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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236246/multimycotoxin-analysis-of-south-african-aspergillus-clavatus-isolates
#1
C J Botha, M Truter, M Sulyok
Aspergillus clavatus poisoning is a neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants that occurs sporadically across the world after ingestion of infected feedstuffs. Although various toxic metabolites are synthesized by the fungus, it is not clear which specific or group of mycotoxins induces the syndrome. A. clavatus isolates were deposited in the culture collection of the Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council during incidences of livestock poisoning (1988-2016). Six isolates were still viable and these plus three other South African isolates that were also previously deposited in the collection were positively identified as A...
December 13, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236232/%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-6-d-glucan-secreted-during-the-optimised-production-of-exopolysaccharides-by-paecilomyces-variotii-has-immunostimulatory-activity
#2
Erica F Osaku, Rafael A Menolli, Claudia R L de M Costa, Fernando Henrique G Tessaro, Renan H de Melo, Alex E do Amaral, Péricles A D Duarte, Arquimedes Paixão de Santana Filho, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, José Luis da C Silva, Rosiane G Mello
Paecilomyces variotii is a filamentous fungus that occurs worldwide in soil and decaying vegetation. Optimization of the fermentation process for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production from the fungus P. variotii, structure determination and immuno-stimulating activity of EPS were performed. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the physical and chemical factors required to produce EPS in submerged fermentation. Preliminary investigations to choose the three factors for the present work were made using a factorial experimental design...
December 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235872/correction-to-isolation-of-notoamide-s-and-enantiomeric-6-epi-stephacidin-a-from-the-terrestrial-fungus-aspergillus-amoenus-biogenetic-implications
#3
Hikaru Kato, Takashi Nakahara, Kayo Sugimoto, Kanae Matsuo, Ippei Kagiyama, Jens C Frisvad, David H Sherman, Robert M Williams, Sachiko Tsukamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235709/dynamic-environments-of-fungus-farming-termite-mounds-exert-growth-modulating-effects-on-fungal-crop-parasites
#4
Lakshya Katariya, Priya B Ramesh, Renee M Borges
This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as 1) temperature and relative humidity (RH) "stabilisers" showing dampened daily variation, and 2) "extreme environments" exhibiting elevated RH and CO2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235343/n-glucosides-of-fairy-chemicals-2-azahypoxanthine-and-2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine-in-rice
#5
Jae-Hoon Choi, Jing Wu, Azusa Sawada, Syougo Takeda, Hirohide Takemura, Kaoru Yogosawa, Hirofumi Hirai, Mitsuru Kondo, Kunihisa Sugimoto, Tomohiro Asakawa, Makoto Inai, Toshiyuki Kan, Hirokazu Kawagishi
Plant growth stimulators, 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), were isolated from the fairy-ring-forming fungus, Lepista sordida, and AHX-treated rice, respectively. Further metabolites of AHX were detected in AHX-treated rice by HPLC, and the metabolites 1-4 were isolated from the rice. The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and synthesis. Compounds 1-4 exhibited no significant activity against rice, indicating that rice regulates the activity of AHX and AOH by converting them into their glucosides...
December 13, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235305/-discussion-on-related-problems-of-model-species-of-fungus%C3%AF-paecilomyces-hepialid
#6
Ru-Qin Dai, Chong-Yao Shen, Xiao-Ming Li, Jiang-Li Lan, Shu-Fang Lin, Ai-Juan Shao
Paecilomyces hepiali is a new species of fungus isolated from a field collection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Baima snow mountain, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province by the Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. The specimen was identified and named as Paecilomyces hepiali by Qing-Tao Chen, the professor of the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Paecilomyces hepiali) (2008), who identified a dried culture of living strain 82-2 as the holotype...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235175/acetate-provokes-mitochondrial-stress-and-cell-death-in-ustilago-maydis
#7
Matthias Kretschmer, Scott Lambie, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
The fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis causes disease on maize by mating to establish an infectious filamentous cell type that invades the host and induces tumours. We previously found that β-oxidation mutants were defective in virulence and did not grow on acetate. Here we demonstrate that acetate inhibits filamentation during mating and in response to oleic acid. We therefore examined the influence of different carbon sources by comparing the transcriptomes of cells grown on acetate, oleic acid or glucose, with expression changes for the fungus during tumour formation in planta...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234997/learning-epistatic-interactions-from-sequence-activity-data-to-predict-enantioselectivity
