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grape aroma

Maurício Bonatto Machado de Castilhos, Vanildo Luiz Del Bianchi, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Esteban García-Romero, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez
This study analyzed the volatile composition and aroma profile of BRS Carmem and BRS Violeta red wines elaborated from traditional and two alternative winemaking procedures: grape pre-drying and submerged cap. The wines contained higher concentration of acetates (ranging from 303 mg L-1 to 905 mg L-1 ) and ethyl and methyl esters (ranging from 138 mg L-1 to 415 mg L-1 ). The BRS Carmem wines were described as fruity due to the higher concentration of esters and BRS Violeta wines were described as vegetal mainly due to the higher concentration of terpenes and methoxyphenols...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Małgorzata Lasik-Kurdyś, Małgorzata Majcher, Jacek Nowak
The effects of different malolactic bacteria fermentation techniques on the bioconversion of aromatic compounds in cool-climate grape wines were examined. During three wine seasons, red and white grape wines were produced using various malolactic fermentation induction techniques: Coinoculation, sequential inoculation, and spontaneous process. Volatile compounds (diacetyl and the products of its metabolism, and selected ethyl fatty acid esters) were extracted by solid phase microextraction. Compounds were identified with a multidimensional gas chromatograph-GC × GC-ToFMS with ZOEX cryogenic (N₂) modulator...
October 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
José Pérez-Navarro, Pedro Miguel Izquierdo-Cañas, Adela Mena-Morales, Jesús Martínez-Gascueña, Juan Luis Chacón-Vozmediano, Esteban García-Romero, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Due to the currently dominance of a few grape varieties in the wine market, the aim of this work was to study the detailed phenolic and volatile composition, chromatic characteristics and sensorial properties of red wines elaborated with new Vitis vinifera grapes identified (Moribel and Tinto Fragoso) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, GC-MS, CIELab colour space and Napping ® technique. RESULTS: Tinto Fragoso wine showed higher phenolic content than Moribel, with more anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbenes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jesse J Aplin, Kimberly P White, Charles G Edwards
Utilization of carbohydrates and amino acids/ammonium by selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts and impacts on alcoholic fermentation was evaluated using media and high sugar grape musts (>270 g/L). Consumption patterns of single cultures were ascertained in synthetic media and a Chardonnay grape must. While the non-Saccharomyces species maintained >106  cfu/mL after >40 days, concentrations of residual sugars ranged from 103 g/L (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) to 155 g/L (Candida californica), amino acids and ammonium were generally depleted (>85%), and excessive amounts of volatile acidity (>0...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Katie Parish-Virtue, Mandy Herbst-Johnstone, Flo Bouda, Bruno Fedrizzi
Sauvignon blanc grapes were exposed to an ultra-violet (UV) light source post-hand harvest (whole bunches) or post-machine harvest. The thiol precursors S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine (Cys-3MH) and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-glutathione (GSH-3MH) were quantified in the juices before and after UV treatment. Results showed that irradiation of the grapes with UV light had little to no effect on the thiol precursors. Wines were fermented from the corresponding juices and 18 aroma compounds were quantified. Differences were found between UV treatments of the wines for 3-mercaptohexanol, hexan-1-ol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and phenylethyl alcohol...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Sha Xie, Yonghong Tang, Peng Wang, Changzheng Song, Bingbing Duan, Zhenwen Zhang, Jiangfei Meng
This study was conducted during the 2014 and 2015 vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot and Cabernet Gernischt to investigate whether natural variation in berry size could affect grape aromatic compounds. Grape berries were separated into three size categories based on their diameter: small, middle and large. The results showed that berry size exerted a significant influence on the volatile profiles of both winegrape varieties. Hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that the volatile profiles of middle berries were different from those of large and small berries...
2018: PloS One
Adriana Marcia Graboski, Elisiane Galvagni, Alexandra Manzoli, Flavio Makoto Shimizu, Claudio Augusto Zakrzevski, Thiago Andre Weschenfelder, Juliana Steffens, Clarice Steffens
Aroma is closely related to the food product acceptability and an important product quality indicator. Electronic-nose (E-nose) systems are an interesting alternative to traditional methods of aroma analyses. A lab-made E-nose system equipped with an array of sensing units comprised by gold interdigitated microelectrodes (IDEs) using polyaniline (Pani) as sensitive layers deposited by the in situ and Layer-by-layer (LbL) methods was used to analyze aromas in gummy candies. Different concentrations from artificial aromas (apple, strawberry and grape), added to the gummy candies were evaluated...
