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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031224/direct-one-pot-synthesis-of-cinnamaldehyde-immobilized-on-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-antibiofilm-properties
#1
Mohankandhasamy Ramasamy, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
The objective of the present study was to develop a one-pot strategy to synthesis gold nanoparticle complexes using cinnamaldehyde, a potent antibiofilm agent which in its free form, exhibits high volatility and unstable nature. Hence, we developed cinnamaldehyde gold nanoparticles (CGNPs) in a single step to overcome the limitations of free cinnamaldehyde. Furthermore, reduction abilities of cinnamaldehyde under different experimental conditions, that is, varying precursor concentrations of cinnamaldehyde and gold, metal salts, pH, temperature, and light sources, were investigated...
October 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029118/potential-side-effects-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-on-the-egg-parasitoid-trichogramma-pretiosum-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-under-controlled-conditions
#2
M Potrich, L F A Alves, E R Lozano, A K Bonini, P M O J Neves
The purpose was to evaluate the side effects of strains Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin sensu lato Unioeste 43 and M. anisopliae sensu stricto ESALQ 1641 on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under controlled conditions. A free-choice test for parasitism was performed, with the confinement of T. pretiosum females mated with cards (1 × 5 cm) containing age-standardized Anagasta kuehniella Zeller eggs, either sprayed with a fungal strain (109 conidia/ml) or 0.01% v/v Tween 80 (control)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029036/intracellular-superoxide-level-controlled-by-manganese-superoxide-dismutases-affects-trichothecene-production-in-fusarium-graminearum
#3
Tomohiro Furukawa, Tomoya Yoshinari, Shohei Sakuda
The intracellular superoxide level is a clue to clarification of the regulatory mechanism for mycotoxin production in Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we focused on two manganese superoxide dismutases (SODs) of the fungus, FgSOD2 and FgSOD3, to investigate the relationship of the superoxide level to trichothecene production. Recombinant FgSOD2 and FgSOD3 showed SOD activity, and they were localized mainly in the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. Trichothecene production and mRNA levels of Tri5 and Tri6, which encode a trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme and a key regulator of trichothecene production, respectively, were greatly reduced in gene-deletion mutants of FgSod2 and FgSod3 (ΔFgSod2 and ΔFgSod3)...
October 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028999/control-of-pecan-weevil-with-microbial-biopesticides
#4
David I Shapiro-Ilan, Ted E Cottrell, Clive Bock, Kim Mai, Debbie Boykin, Lenny Wells, William G Hudson, Russell F Mizell
The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028668/the-mycobiome-in-hiv
#5
Christopher L Hager, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are a limited number of studies investigating the association between the microbiome and HIV. Although the majority of these published investigations have focused on the role of the bacterial community (bacteriome) in this setting, a handful of studies have also characterized the role of the mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals. This review will summarize the most recent reports pertaining to the role of the fungal community in HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: Differences in the composition of the oral and respiratory mycobiome in HIV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals have been reported...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028487/ziram-a-dithiocarbamate-fungicide-exhibits-pseudo-cytoprotective-actions-against-oxidative-stress-in-rat-thymocytes-possible-environmental-risks
#6
Yumiko Kanemoto-Kataoka, Keisuke Oyama, Tomohiro M Oyama, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Yasuo Oyama
Ziram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, protects various vegetables and fruits against infections by fungus. Recently, there have been increasing anxieties about the risks in the use of dithiocarbamate fungicides. Our previous studies showed that Zn(2+) was a determinant of Ziram cytotoxicity. In addition, Zn(2+) is linked to H2O2 cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that Ziram could augment the cytotoxicity of H2O2 by examining the changes induced by Ziram in some cellular parameters in rat thymic lymphocytes subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress using flow-cytometric methods with fluorescent dyes...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027999/a-population-genomics-approach-shows-widespread-geographical-distribution-of-cryptic-genomic-forms-of-the-symbiotic-fungus-rhizophagus-irregularis
