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grape aroma

Savvas Constantinou, Ana Maria Gómez-Caravaca, Vlasios Goulas, Alberto Fernandez-Gutierrez, Stefanos Koundouras, George A Manganaris
BACKGROUND: The effect of leaf removal on postharvest performance of dehydrated grapes has been poorly analyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of leaf removal at veraison stage on the metabolites of fresh and dehydrated grapes of two indigenous Cypriot cultivars ('Mavro' and 'Xynisteri') that are destined for the production of 'Commandaria', a protected designation of origin (PDO) premium sweet wine. RESULTS: Leaf removal led to a reduction of soluble solids, titratable acidity, aroma potential and most of the phenolic groups of musts of both cultivars...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Itay Maoz, Rachel Davidovich Rikanati, Daniel Schlesinger, Einat Bar, Itay Gonda, Elena Levin, Tatiana Kaplunov, Noa Sela, Amnon Lichter, Efraim Lewinsohn
Volatile esters contribute to the aroma and flavor of many fruits but are normally absent in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). To examine the biosynthetic potential of grape berries to form volatile esters, berry sections were incubated with exogenous L-Phe, L-Leu or L-Met. In general, amino-acid incubation caused the accumulation of the respective aldehydes and alcohols. Moreover, L-Leu incubation resulted in the accumulation of 3-methylbutyl acetate and L-Phe incubation resulted in the accumulation 2-phenylethyl acetate in 'Muscat Hamburg' but not in the other grape accessions...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Andriani Asproudi, Alessandra Ferrandino, Federica Bonello, Enrico Vaudano, Matteo Pollon, Maurizio Petrozziello
In view of climate change, the scheduling of an early harvest may be an agronomic option to limit wine alcohol, provided that a satisfactory content of secondary metabolites can be ensured in grapes. To better understand the link between grape ripening, seasonal trend and wine aroma, the aromatic expression of Barbera and Pinot Noir wines produced with early harvested grapes was assessed. Attention was focused on C13 norisoprenoids during both alcoholic fermentation and after three months of storage. At the end of fermentation, the highest β-damascenone content was detected in wines obtained from less ripe grapes, the content subsequently increased significantly after three months of storage; however, the levels of β-ionone decreased significantly during the same period...
December 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Javier Ruiz, Ignacio Belda, Beata Beisert, Eva Navascués, Domingo Marquina, Fernando Calderón, Doris Rauhut, Antonio Santos, Santiago Benito
Most wine aroma compounds, including the varietal fraction, are produced or released during wine production and derived from microbial activity. Varietal aromas, typically defined as terpenes and thiols, have been described as derived from their non-volatile precursors, released during wine fermentation by different yeast hydrolytic enzymes. The perception of these minority aroma compounds depends on the chemical matrix of the wine, especially on the presence of majority aroma compounds, such as esters or higher alcohols...
July 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chiara Aquilani, Francesco Sirtori, Monica Flores, Riccardo Bozzi, Benedicte Lebret, Carolina Pugliese
Dry-fermented pork sausages, from Cinta Senese local breed, were manufactured replacing sodium nitrite (NIT) with two mixtures of natural antioxidants consisting of: i) grape seed extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (GSE); ii) chestnut extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (CHE). The effects on physical-chemical, aromatic and sensory traits, as well as the microbiological safety, were tested. Nitrite replacement lowered the pH in GSE and CHE samples and resulted in several differences in physical traits between CHE and NIT samples...
