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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345666/members-of-gammaproteobacteria-as-indicator-species-of-healthy-banana-plants-on-fusarium-wilt-infested-fields-in-central-america
#1
Martina Köberl, Miguel Dita, Alfonso Martinuz, Charles Staver, Gabriele Berg
Culminating in the 1950's, bananas, the world's most extensive perennial monoculture, suffered one of the most devastating disease epidemics in history. In Latin America and the Caribbean, Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC), forced the abandonment of the Gros Michel-based export banana industry. Comparative microbiome analyses performed between healthy and diseased Gros Michel plants on FW-infested farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica revealed significant shifts in the gammaproteobacterial microbiome...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345225/highly-potent-host-external-immunity-acts-as-a-strong-selective-force-enhancing-rapid-parasite-virulence-evolution
#2
Charlotte Rafaluk, Wentao Yang, Andreas Mitschke, Philip Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg, Gerrit Joop
Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B...
March 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344646/comparative-insights-into-the-saccharification-potentials-of-a-relatively-unexplored-but-robust-penicillium-funiculosum-glycoside-hydrolase-7-cellobiohydrolase
#3
Funso Emmanuel Ogunmolu, Navya Bhatt Kammachi Jagadeesha, Rakesh Kumar, Pawan Kumar, Dinesh Gupta, Syed Shams Yazdani
BACKGROUND: GH7 cellobiohydrolases (CBH1) are vital for the breakdown of cellulose. We had previously observed the enzyme as the most dominant protein in the active cellulose-hydrolyzing secretome of the hypercellulolytic ascomycete-Penicillium funiculosum (NCIM1228). To understand its contributions to cellulosic biomass saccharification in comparison with GH7 cellobiohydrolase from the industrial workhorse-Trichoderma reesei, we natively purified and functionally characterized the only GH7 cellobiohydrolase identified and present in the genome of the fungus...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344156/enhancing-fructooligosaccharides-production-by-genetic-improvement-of-the-industrial-fungus-aspergillus-niger-atcc-20611
#4
Jing Zhang, Caixia Liu, Yijia Xie, Ning Li, Zhanguo Ning, Na Du, Xirong Huang, Yaohua Zhong
Aspergillus niger ATCC20611 is one of the most potent filamentous fungi used commercially for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are prospective components of functional food by stimulating probiotic bacteria in the human gut. However, current strategies for improving FOS yield still rely on production process development. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial strains to increase FOS production level. Here, an optimized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system was established in A...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342968/heterologous-expression-purification-and-characterization-of-three-novel-esterases-secreted-by-the-lignocellulolytic-fungus-penicillium-purpurogenum-when-grown-on-sugar-beet-pulp
#5
Gabriela Oleas, Eduardo Callegari, Romina Sepúlveda, Jaime Eyzaguirre
The lignocellulolytic fungus, Penicillium purpurogenum, grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, among them sugar beet pulp. Culture supernatants of P. purpurogenum grown on sugar beet pulp were partially purified and the fractions obtained analyzed for esterase activity by zymograms. The bands with activity on methyl umbelliferyl acetate were subjected to mass spectrometry to identify peptides. The peptides obtained were probed against the proteins deduced from the genome sequence of P. purpurogenum...
March 18, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#6
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342756/photocatalytic-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-chitosan-tio2-nanocomposite
#7
K T Karthikeyan, A Nithya, K Jothivenkatachalam
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide widely used for various biological applications due to their potential benefits. Incorporation of biomaterials with semiconductor has been exploited for waste water treatment and biological applications due to their nanometric sizes and biocompatibility of chitosan. Chitosan-Titanium dioxide (CS-TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized and their optical, structural, spectral, thermal, morphological and elemental analyses were carried out by several techniques. The particle size of the synthesized CS-TiO2 nanocomposite was around 90nm and has a crystalline structure with anatase phase of TiO2...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341884/mitochondrial-genome-of-the-nematode-endoparasitic-fungus-hirsutella-vermicola-reveals-a-high-level-of-synteny-in-the-family-ophiocordycipitaceae
#8
Yong-Jie Zhang, Hong-Yue Zhang, Xing-Zhong Liu, Shu Zhang
Ophiocordycipitaceae is a diverse fungal family comprising multiple ecologically, economically, medicinally, and culturally important fungal species; however, only four species of the family have available mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes). In this study, the complete mitogenome of the nematode endoparasitic fungus Hirsutella vermicola in Ophiocordycipitaceae was sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Ophiocordycipitaceae was performed. We found that the 53,793-bp circular mitogenome of H. vermicola, except for standard fungal mitochondrial genes, harbors seven introns acquired possibly through lateral transfer from other fungi and three free-standing open reading frames (ORFs) coding for hypothetical proteins...
March 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341825/transcriptomic-profile-of-tobacco-in-response-to-phytophthora-nicotianae-infection
#9
Jian-Kang Yang, Zhi-Jun Tong, Dun-Huang Fang, Xue-Jun Chen, Ke-Qin Zhang, Bing-Guang Xiao
Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae (P. nicotianae), is a serious disease of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) worldwide. The interactions between tobacco and P. nicotianae are complex and the outcomes of the interactions depend on the tobacco genotype, P. nicotianae strain, and environmental conditions. In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate and compare transcriptional changes in the stems of tobacco upon inoculation with P. nicotianae strain race 0. We used two tobacco varieties: RBST (named from resistance to black shank and tobacco mosaic virus), which was resistant to the P...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341024/-biochemical-basis-of-tolerance-to-osmotic-stress-in-phytopathogenic-fungus-the-case-of-macrophomina-phaseolina-tassi-goid
#10
Rodolfo Martínez-Villarreal, Tamar S Garza-Romero, Víctor R Moreno-Medina, Sanjuana Hernández-Delgado, Netzahualcoyotl Mayek-Pérez
Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M...