#8
Julian Zaugg, Yosephine Gumulya, Alpeshkumar K Malde, Mikael Bodén
Enzymes with a high selectivity are desirable for improving economics of chemical synthesis of enantiopure compounds. To improve enzyme selectivity mutations are often introduced near the catalytic active site. In this compact environment epistatic interactions between residues, where contributions to selectivity are non-additive, play a significant role in determining the degree of selectivity. Using support vector machine regression models we map mutations to the experimentally characterised enantioselectivities for a set of 136 variants of the epoxide hydrolase from the fungus Aspergillus niger (AnEH)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234586/aspergillus-tamarii-keratitis-in-a-contact-lens-wearer
#9
Juan Cuadros, Juan Gros-Otero, Patricia Gallego-Angui, Ann Karolin Scheu, Ángeles Montes-Mollón, Cinta Pérez-Rico, Javier Paz Moreno, Peña Gómez-Herruz, Juan Soliveri, Miguel Teus
Keratitis produced by Aspergillus tamarii has been previously described associated to an ocular injury. We report a case in a contact lens wearer with a history of previous bilateral myopic LASIK ablation, bilateral intracorneal rings and vitrectomy and scleral buckling in his left eye. The fungus could be quickly identified combining phenotype, microscopy and mass spectrometry. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin, oral voriconazole, and topical amphotericin and natamycin and voriconazole was needed for corneal preservation...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234340/influence-of-environmental-conditions-and-genetic-background-of-arabica-coffee-c-arabica-l-on-leaf-rust-hemileia-vastatrix-pathogenesis
#10
Lucile Toniutti, Jean-Christophe Breitler, Hervé Etienne, Claudine Campa, Sylvie Doulbeau, Laurent Urban, Charles Lambot, Juan-Carlos H Pinilla, Benoît Bertrand
Global warming is a major threat to agriculture worldwide. Between 2008 and 2013, some coffee producing countries in South and Central America suffered from severe epidemics of coffee leaf rust (CLR), resulting in high economic losses with social implications for coffee growers. The climatic events not only favored the development of the pathogen but also affected the physiological status of the coffee plant. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate how the physiological status of the coffee plant modified by different environmental conditions impact on the pathogenesis of CLR and to identify indicators of the physiological status able to predict rust incidence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234311/the-slzrt1-gene-encodes-a-plasma-membrane-located-zip-zrt-irt-like-protein-transporter-in-the-ectomycorrhizal-fungus-suillus-luteus
#11
Laura Coninx, Anneleen Thoonen, Eli Slenders, Emmanuelle Morin, Natascha Arnauts, Michiel Op De Beeck, Annegret Kohler, Joske Ruytinx, Jan V Colpaert
Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree's Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233901/immune-mediated-damage-completes-the-parabola-cryptococcus-neoformans-pathogenesis-can-reflect-the-outcome-of-a-weak-or-strong-immune-response
#12
Liise-Anne Pirofski, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcosis occurs most frequently in immunocompromised individuals. This has led to the prevailing view that this disease is the result of weak immune responses that cannot control the fungus. However, increasingly, clinical and experimental studies have revealed that the host immune response can contribute to cryptococcal pathogenesis, including the recent study of L. M. Neal et al. (mBio 8:e01415-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01415-17) that reports that CD4+ T cells mediate tissue damage in experimental murine cryptococcosis...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233897/phylogenetics-of-a-fungal-invasion-origins-and-widespread-dispersal-of-white-nose-syndrome
#13
Kevin P Drees, Jeffrey M Lorch, Sebastien J Puechmaille, Katy L Parise, Gudrun Wibbelt, Joseph R Hoyt, Keping Sun, Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan, Munkhnast Dalannast, Jonathan M Palmer, Daniel L Lindner, A Marm Kilpatrick, Talima Pearson, Paul S Keim, David S Blehert, Jeffrey T Foster
Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233590/structure-activity-analysis-of-cj-15-801-analogues-that-interact-with-plasmodium-falciparum-pantothenate-kinase-and-inhibit-parasite-proliferation
#14
Christina Spry, Alan L Sewell, Yuliya Hering, Mathew V J Villa, Jonas Weber, Stephen J Hobson, Suzannah J Harnor, Sheraz Gul, Rodolfo Marquez, Kevin J Saliba
Survival of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dependent on pantothenate (vitamin B5), a precursor of the fundamental enzyme cofactor coenzyme A. CJ-15,801, an enamide analogue of pantothenate isolated from the fungus Seimatosporium sp. CL28611, was previously shown to inhibit P. falciparum proliferation in vitro by targeting pantothenate utilization. To inform the design of next generation analogues, we set out to synthesize and test a series of synthetic enamide-bearing pantothenate analogues...