November 2018: Meat Science
Jennifer R Bellon, Christopher M Ford, Anthony R Borneman, Paul J Chambers
Wine yeast breeding programs utilizing interspecific hybridization deliver cost-effective tools to winemakers looking to differentiate their wines through the development of new wine styles. The addition of a non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome to a commercial wine yeast can generate novel phenotypes ranging from wine flavor and aroma diversity to improvements in targeted fermentation traits. In the current study we utilized a novel approach to screen isolates from an evolving population for increased fitness in a S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marijan Bubola, Igor Lukić, Sanja Radeka, Paolo Sivilotti, Kristina Grozić, Andreja Vanzo, Dejan Bavčar, Klemen Lisjak
BACKGROUND: Leaf removal is a viticultural practice that promotes the biosynthesis of several important grape constituents by improving fruit zone microclimate. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hand and mechanical leaf removal, applied at pea-size stage of berry development, on fruit zone microclimate, volatile aroma compounds, hydroxycinnamates and sensory characteristics of Istrian Malvasia (Vitis vinifera L.) wines. Three different sunlight exposure conditions were applied by hand leaf removal (HLR), mechanical leaf removal (MLR) and untreated control (UC)...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Alice Vilela, Catarina Marques, Elisete Correia
Vinho Verde is the biggest DOC of Portugal, and it produces wines distinguished by their high acidity and flavor. In this Portuguese wine-region, three grape varieties, Alvarinho, Loureiro, and Arinto, are used to produce monovarietal wines of great quality. Sensory characterization of wines has the aim of detecting unique qualities in wines, and the most common measurement for the sensory aspects of wines sensory profile is descriptive sensory analysis, typically performed by trained sensory panels. To a list of attributes that can characterize a wine, we call a "sensory lexicon" that can be used by marketers allowing the articulation of flavor perceptions to consumers...
September 2018: Food Research International
Yusen Wu, Wenwen Zhang, Shuyan Duan, Shiren Song, Wenping Xu, Caixi Zhang, Bhaskar Bondada, Chao Ma, Shiping Wang
We present an in-depth analysis of aroma profiles and sensory attributes, employing solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) to identify the key compounds driving consumer preference in 19 unfamiliar cultivars. In combination with popular cultivars, we identified a total of 100 compounds in all table grapes, of which 26 key volatiles were correlated with consumer liking. Based on this relationship, five aroma combinations (AC) were formulated, wherein 33 compounds contributed to aroma intensity, and thus, were viewed as active volatiles...
July 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mackenzie Hannum, Margaret A Stegman, Jenna A Fryer, Christopher T Simons
The Duality of Smell hypothesis suggests odorants delivered orthonasally elicit different sensations compared to those delivered retronasally despite activating the same receptors in the olfactory epithelium. Presently, we investigated this further using a matching paradigm free from odorant or semantic memory bias. Subjects were asked to evaluate an aroma delivered in one condition (orthonasal or retronasal delivery) and match the same aroma from four unknowns evaluated in the same or different delivery condition...
July 2, 2018: Chemical Senses
Hsiao-Chi Chou, Katja Šuklje, Guillaume Antalick, Leigh M Schmidtke, John W Blackman
Late-season berry dehydration (LSD) is a common occurrence in Shiraz grapes, particularly those grown in hot climates. LSD results in significant yield reductions; however, the effects on wine composition and sensory characteristics are not well-documented. Wines made of 100% nonshriveled clusters (control) were related to red fruit flavors by the sensory panel, whereas wines made of 80% shriveled clusters (S-VCT) were perceived as more alcoholic and associated with dark fruit and dead/stewed fruit characters...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tina Ilc, Gautier Arista, Raquel Tavares, Nicolas Navrot, Eric Duchêne, Amandine Velt, Frédéric Choulet, Etienne Paux, Marc Fischer, David R Nelson, Philippe Hugueney, Danièle Werck-Reichhart, Camille Rustenholz
Cytochromes P450 are enzymes that participate in a wide range of functions in plants, from hormonal signaling and biosynthesis of structural polymers, to defense or communication with other organisms. They represent one of the largest gene/protein families in the plant kingdom. The manual annotation of cytochrome P450 genes in the genome of Vitis vinifera PN40024 revealed 579 P450 sequences, including 279 complete genes. Most of the P450 sequences in grapevine genome are organized in physical clusters, resulting from tandem or segmental duplications...
