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grape aroma

Kimmo Sirén, Sarah Siu Tze Mak, Ulrich Fischer, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, M Thomas P Gilbert
The wine microbiome - that is the microbial communities associated with the fermentation of must, is one of the most important factors in transforming grapes to wine, including flavour and aroma. Recent developments in high throughput sequencing and other 'omics methodologies are rapidly changing the level and complexity of information that we are able to extract from the wine microbiome. This will significantly enhance not only our understanding of which microbes are present at the various stages of the grapevine growth and winemaking process, but also improve our understanding of the complex interactions between microbes, the substrate and environment, ultimately shaping wine production...
December 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Lucía M Mendoza, Guillermo A Vega-Lopez, Miguel Fernández de Ullivarri, Raúl R Raya
Yeasts population associated with grapes from Northwest Argentina, a region with a significant vine-growing increase over the past years, was evaluated. Ten species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified from four grape varieties (Malbec, Merlot, Syrah and Torrontes) being Hanseniaspora uvarum the dominant species. Typing of isolates revealed genetic variability within Hanseniaspora genus and also high variability was observed according to their oenological characteristics. Based on the oenological properties, the most adequate strains as starter cultures were H...
November 26, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
M A Paissoni, P Waffo-Teguo, W Ma, M Jourdes, L Rolle, P -L Teissedre
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in the cell vacuoles of fruits and flowers, performing several roles from insects attraction to stress protection. Their antioxidant activity contributes to human health, and consuming plant-derived products provides their higher source in the diet. Although their colour and nutritional features, their contribution to sensory properties of foods has not been widely investigated. In wine, preferences are connected with sensory attributes of colour, aroma, taste, and mouthfeel...
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tristan Jade Porter, Benoit Divol, Mathabatha Evodia Setati
Yeasts of various genera are increasingly used alongside Saccharomyces cerevisiae to drive wine fermentations owing to their positive contribution to the organoleptic profile of the resulting wines. One such yeast species is Lachancea thermotolerans. Other species of the genus Lachancea, namely, L. fermentati and L. lanzarotensis have also been isolated from the fermentation environment, but have not received the same degree of attention as L. thermotolerans. The aim of this study was to investigate the oenological potential of these three Lachancea species, regarding their expression of oenologically relevant enzymes, their fermentation attributes and the expression and location of β-glucosidase during fermentation of synthetic and real grape must (Muscat of Alexandria)...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Facundo Giorello, Maria Jose Valera, Valentina Martin, Andres Parada, Valentina Salzman, Laura Camesasca, Laura Fariña, Eduardo Boido, Karina Medina, Eduardo Dellacassa, Luisa Berna, Pablo S Aguilar, Albert Mas, Carina Gaggero, Francisco Carrau
Hanseniaspora is the main genus of the apiculate yeast group that represents about 70% of the grape-associated microflora. Hanseniaspora vineae is emerging as a promising species for quality wine production compared to other non- Saccharomyces Wines produced by H. vineae with Saccharomyces cerevisiae consistently exhibit more intense fruity flavours and complexity than wines produced by S. cerevisiae alone.In this work, genome sequencing, assembling and phylogenetic analysis of two strains of H. vineae shows that it is a member of the Saccharomyces complex and it diverged before the Whole Genome Duplication (WGD) event from this clade...
October 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Pei-Tong Liu, Ke-Ji Yu, Yu-Ting Li, Chang-Qing Duan, Guo-Liang Yan
The effect of adding amino acids on wine aroma is largely influenced by nutritional status of grape must. In this study, the effects of linoleic acid (LA) content on the aromatic function of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) addition were investigated in alcoholic fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The results showed that initial LA content in must significantly influenced the effect of BCAAs addition on volatiles in final wine. Adding BCAAs (140 mg/L of l-leucine, 117 mg/L of l-isoleucine and 118 mg/L of l-valine) in must with low LA content (12 mg/L) promoted the production of most volatiles, including higher alcohols (isobutanol, 2-phenylethanol), fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid) and esters (ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenethyl acetate and ethyl octanoate), which were well consistent with previous literatures...