November 2018: Food Research International
Ebru Arslan, Zeynep Dilan Çelik, Turgut Cabaroğlu
The cultivar of Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera , grown in Tokat city, the Mid-Black Sea Region of Anatolia. In this study, the effects of pure and mixed autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii -214 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae -1088 cultures on the fermentation behavior and aroma compounds of Narince wines were investigated. Volatile compounds formed in wines were extracted using a liquid⁻liquid extraction method and determined by GC-MS-FID. Narince grape must was fermented in duplicate, under the following three conditions...
September 5, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Matthew Noestheden, Benjamin Noyovitz, Seamus Riordan-Short, Eric G Dennis, Wesley F Zandberg
The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. berries to forest fire smoke changes the concentration of phenylpropanoid metabolites in berries and the resulting wine. The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. berries (i.e., wine grapes) to forest fire smoke can lead to a wine defect known as smoke taint that is characterized by unpleasant "smoky" and "ashy" aromas and flavors. The intensity of smoke taint is associated with the concentration of organoleptic volatile phenols that are produced during the combustion-mediated oxidation of lignocellulosic biomass and subsequently concentrated in berries prior to fermentation...
August 27, 2018: Planta
Hubert Alem, Peggy Rigou, Rémi Schneider, Hernán Ojeda, Laurent Torregrosa
Aroma compounds are secondary metabolites that play a key role in grape quality for enological purpose. Terpenes, C13 -norisoprenoids, phenols and non-terpenic alcohols are the most important aroma compounds in grapes and can be found as free volatile or glycoconjugated (bound) molecules. The non-volatile glycosylated group is the largest one, and it is present in all varieties of Vitis vinifera (L.), the most widely-used species for wine production. These aroma precursors represent the reserve of aroma molecules that can be released during winemaking...
August 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bjørn Dueholm, Damian P Drew, Crystal Sweetman, Henrik T Simonsen
Five Vitis vinifera sesquiterpene synthases were characterized, two was previously uncharacterized, one being a caryophyllene/cubebene synthase and the other a cadinene synthase. Residue differences with other Vitis sesquiterpene synthases are described. The biochemical composition of grape berries at harvest can have a profound effect on the varietal character of the wine produced. Sesquiterpenes are an important class of volatile compounds produced in grapes that contribute to the flavor and aroma of wine, making the elucidation of their biosynthetic origin an important field of research...
August 22, 2018: Planta
Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Elisa Baroja, Pilar Rubio-Bretón, Eva P Pérez-Álvarez
An alternative to improve grape quality is the elicitor application to the vineyard due its implication to induce defense mechanisms involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. There are few studies about the influence of elicitors on grape volatile composition. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) foliar application to Tempranillo grapevines on grape aroma composition over three consecutive vintages. In the first vintage, MeJ treatment improved p-cymene, methyl jasmonate, and hexanal synthesis, and degraded 2-hexen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and n-hexanol...
