypic plasticity and polyphenism, in which phenotypes can be changed depending on environmental conditions, are common in insects. Several studies focusing on physiological, developmental, and molecular processes underlying the plastic responses have revealed that similar endocrine mechanisms using juvenile hormone (JH) are used to coordinate the flexible developmental processes. This review discusses accumulated knowledge on the caste polyphenism in social insects (especially termites), the wing and the reproductive polyphenisms in aphids, and the nutritional polyphenism and sexual dimorphism in stag beetles...
November 23, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Kun Luo, Chen Luo, Guangyu Li, Xinjian Yao, Rui Gao, Zuqing Hu, Gaisheng Zhang, Huiyan Zhao
In recent decades, man-made electric fields have greatly increased the intensity of electrostatic fields that are pervasively present in the environment. To better understand the physiological alterations exhibited by herbivorous insects in response to changing electric environments, we determined the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes and the metabolic rate of Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae) over multiple generations in response to direct and host-seed exposure to a high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) of varying strength for different durations...
November 22, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
Gesine Pufal, Jörg Memmert, Sara Diana Leonhardt, Vanessa Minden
Veterinary antibiotics are widely used in livestock production and can be released to the environment via manure, affecting non-target organisms. Recent studies provide evidence that antibiotics can adversely affect both plants and insects but whether antibiotics in soil also affect trophic interactions is unknown. We tested whether antibiotics grown in sand as soil substitute with environmentally relevant concentrations of penicillin, sulfadiazine and tetracycline affect the survival of aphids feeding on plants (two crop and one non-crop plant species)...
November 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Changhong Linghu, Chengjun Wang, Nuo Cen, Jiaming Wu, Zhengfeng Lai, Jizhou Song
Tunable and reversible dry adhesion has attracted much attention in academia and industry due to its wide applications ranging from releasable joints to stamps for transfer printing. Here, a simple yet robust magnetically actuated, aphid-inspired design of an elastomeric surface that provides rapidly tunable and highly reversible adhesion strength is reported. The magnetically actuated adhesive features open reservoirs filled with magnetic particles and encapsulated by a thin surface membrane, which can be deformed in a controlled manner via the magnetic field, thus, to tune the adhesion...
November 21, 2018: Soft Matter
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