December 2018: Food Research International
Stéphanie Rollero, Anscha J J Zietsman, Fanny Buffetto, Julia Schückel, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Benoit Divol
Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains display no to weak pectinase activity, the utilization of external pectinase is a common practice in winemaking to enhance the extraction of compounds located in the grape berry skins during maceration. In this study, the activity of the native endopolygalacturonase of a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, isolated from grape juice, was characterized in Shiraz grape must during alcoholic fermentation with or without prefermentative cold maceration. The wines made with K. marxianus had a higher methanol concentration, more free-run wine, an altered volatile compound profile, and displayed pectinase activity in cell-free wine samples...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Da-Hye Kim, Sae-Byuk Lee, Jun-Young Jeon, Heui-Dong Park
A total of 512 yeasts, including 422 non-Saccharomyces yeasts, were isolated from various fruits including apple, aronia, Muscat Bailey A grapes, and persimmon. These were used to prepare persimmon wine and apple cider starters that produced high levels of aromatic compounds, which contribute to high-quality fermented products. Environmental tolerance testing with 20% glucose and 8% EtOH, alongside a sniffing test, led to the selection of Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Synonym Pichia anomala) SJ20, Meyerozyma caribbica (Synonym Pichia caribbica) YP1, Pichia kluyveri CD34, Hanseniaspora uvarum SJ69 (for persimmon wine), W...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Maurício Bonatto Machado de Castilhos, Vanildo Luiz Del Bianchi, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Esteban García-Romero, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez
This study analyzed the volatile composition and aroma profile of BRS Carmem and BRS Violeta red wines elaborated from traditional and two alternative winemaking procedures: grape pre-drying and submerged cap. The wines contained higher concentration of acetates (ranging from 303 mg L-1 to 905 mg L-1 ) and ethyl and methyl esters (ranging from 138 mg L-1 to 415 mg L-1 ). The BRS Carmem wines were described as fruity due to the higher concentration of esters and BRS Violeta wines were described as vegetal mainly due to the higher concentration of terpenes and methoxyphenols...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Małgorzata Lasik-Kurdyś, Małgorzata Majcher, Jacek Nowak
The effects of different malolactic bacteria fermentation techniques on the bioconversion of aromatic compounds in cool-climate grape wines were examined. During three wine seasons, red and white grape wines were produced using various malolactic fermentation induction techniques: Coinoculation, sequential inoculation, and spontaneous process. Volatile compounds (diacetyl and the products of its metabolism, and selected ethyl fatty acid esters) were extracted by solid phase microextraction. Compounds were identified with a multidimensional gas chromatograph-GC × GC-ToFMS with ZOEX cryogenic (N₂) modulator...
October 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
José Pérez-Navarro, Pedro Miguel Izquierdo-Cañas, Adela Mena-Morales, Jesús Martínez-Gascueña, Juan Luis Chacón-Vozmediano, Esteban García-Romero, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Due to the currently dominance of a few grape varieties in the wine market, the aim of this work was to study the detailed phenolic and volatile composition, chromatic characteristics and sensorial properties of red wines elaborated with new Vitis vinifera grapes identified (Moribel and Tinto Fragoso) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, GC-MS, CIELab colour space and Napping ® technique. RESULTS: Tinto Fragoso wine showed higher phenolic content than Moribel, with more anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbenes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jesse J Aplin, Kimberly P White, Charles G Edwards
Utilization of carbohydrates and amino acids/ammonium by selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts and impacts on alcoholic fermentation was evaluated using media and high sugar grape musts (>270 g/L). Consumption patterns of single cultures were ascertained in synthetic media and a Chardonnay grape must. While the non-Saccharomyces species maintained >106  cfu/mL after >40 days, concentrations of residual sugars ranged from 103 g/L (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) to 155 g/L (Candida californica), amino acids and ammonium were generally depleted (>85%), and excessive amounts of volatile acidity (>0...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Katie Parish-Virtue, Mandy Herbst-Johnstone, Flo Bouda, Bruno Fedrizzi
Sauvignon blanc grapes were exposed to an ultra-violet (UV) light source post-hand harvest (whole bunches) or post-machine harvest. The thiol precursors S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine (Cys-3MH) and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-glutathione (GSH-3MH) were quantified in the juices before and after UV treatment. Results showed that irradiation of the grapes with UV light had little to no effect on the thiol precursors. Wines were fermented from the corresponding juices and 18 aroma compounds were quantified. Differences were found between UV treatments of the wines for 3-mercaptohexanol, hexan-1-ol, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and phenylethyl alcohol...