October 2018: Food Research International
Savvas Constantinou, Ana Maria Gómez-Caravaca, Vlasios Goulas, Alberto Fernandez-Gutierrez, Stefanos Koundouras, George A Manganaris
BACKGROUND: The effect of leaf removal on postharvest performance of dehydrated grapes has been poorly analyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of leaf removal at veraison stage on the metabolites of fresh and dehydrated grapes of two indigenous Cypriot cultivars ('Mavro' and 'Xynisteri') that are destined for the production of 'Commandaria', a protected designation of origin (PDO) premium sweet wine. RESULTS: Leaf removal led to a reduction of soluble solids, titratable acidity, aroma potential and most of the phenolic groups of musts of both cultivars...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Itay Maoz, Rachel Davidovich Rikanati, Daniel Schlesinger, Einat Bar, Itay Gonda, Elena Levin, Tatiana Kaplunov, Noa Sela, Amnon Lichter, Efraim Lewinsohn
Volatile esters contribute to the aroma and flavor of many fruits but are normally absent in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). To examine the biosynthetic potential of grape berries to form volatile esters, berry sections were incubated with exogenous L-Phe, L-Leu or L-Met. In general, amino-acid incubation caused the accumulation of the respective aldehydes and alcohols. Moreover, L-Leu incubation resulted in the accumulation of 3-methylbutyl acetate and L-Phe incubation resulted in the accumulation 2-phenylethyl acetate in 'Muscat Hamburg' but not in the other grape accessions...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Andriani Asproudi, Alessandra Ferrandino, Federica Bonello, Enrico Vaudano, Matteo Pollon, Maurizio Petrozziello
In view of climate change, the scheduling of an early harvest may be an agronomic option to limit wine alcohol, provided that a satisfactory content of secondary metabolites can be ensured in grapes. To better understand the link between grape ripening, seasonal trend and wine aroma, the aromatic expression of Barbera and Pinot Noir wines produced with early harvested grapes was assessed. Attention was focused on C13 norisoprenoids during both alcoholic fermentation and after three months of storage. At the end of fermentation, the highest β-damascenone content was detected in wines obtained from less ripe grapes, the content subsequently increased significantly after three months of storage; however, the levels of β-ionone decreased significantly during the same period...
December 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Javier Ruiz, Ignacio Belda, Beata Beisert, Eva Navascués, Domingo Marquina, Fernando Calderón, Doris Rauhut, Antonio Santos, Santiago Benito
Most wine aroma compounds, including the varietal fraction, are produced or released during wine production and derived from microbial activity. Varietal aromas, typically defined as terpenes and thiols, have been described as derived from their non-volatile precursors, released during wine fermentation by different yeast hydrolytic enzymes. The perception of these minority aroma compounds depends on the chemical matrix of the wine, especially on the presence of majority aroma compounds, such as esters or higher alcohols...
July 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chiara Aquilani, Francesco Sirtori, Monica Flores, Riccardo Bozzi, Benedicte Lebret, Carolina Pugliese
Dry-fermented pork sausages, from Cinta Senese local breed, were manufactured replacing sodium nitrite (NIT) with two mixtures of natural antioxidants consisting of: i) grape seed extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (GSE); ii) chestnut extract and olive pomace hydroxytyrosol (CHE). The effects on physical-chemical, aromatic and sensory traits, as well as the microbiological safety, were tested. Nitrite replacement lowered the pH in GSE and CHE samples and resulted in several differences in physical traits between CHE and NIT samples...
November 2018: Meat Science
Jennifer R Bellon, Christopher M Ford, Anthony R Borneman, Paul J Chambers
Wine yeast breeding programs utilizing interspecific hybridization deliver cost-effective tools to winemakers looking to differentiate their wines through the development of new wine styles. The addition of a non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome to a commercial wine yeast can generate novel phenotypes ranging from wine flavor and aroma diversity to improvements in targeted fermentation traits. In the current study we utilized a novel approach to screen isolates from an evolving population for increased fitness in a S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marijan Bubola, Igor Lukić, Sanja Radeka, Paolo Sivilotti, Kristina Grozić, Andreja Vanzo, Dejan Bavčar, Klemen Lisjak
BACKGROUND: Leaf removal is a viticultural practice that promotes the biosynthesis of several important grape constituents by improving fruit zone microclimate. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hand and mechanical leaf removal, applied at the pea-size stage of berry development, on fruit zone microclimate, volatile aroma compounds, hydroxycinnamates and sensory characteristics of Istrian Malvasia (Vitis vinifera L.) wines. Three different sunlight exposure conditions were applied: hand leaf removal (HLR), mechanical leaf removal (MLR) and untreated control (UC)...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Alice Vilela, Catarina Marques, Elisete Correia
Vinho Verde is the biggest DOC of Portugal, and it produces wines distinguished by their high acidity and flavor. In this Portuguese wine-region, three grape varieties, Alvarinho, Loureiro, and Arinto, are used to produce monovarietal wines of great quality. Sensory characterization of wines has the aim of detecting unique qualities in wines, and the most common measurement for the sensory aspects of wines sensory profile is descriptive sensory analysis, typically performed by trained sensory panels. To a list of attributes that can characterize a wine, we call a "sensory lexicon" that can be used by marketers allowing the articulation of flavor perceptions to consumers...
September 2018: Food Research International
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