#7
Romain Savary, Frédéric G Masclaux, Tania Wyss, Germain Droh, Joaquim Cruz Corella, Ana Paula Machado, Joseph B Morton, Ian R Sanders
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Gomeromycota) associate with plants forming one of the most successful microbe-plant associations. The fungi promote plant diversity and have a potentially important role in global agriculture. Plant growth depends on both inter- and intra-specific variation in AMF. It was recently reported that an unusually large number of AMF taxa have an intercontinental distribution, suggesting long-distance gene flow for many AMF species, facilitated by either long-distance natural dispersal mechanisms or human-assisted dispersal...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027474/on-the-metabolites-produced-by-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-a-fungus-proposed-for-the-ambrosia-artemisiifolia-biocontrol-spectroscopic-data-and-absolute-configuration-assignment-of-colletochlorin-a
#8
Marco Masi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessio Cimmino, Pierluigi Reveglia, Alexander Berestetskiy, Angela Boari, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is responsible for serious allergies induced on humans. Different approaches for its control were proposed during the COST Action FA1203 "Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe" (SMARTER). Fungal secondary metabolites often show potential herbicidal activity. Three phytotoxins were purified from the fungal culture filtrates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from infected leaves of A. artemisiifolia. They were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods as colletochlorin A, orcinol and tyrosol (1, 2 and 3)...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024850/combined-effects-of-fungal-inoculants-and-the-cytokinin-like-growth-regulator-thidiazuron-on-growth-phytohormone-contents-and-endophytic-root-fungi-in-miscanthus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-giganteus
#9
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomaš Frantík, Václav Motyka, Petre I Dobrev, Miroslav Vosátka
Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi...
September 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024255/deficiency-of-the-melanin-biosynthesis-genes-scd1-and-thr1-affects-sclerotial-development-and-vegetative-growth-but-not-pathogenicity-in-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#10
Yue Liang, Wei Xiong, Siegrid Steinkellner, Jie Feng
The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen causing significant damage on a broad range of crops. This fungus produces sclerotia that serve as the long-term survival structures in the life cycle and the primary inoculum in the disease cycle. Melanin plays an important role for protecting mycelia and sclerotia from ultraviolet radiation and other adverse environmental conditions. In this study two genes, SCD1 encoding a scytalone dehydratase and THR1 encoding a trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, were disrupted by target gene replacement and their roles in mycelial growth, sclerotial development and fungal pathogenicity were investigated...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024160/oxyresveratrol-a-stilbene-compound-from-morus-alba-l-twig-extract-active-against-trichophyton-rubrum
#11
Hai-Peng Lu, Ya-Nan Jia, Ya-Lin Peng, Yan Yu, Si-Long Sun, Meng-Ting Yue, Min-Hui Pan, Ling-Shu Zeng, Li Xu
Morus alba L. (mulberry) twig is known to have an inhibitory effect on pathogens in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, the dermophytic fungus, Trichophyton rubrum, was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of total M. alba twig extract and extracts obtained using solvents with different polarities by the method of 96-well MTT colorimetry. The main active substance was isolated and identified by tracking its activity. In addition, the inhibitory effects of active extracts and a single active substance were investigated in combination with miconazole nitrate...
October 11, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023669/fungi-reduce-preference-and-performance-of-insect-herbivores-on-challenged-plants
#12
Pilar Fernandez-Conradi, Hervé Jactel, Cécile Robin, Ayco J M Tack, Bastien Castagneyrol
Although insect herbivores and fungal pathogens frequently share the same individual host plant, we lack general insights in how fungal infection affects insect preference and performance. We addressed this question in a meta-analysis of 1,113 case studies gathered from 101 primary papers that compared preference or performance of insect herbivores on control vs. fungus challenged plants. Generally, insects preferred, and performed better on, not challenged plants, regardless of experimental conditions. Insect response to fungus infection significantly differed according to fungus lifestyle, insect feeding guild and the spatial scale of the interaction (local/distant)...