2018: PloS One
Riccardo Flamini, Marta Menicatti, Mirko De Rosso, Massimo Gardiman, Christine Mayr, Marco Pallecchi, Giovanna Danza, Gianluca Bartolucci
Monoterpene-glycosides are important aroma precursors that, undergo hydrolysis, confer intense floral notes to the wines. Therefore, the knowledge of the nature of the sugar residues and the structure of these molecules is of great interest. In present study, liquid chromatography (LC) separation coupled with different mass spectrometry (MS) experiments for the characterization of these compounds were explored. The LC parameters were tuned to optimize the resolution between the analytes present in grape sample extracts...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Chen Liang, Renata Ristic, Vladimir Jiranek, David W Jeffery
3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) is a potent odorant present in grapes and wines that is reminiscent of green capsicum. Suprathreshold concentrations can lead to obvious vegetative characters and suppress desirable fruity aroma nuances in wines, but options to manage IBMP concentrations are limited. This work investigated pre- and postfermentation addition of a putative imprinted magnetic polymer (PIMP) as a remedial treatment for elevated concentrations of IBMP in Cabernet Sauvignon grape must in comparison to nonimprinted magnetic polymer (NIMP) and to a commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) based film added postfermentation...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jantaporn Thongekkaew, Tsutomu Fujii, Kazuo Masaki, Kazuya Koyama
Important 'floral' aromas naturally occur in grapes predominantly as flavourless glycoconjugate precursors. Since these aroma compounds can be released by hydrolysis, different glycosidase enzymes can potentially contribute different aromas to wines. In this paper, the effects of crude and purified Candida easanensis JK8 β-glucosidases on wine aroma precursors of Muscat of Alexandria grape powder were investigated by GC/MS combined with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). A total of 19 bound volatile compounds were identified, including phenols, terpenes, aldehyde, ester and alcohols...
June 6, 2018: Natural Product Research
Peter Morrison-Whittle, Soon A Lee, Bruno Fedrizzi, Matthew R Goddard
The products of microbial metabolism form an integral part of human industry and have been shaped by evolutionary processes, accidentally and deliberately, for thousands of years. In the production of wine, a great many flavor and aroma compounds are produced by yeast species and are the targets of research for commercial breeding programs. Here we demonstrate how co-evolution with multiple species can generate novel interactions through serial co-culture in grape juice. We find that after ~65 generations, co-evolved strains and strains evolved independently show significantly different growth aspects and exhibit significantly different metabolite profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juliana Crucello, Luiz F O Miron, Victor H C Ferreira, He Nan, Marcia O M Marques, Patricia S Ritschel, Mauro C Zanus, Jared L Anderson, Ronei J Poppi, Leandro W Hantao
In this study, a series of polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings is evaluated for the extraction of polar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Brazilian wines using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), including samples from 'Isabella' and 'BRS Magna' cultivars-the latter was recently introduced by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - National Grape & Wine Research Center. The structurally tuned SPME coatings were compared to the commercial SPME phases, namely poly(acrylate) (PA) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/poly(dimethylsiloxane) (DVB/CAR/PDMS)...
July 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Giacomo Zapparoli, Marilinda Lorenzini, Emanuele Tosi, Michela Azzolini, Davide Slaghenaufi, Maurizio Ugliano, Barbara Simonato
There is very little information on effects of Penicillium on aroma of passito wine. This study analyzed chemical composition and sensory properties of Amarone wines produced from withered grapes artificially contaminated by P. expansum or P. crustosum. Changes in properties of the two wines were evident by comparing wines obtained from healthy and Botrytis cinerea infected grapes used as controls. Penicillium infection affected primary and volatile composition of Amarone wine. Sensory profiles of these wines, obtained by descriptive analysis, resulted in clear differences in the wines between themselves and the control wines...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chen Liang, David W Jeffery, Dennis K Taylor
3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), the most prevalent grape-derived methoxypyrazine, can contribute green bell pepper, vegetative and herbaceous aromas and flavours to wines. At elevated concentrations, this potent odorant may mask desirable fruity and floral aromas in wine and may be considered as a fault. A new remediation method for wines with elevated IBMP levels has been trialled using magnetic polymers, prepared in the same way as ordinary polymers but with the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles as magnetic substrates...
May 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stéphanie Rollero, Audrey Bloem, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Carole Camarasa, Benoit Divol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently the most important yeast involved in food fermentations, particularly in oenology. However, several other yeast species occur naturally in grape must that are highly promising for diversifying and improving the aromatic profile of wines. If the nitrogen requirement of S. cerevisiae has been described in detail, those of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain poorly studied despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we explored the fermentation performances, the utilisation of nitrogen sources and the volatile compound production of 10 strains of non-conventional yeasts in pure culture...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
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