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development and growth

Jiri Dolezal, Miroslav Dvorsky, Martin Kopecky, Jan Altman, Ondrej Mudrak, Katerina Capkova, Klara Rehakova, Martin Macek, Pierre Liancourt
Background and Aims: Alpine cushion plants can initially facilitate other species during ecological succession, but later on can be negatively affected by their development, especially when beneficiaries possess traits allowing them to overrun their host. This can be reinforced by accelerated warming favouring competitively strong species over cold-adapted cushion specialists. However, little empirical research has addressed the trait-based mechanisms of these interactions. The ecological strategies of plants colonizing the cushion plant Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae), a dominant pioneer of subnival zones, were studied in the Western Himalayas...
December 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
Naomi Walsh, Han Zhang, Paula L Hyland, Qi Yang, Evelina Mocci, Mingfeng Zhang, Erica J Childs, Irene Collins, Zhaoming Wang, Alan A Arslan, Laura Beane-Freeman, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Federico Canzian, Eric J Duell, Steven Gallinger, Graham G Giles, Michael Goggins, Gary E Goodman, Phyllis J Goodman, Rayjean J Hung, Charles Kooperberg, Robert C Kurtz, Núria Malats, Loic LeMarchand, Rachel E Neale, Sara H Olson, Ghislaine Scelo, Xiao O Shu, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Kala Visvanathan, Emily White, Wei Zheng, Demetrius Albanes, Gabriella Andreotti, Ana Babic, William R Bamlet, Sonja I Berndt, Ayelet Borgida, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Lauren Brais, Paul Brennan, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie Buring, Kari G Chaffee, Stephen Chanock, Sean Cleary, Michelle Cotterchio, Lenka Foretova, Charles Fuchs, J Michael M Gaziano, Edward Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Thilo Hackert, Christopher Haiman, Patricia Hartge, Manal Hasan, Kathy J Helzlsouer, Joseph Herman, Ivana Holcatova, Elizabeth A Holly, Robert Hoover, Rayjean J Hung, Vladimir Janout, Eric A Klein, Robert C Kurtz, Daniel Laheru, I-Min Lee, Lingeng Lu, Núria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Roger L Milne, Ann L Oberg, Irene Orlow, Alpa V Patel, Ulrike Peters, Miquel Porta, Francisco X Real, Nathaniel Rothman, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Debra Silverman, Oliver Strobel, Malin Sund, Mark D Thornquist, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Nick Wareham, Elisabete Weiderpass, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Herbert Yu, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Peter Kraft, Donghui Li, Eric J Jacobs, Gloria M Petersen, Brian M Wolpin, Harvey A Risch, Laufey T Amundadottir, Kai Yu, Alison P Klein, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify associations of individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cancer risk but usually only explain a fraction of the inherited variability. Pathway analysis of genetic variants is a powerful tool to identify networks of susceptibility genes. Methods: We conducted a large agnostic pathway-based meta-analysis of GWAS data using the summary-based adaptive rank truncated product method to identify gene sets and pathways associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in 9040 cases and 12 496 controls...
December 12, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Kazuya Koyama, Hisatsugu Goto, Shun Morizumi, Kozo Kagawa, Haruka Nishimura, Seidai Sato, Hiroshi Kawano, Yuko Toyoda, Hirohisa Ogawa, Sakae Homma, Yasuhiko Nishioka
The signaling pathways of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can be considered specific targets for overcoming the poor prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Nintedanib, the recently approved multiple kinase inhibitor, has shown promising anti-fibrotic effects in IPF patients; however, its efficacy is still limited, and in some cases, treatment discontinuation is necessary due to toxicities such as gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, more effective agents with less toxicity are still needed...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Ramanagouda Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa, Blake Carrington, Mukundhan Ramaswami, Kevin Bishop, Gabrielle M Robbins, MaryPat Jones, Ursula Harper, Stephen C Frederickson, Danielle C Kimble, Raman Sood, Settara C Chandrasekharappa
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24...
December 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Xin Zeng, Robert Kirkpatrick, Glenn Hofmann, Didier Grillot, Valerie Linhart, Fabrice Viviani, Joseph Marino, Joseph Boyer, Taylor L Graham, Quinn Lu, Zining Wu, Andrew Benowitz, Rick Cousins
Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is a basic helix-loop-helix 9 (bHLH) transcription factor acting downstream of Notch and is required for the differentiation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear and the specification of secretory cells during the intestinal crypt cell regeneration. Motivated by the observations that the upregulation of Atoh1 gene expression, through genetic manipulation or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling (e.g. γ-secretase inhibitors, GSIs), induces ectopic hair cell growth in the cochlea of the inner ear and partially restores hearing after injuries in experimental models, we decided to identify small molecule modulators of the Notch-Atoh1 pathway, which could potentially regenerate hair cells...