January 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Sha Xie, Yonghong Tang, Peng Wang, Changzheng Song, Bingbing Duan, Zhenwen Zhang, Jiangfei Meng
This study was conducted during the 2014 and 2015 vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot and Cabernet Gernischt to investigate whether natural variation in berry size could affect grape aromatic compounds. Grape berries were separated into three size categories based on their diameter: small, middle and large. The results showed that berry size exerted a significant influence on the volatile profiles of both winegrape varieties. Hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that the volatile profiles of middle berries were different from those of large and small berries...
2018: PloS One
Adriana Marcia Graboski, Elisiane Galvagni, Alexandra Manzoli, Flavio Makoto Shimizu, Claudio Augusto Zakrzevski, Thiago Andre Weschenfelder, Juliana Steffens, Clarice Steffens
Aroma is closely related to the food product acceptability and an important product quality indicator. Electronic-nose (E-nose) systems are an interesting alternative to traditional methods of aroma analyses. A lab-made E-nose system equipped with an array of sensing units comprised by gold interdigitated microelectrodes (IDEs) using polyaniline (Pani) as sensitive layers deposited by the in situ and Layer-by-layer (LbL) methods was used to analyze aromas in gummy candies. Different concentrations from artificial aromas (apple, strawberry and grape), added to the gummy candies were evaluated...
November 2018: Food Research International
Ebru Arslan, Zeynep Dilan Çelik, Turgut Cabaroğlu
The cultivar of Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera , grown in Tokat city, the Mid-Black Sea Region of Anatolia. In this study, the effects of pure and mixed autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii -214 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae -1088 cultures on the fermentation behavior and aroma compounds of Narince wines were investigated. Volatile compounds formed in wines were extracted using a liquid⁻liquid extraction method and determined by GC-MS-FID. Narince grape must was fermented in duplicate, under the following three conditions...
September 5, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Matthew Noestheden, Benjamin Noyovitz, Seamus Riordan-Short, Eric G Dennis, Wesley F Zandberg
The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. berries to forest fire smoke changes the concentration of phenylpropanoid metabolites in berries and the resulting wine. The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. berries (i.e., wine grapes) to forest fire smoke can lead to a wine defect known as smoke taint that is characterized by unpleasant "smoky" and "ashy" aromas and flavors. The intensity of smoke taint is associated with the concentration of organoleptic volatile phenols that are produced during the combustion-mediated oxidation of lignocellulosic biomass and subsequently concentrated in berries prior to fermentation...
December 2018: Planta
Hubert Alem, Peggy Rigou, Rémi Schneider, Hernán Ojeda, Laurent Torregrosa
Aroma compounds are secondary metabolites that play a key role in grape quality for enological purposes. Terpenes, C13 -norisoprenoids, phenols, and non-terpenic alcohols are the most important aroma compounds in grapes and they can be found as free volatiles or glycoconjugated (bound) molecules. The non-volatile glycosylated group is the largest, and it is present in all varieties of Vitis vinifera (L.), the most widely used species for wine production. These aroma precursors represent the reserve of aroma molecules that can be released during winemaking...
August 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bjørn Dueholm, Damian P Drew, Crystal Sweetman, Henrik T Simonsen
Five Vitis vinifera sesquiterpene synthases were characterized, two was previously uncharacterized, one being a caryophyllene/cubebene synthase and the other a cadinene synthase. Residue differences with other Vitis sesquiterpene synthases are described. The biochemical composition of grape berries at harvest can have a profound effect on the varietal character of the wine produced. Sesquiterpenes are an important class of volatile compounds produced in grapes that contribute to the flavor and aroma of wine, making the elucidation of their biosynthetic origin an important field of research...
August 22, 2018: Planta
Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Elisa Baroja, Pilar Rubio-Bretón, Eva P Pérez-Álvarez
An alternative to improve grape quality is the elicitor application to the vineyard due its implication to induce defense mechanisms involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. There are few studies about the influence of elicitors on grape volatile composition. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) foliar application to Tempranillo grapevines on grape aroma composition over three consecutive vintages. In the first vintage, MeJ treatment improved p-cymene, methyl jasmonate, and hexanal synthesis, and degraded 2-hexen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and n-hexanol...
October 2018: Food Research International
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