August 25, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233467/aspergillus-fumigatus-sensitive-ige-is-associated-with-bronchial-hypersensitivity-in-a-murine-model-of-neutrophilic-airway-inflammation
#15
G Morán, B Uberti, A Ortloff, H Folch
Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells that infiltrate airways during acute exacerbation of asthma. The importance of A. fumigatus sensitization, and IgE response in the airways in patients with acute asthma is unclear. Rockefeller (RK) mice were sensitized with A. fumigatus extract protein. The animals were subsequently challenged with different degrees of A. fumigatus contamination in the cage bedding. All groups of mice were euthanized to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for cytological and Elisa assays, and lung tissue for histological analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231891/bioactive-compounds-produced-by-hypoxylon-fragiforme-against-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#16
Kamila Tomoko Yuyama, Clara Chepkirui, Lucile Wendt, Diana Fortkamp, Marc Stadler, Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Treating infections organized in biofilms is a challenge due to the resistance of the pathogens against antibiotics and host immune cells. Many fungi grow in a wet environment, favorable for the growth of bacterial biofilms, and we speculated that fungi possess some strategies to control these bacterial biofilms. A fungus identified as Hypoxylon fragiforme, was collected in the Harz Mountains, Germany, and its mycelial culture was fermented in different culture media for 67 days to test its biological potential against bacterial biofilms...
December 12, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230233/whole-genome-sequencing-of-fusarium-fujikuroi-provides-insight-into-the-role-of-secretory-proteins-and-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-in-causing-bakanae-disease-of-rice
#17
Bishnu M Bashyal, Kirti Rawat, Sapna Sharma, Deepika Kulshreshtha, S Gopala Krishnan, Ashok K Singh, Himanshu Dubey, Amolkumar U Solanke, T R Sharma, Rashmi Aggarwal
Fusarium fujikuroi causing bakanae disease has emerged as one of the major pathogen of rice across the world. The study aims to comparative genomic analysis of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates and identification of the secretary proteins of the fungus involved in rice pathogenesis. In the present study, F. fujikuroi isolate "F250" was sequenced with an assembly size of 42.47 Mb providing coverage of 96.89% on reference IMI58289 genome. A total of 13,603 protein-coding genes were predicted from genome assembly. The average gene density in the F...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230201/differential-metabolism-of-a-two-carbon-substrate-by-members-of-the-paracoccidioides-genus
#18
Lilian C Baeza, Fabiana R da Mata, Laurine L Pigosso, Maristela Pereira, Gustavo H M F de Souza, Alexandre S G Coelho, Célia M de Almeida Soares
The genus Paracoccidioides comprises known fungal pathogens of humans and can be isolated from different infection sites. Metabolic peculiarities in different members of the Paracoccidioides led us to perform proteomic studies in the presence of the two-carbon molecule acetate, which predominates in the nutrient-poor environment of the phagosome. To investigate the expression rates of proteins of different members of Paracoccidioides, including one isolate of P. lutzii (Pb01) and three isolates of P. brasiliensis (Pb03, Pb339, and PbEPM83), using sodium acetate as a carbon source, proteins were quantified using label-free and data-independent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229981/the-mating-type-locus-protein-mat1-2-1-of-trichoderma-reesei-interacts-with-xyr1-and-regulates-cellulase-gene-expression-in-response-to-light
#19
Fanglin Zheng, Yanli Cao, Lei Wang, Xinxing Lv, Xiangfeng Meng, Weixin Zhang, Guanjun Chen, Weifeng Liu
Cellulase production in the model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei is subject to a variety of environmental and physiological conditions involving an intricate regulatory network with multiple transcription factors. Here, we identified the mating type locus protein MAT1-2-1 as an interacting partner for the key transcriptional activator Xyr1 of T. reesei cellulase genes. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pulldown analyses revealed that MAT1-2-1 directly interacted with the putative transcription activation domain (AD, 767~940 aa) and the middle homology region (MHR2, 314~632 aa) of Xyr1...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229883/in-vitro-leishmanicidal-antibacterial-and-antitumour-potential-of-anhydrocochlioquinone-a-obtained-from-the-fungus-cochliobolus-sp
#20
Fernanda F Campos, Jonas P Ramos, Djalma M DE Oliveira, Tania M A Alves, Elaine M DE Souza-Fagundes, Carlos L Zani, Fabio C Sampaio, Attilio Converti, Betania B Cota
The bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Cochliobolus sp. highlighted leishmanicidal activity and allowed for anhydrocochlioquinone A (ANDC-A) isolation. MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra of this compound were in agreement with those published in the literature. ANDC-A exhibited leishmanicidal activity with EC 50 value of 22.4 microgram/mL (44 mu M) and, when submitted to the microdilution assay against Gram-ositive and Gram-negative bacteria, showed a minimal inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25295 of 128 microgram/mL (248...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
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