2018: PloS One
Tianhua Rong, Jianxiong Shen, Kenny Kwan, Jianguo Zhang, Yahan Wang, Shugang Li, Zheng Li, Chong Chen, Youxi Lin, Haining Tan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective radiographic study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth of the vertebrae around distal instrumented vertebra (DIV) in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) who underwent dual growing rod (DGR) treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies indicated that DGR was likely to preserve or even stimulate the spinal growth. However, report pertaining to the effect of growing rod on the growth of individual vertebral body is rare...
December 11, 2018: Spine
Karen E Wickersham, Theresa K Hodges, Martin J Edelman, Yang Song, Mintong Nan, Susan G Dorsey
BACKGROUND: Therapies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) result in a painful rash, the most common and debilitating toxicity among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who take EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy; however, predicting the development and the severity of the rash is difficult. OBJECTIVE: To examine how erlotinib-an EGFR TKI that NSCLC patients take to stop or slow tumor growth-altered the transcriptome of dermal fibroblasts...
December 12, 2018: Nursing Research
Hehong Zhang, Yuqing He, Xiaoxiang Tan, Kaili Xie, Lulu Li, Gaojie Hong, Junmin Li, Ye Cheng, Fei Yan, Jianping Chen, Zongtao Sun
The phytohormone brassinosteroids (BR) not only played key roles in regulating plant growth development but also involved in modulating plant defense system upon pathogens attack. Our previous study found that BR pathway was susceptible to Rice Blacked-Streaked Dwarf Virus (RBSDV), a devastating pathogen in rice. However, the detailed mechanism of BR-mediated susceptibility remains unclear. Here we showed that both BR deficient and insensitive mutants exhibit their resistance to RBSDV infection. The defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathway were activated in RBSDV-infected BR mutant according to high-throughput sequencing...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo, John J McCarthy
The ribosome is the enzymatic macromolecular machine responsible for protein synthesis. The rates of protein synthesis are primarily dependent on translational efficiency and capacity. Ribosome biogenesis has emerged as an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth and maintenance by altering the translational capacity of the cell. Here, we provide evidence to support a central role for ribosome biogenesis in skeletal muscle growth during postnatal development and in response to resistance exercise training...
January 1, 2019: Physiology
Rachel A Bergstrom
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) continue to work to increase the diversity of the fields, yet there are still significant historical and societal hurdles to be overcome before we reach full representation throughout STEM. The concept of science identity has become a point of interest in this process; it has been suggested that development of one's identity as a scientist is critical to persistence in the field. Metaphors that are rooted in bodily experience can provide a starting point to understand abstract concepts, including science identity and how we as STEM educators respond to increasing diversity within our fields...
March 1, 2019: Advances in Physiology Education
Cristina L Quinn, James Michael Armitage, Frank Wania, Jon A Arnot
This study describes the development and evaluation of a new bioenergetically-balanced bioaccumulation (3B) model for organic chemicals in fish. The 3B model is developed from a large database of routine metabolic (oxygen consumption) rates comprising a range of species, body mass and temperature. The chemical uptake and elimination rates of the 3B model are compared against those from three existing bioaccumulation models. A time-variant version of the 3B model is evaluated against measured concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyls in different size fish depurated over the course of a year including a 22 oC change in ambient temperature...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Julia Penna-Coutinho, Anna Cc Aguiar, Antoniana Ursine Krettli/
BACKGROUND The main strategy to control human malaria still relies on specific drug treatment, limited now by Plasmodium falciparum-resistant parasites, including that against artemisinin derivatives. Despite the large number of active compounds described in the literature, few of them reached full development against human malaria. Drug repositioning is a fast and less expensive strategy for antimalarial drug discovery, because these compounds are already approved for human use. OBJECTIVES To identify new antimalarial drugs from compounds commercially available and used for other indications...
December 6, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Caroline Soares Nobre, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira, Ceci Vilar Noronha, Mirna Albuquerque Frota
The school has witnessed the growth of manifestations of interpersonal violence among children, and in this perspective, this paper examines the prevalence of interpersonal violence in the relationship between students and the associated factors. This is a cross-sectional study developed with 874 public school students aged 10 and 11 years conducted in 2013. A questionnaire implemented the collection of data that were submitted to bivariate analysis with statistical significance calculation between associations...