October 11, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023562/efficacy-of-chemical-disinfectants-for-the-containment-of-the-salamander-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans
#13
Pascale Van Rooij, Frank Pasmans, Yanaika Coen, An Martel
The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal®, Chloramine-T®, Dettol medical®, Disolol®, ethanol, F10®, Hibiscrub®, potassium permanganate, Safe4®, sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S®, were effective at killing Bsal. Concentrations of 5% sodium chloride or lower, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023558/correction-glycoside-hydrolase-mogls2-controls-asexual-sexual-development-cell-wall-integrity-and-infectious-growth-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#14
Mengying Li, Xinyu Liu, Zhixi Liu, Yi Sun, Muxing Liu, Xiaoli Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162243.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023475/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-of-isaria-cateniannulata-and-comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-response-to-heat-and-cold-stresses
#15
Dingfeng Wang, Liangde Li, Guangyuan Wu, Liette Vasseur, Guang Yang, Pengrong Huang
Isaria cateniannulata is a very important and virulent entomopathogenic fungus that infects many insect pest species. Although I. cateniannulata is commonly exposed to extreme environmental temperature conditions, little is known about its molecular response mechanism to temperature stress. Here, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome of I. cateniannulata in response to high and low temperature stresses using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. Our assembly encompassed 17,514 unigenes (mean length = 1,197 bp), in which 11,445 unigenes (65...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023193/distinct-transcriptional-and-processing-regulations-control-mir167a-level-in-tomato-during-stress
#16
Jayanti Jodder, Rohit Das, Deepti Sarkar, Payel Bhattacharjee, Pallob Kundu
Besides their definite role in plant developmental processes miR167 also serve as mediator of stress response. Although differential expression of miR167 occurs during stresses, the regulatory-mechanism of biogenesis remained elusive. Therefore, using tomato as the model plant we have explored the mechanism of regulation of miR167a expression during stresses. Fungus or virus infections and exposure to cold stress raised the level of miR167a expression. Whereas, salt, drought and heat treatments resulted in the downregulation, indicating different stresses activated alternative mechanisms for miR167a regulation...
October 12, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022767/%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-and-cytotoxic-botryorhodines-from-mangrove-endophytic-fungus-trichoderma-sp-307
#17
Liuhong Zhang, Shah Iram Niaz, Zhen Wang, Yonghong Zhu, Yongcheng Lin, Jing Li, Lan Liu
One new depsidone, botryorhodine H (1), together with three known analogues, botryorhodines C, D and G (2-4), were obtained from the mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 by co-culturing with Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR analyses and high-resolution mass spectrum. Compounds 1-3 showed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 ranging from 8.1 to 11.2 μM, and compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against rat prolactinoma MMQ and rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cell lines (IC50 = 3...
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022367/maleic-anhydride-and-chromone-derivatives-from-the-endophytic-fungus-bcc-54265-botryosphaeriaceae
#18
Masahiko Isaka, Somporn Palasarn, Sujinda Sommai, Pattiyaa Laksanacharoen, Kitlada Srichomthong
A maleic anhydride derivative, botryoanhydride (1), and a chromone derivative, botryochromone (2), together with three known chromones, eugenitin (3), 6-hydroxymethyleugenin (4) and 6-methoxymethyleugenin (5), were isolated from cultures of the endophytic fungus BCC 54265 of the family Botryosphaeriaceae. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, HRMS and CD data. Compound 2 showed weak cytotoxic activity to cancer cell-lines.
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022356/xylaropyrones-b-and-c-new-%C3%AE-pyrones-from-the-endophytic-fungus-xylaria-sp-sc1440
#19
Chenjia Guo, Ping Wu, Jinghua Xue, Hanxiang Li, Xiaoyi Wei
Two new γ-pyrones, xylaropyrones B (1) and C (2), together with three known compounds, xylaropyrone (3), annularin A (4) and annularin C (5), were isolated from solid cultures of the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. SC1440. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data. The relative configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of J-based configurational analysis, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and TDDFT calculated ECD spectra...
October 12, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022198/gene-disruption-in-scedosporium-aurantiacum-proof-of-concept-with-the-disruption-of-sodc-gene-encoding-a-cytosolic-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase
#20
Victoire Pateau, Bienvenue Razafimandimby, Patrick Vandeputte, Christopher R Thornton, Thomas Guillemette, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Sandrine Giraud
Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a large variety of infections in humans. An increasing occurrence was observed in patients with underlying conditions such as immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Indeed, the genus Scedosporium ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the respiratory tracts of the CF patients. To date, there is very scarce information on the pathogenic mechanisms, at least in part because of the limited genetic tools available. In the present study, we successfully developed an efficient transformation and targeted gene disruption approach on the species Scedosporium aurantiacum...
October 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
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