December 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Aline Dos Santos Sampaio, Matias Epifanio, Caroline Abud Drumond Costa, Vera Lúcia Bosa, Franceliane Jobim Benedetti, Edgar Enrique Sarria, Suelen Goecks Oliveira, Eduardo Mundstock, Rita Mattiello
This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition...
December 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Xin Xu, Luofu Liu, Hongya Geng, Jianjun Wang, Jiajia Zhou, Ying Jiang, Masao Doi
The performance of graphene oxide (GO)-based materials strongly depends on the lateral size and size distribution of GO nanosheets. Various methods are employed to prepare GO nanosheets with a narrow size distribution. One promising method was proposed recently, directional freezing of a GO aqueous dispersion at a controlled growth rate of the freezing front. We develop a theoretical model of a binary colloidal suspension, incorporating both the moving freezing boundary and the preferential adsorption of colloidal particles to the ice phase...
December 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Bushra Iqbal, Archna Ghildiyal, Shraddha Singh, Sahabjada Siddiqui, Pratibha Kumari, M Arshad, A A Mahdi
Background: Nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells) expression and its regulation is a key role in the development of number of malignancies, as NFkB mediates the balance between cell death and its survival. Therefore, NFkB regulation constitutes an attractive target to overcome the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in anticancer therapy. Curcumin, as a chemopreventive agent, has a potential role in inhibiting cell growth in a variety of malignancies...
December 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Wenwen Luo, Deyi Zhang, Shumin Ma, Chenyao Wang, Qian Zhang, Huafei Wang, Kunyan He, Zhixue Liu
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor relapse after chemotherapy and radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study is to explore the profile and role of microRNA (miRNA) in CSC of NSCLC. Materials and Methods: We studied the expression of stem cell marker in side population cells and serum-free cultured spheres of NSCLC. We identified that CD133+ CD34- cells are NSCLC stem cell. We isolated CD133+ CD34- cells and CD133- CD34+ cells with MicroBead Kit...
December 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
B Llombart, C Serra, C Requena, M Alsina, D Morgado-Carrasco, V Través, O Sanmartín
Sarcomas comprise a broad group of tumors, many of whose biological behavior and aggressiveness differ from one type to another. The therapeutic approach is generally multidisciplinary and often complex. Developments in surgical and oncological dermatology during the last few decades have positioned dermatologists as specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer. The aim of this article is to review the main soft tissue sarcomas that typically affect the skin. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a low-grade malignant sarcoma...
December 2018: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Adeela Syed, Tamás Lukacsovich, Miles Pomeroy, A Jane Bardwell, Gentry Thomas Decker, Katrina G Waymire, Judith Purcell, Weijian Huang, James Gui, Emily M Padilla, Cindy Park, Antor Paul, Thai Bin T Pham, Yanete Rodriguez, Stephen Wei, Shane Worthge, Ronak Zebarjedi, Bing Zhang, Lee Bardwell, J Lawrence Marsh, Grant R MacGregor
Analysis of mutants that affect formation and function of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has provided valuable insight into genes required for neuronal branching and synaptic growth. We report that NMJ development in Drosophila requires both the Drosophila ortholog of FNDC3 genes; CG42389 (herein referred to as miles to go; mtgo), and CCT3, which encodes a chaperonin complex subunit. Loss of mtgo function causes late pupal lethality with most animals unable to escape the pupal case, while rare escapers exhibit an ataxic gait and reduced lifespan...
January 1, 2019: Developmental Biology
Linghui Cao, Lingyu Li, Yongqing Li, Jian Zhuang, Yu Chen, Shifeng Luo, Yuequn Wang, Yan Shi, Jimei Chen, Jianfang Gao, Xiaolan Zhu, Yongqi Wan, Fang Li, Wuzhou Yuan, Xiaoyang Mo, Xiangli Ye, Xiaoli Wang, Zuoqiong Zhou, Guo Dai, Zhigang Jiang, Ping Zhu, Xiushan Wu, Xiongwei Fan
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/nodal signaling is involved in early embryonic patterning in vertebrates. Nodal modulator (Nomo, also called pM5) is a negative regulator of nodal signaling. Currently, the role of nomo gene in cartilage development in vertebrates remains unknown. METHODS: Nomo mutants were generated in a knockout model of zebrafish by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) targeting of the fibronectin type III domain...
December 11, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
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