October 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340200/cytokines-profile-in-immunocompetent-mice-during-trichosporon-asahii-infection
#11
Alexandra M Montoya, Gloria M González, Azalia M Martinez-Castilla, Sonia A Aguilar, Moises A Franco-Molina, Erika Coronado-Cerda, Adrián G Rosas-Taraco
Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic yeastlike fungus commonly associated with systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Neutropenia is recognized as the main risk factor in infections by T. asahii; however, little is known about the cytokine response during trichosporonosis. Here, we evaluated systemic and local cytokine production and histological damage in immunocompetent mice during systemic infection with T. asahii. We found a significant increased presence of G-CSF, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-6 in sera samples...
March 15, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340187/biofilm-adherence-and-hydrophobicity-as-virulence-factors-in-malassezia-furfur
#12
Letizia Angiolella, Claudia Leone, Florencia Rojas, Javier Mussin, María de Los Angeles Sosa, Gustavo Giusiano
Malassezia species are natural inhabitants of the healthy skin. However, under certain conditions, they may cause or exacerbate several skin diseases. The ability of this fungus to colonize or infect is determined by complex interactions between the fungal cell and its virulence factors. This study aims to evaluate "in vitro" the hydrophobicity levels, the adherence on a plastic surface and the biofilm formation of 16 clinical isolates of Malassezia furfur. Cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) levels were determined by two-phase system...
March 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#13
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339963/anti-apoptotic-effects-of-decyl-gallate-on-the-induction-of-apoptosis-in-a549-pneumocytes-by-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-gp43
#14
Thais Bernardi, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Juliana Vicentin, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Patricia Akemi Assato, Caroline Maria Marcos, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula E Silva, Rosangela Aparecida Moraes da Silva, Luis Octávio Regasini, Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva, Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Apoptosis is considered an escape mechanism from the host immune system for the fungus Paracoccidioides spp, and it serves as a vehicle for entry into macrophages without stimulating microbicidal activities. Recently, gp43 of P. brasiliensis was demonstrated to be involved in this process. Therefore, as a new therapeutic alternative, it is very important to study compounds that could reduce the modulation of the induction of apoptosis caused by this fungus. Decyl gallate (G14) is a known antifungal compound, and we decided to investigate its anti-apoptotic properties...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339548/enhancement-of-the-antidermatophytic-activity-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-q-switched-nd-yag-laser-and-monoclonal-antibody-conjugation
#15
Salama A Ouf, Abdel-Aleam H Mohamed, Amira A El-Adly
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), free or conjugated with monoclonal antibody and mediated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on five dermatophytes. The laser was applied for 45 s at 532 nm and 0.8 J/cm2. The application of AgNPs combined with laser caused an increase in fungal susceptibility compared to application of AgNPs alone. The MIC50 and MIC100 recorded 3 and 9 μg/ml in the case of E. floccosum (the most susceptible species), 10 and 19 μg/ml for T...
October 7, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338958/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-skin-of-hylarana-guentheri
#16
Zhu Dong, Wenjie Luo, Hengren Zhong, Manchuriga Wang, Yanting Song, Shiming Deng, Yingxia Zhang
The cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin of Hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-GHa-GHd and temporin-GUa), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1GUb), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2GHd-2GHj, and brevinin-2GHb). Eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. Synthesized temporin GHa-GHd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungus (Candida albicans)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338918/integrated-mirna-and-mrna-expression-profiling-reveals-the-response-regulators-of-a-susceptible-tomato-cultivar-to-early-blight-disease
#17
Deepti Sarkar, Ranjan Kumar Maji, Sayani Dey, Arijita Sarkar, Zhumur Ghosh, Pallob Kundu
Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, is a devastating foliar disease of tomatoes, causes massive yield loss each year worldwide. Molecular basis of the compatible host-pathogen interaction was elusive. We adopted next generation sequencing approach to decipher miRNAs and mRNAs that are differentially expressed during Alternaria-stress in tomato. Some of the interesting findings were also validated by alternative techniques. Our analysis revealed 181 known-miRNAs, belonging to 121 miRNA families, of which 67 miRNAs showed at least 2-fold change in expression level with the majority being downregulated...
March 3, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338245/infective-capacity-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-in-a-human-astrocytoma-cell-line
#18
M C Olave, J C Vargas-Zambrano, A M Celis, E Castañeda, J M González
Pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in the central nervous system (CNS) is a topic of ongoing research, including the mechanisms by which this fungus invades and infects the brain. Astrocytes, the most common CNS cells, play a fundamental role in the local immune response. Astrocytes might participate in cryptococcosis either as a host or by responding to fungal antigens. To determine the infectivity of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in a human astrocytoma cell line and the induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules...
March 24, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337748/interaction-of-copper-nanoparticles-and-an-endophytic-growth-promoter-piriformospora-indica-with-cajanus-cajan
#19
Jyoti Rajak, Manisha Bawskar, Dnyaneshwar Rathod, Gauravi Agarkar, Dipali Nagaonkar, Aniket Gade, Mahendra Rai
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the agro-bionanotechnology has paved the way towards revolutionizing the current practices of food and agricultural fields. In the present study, the effect of copper nanoparticles alone and in combination with growth promoting fungus Piriformospora indica on two-week old seedlings of Cajanus cajan was evaluated. Gelatin coated stable copper nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. RESULTS: Copper nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336949/induction-of-apoptosis-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-camp-signaling-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#20
Bang-Jau You, Ni Tien, Miin-Huey Lee, Bo-Ying Bao, Yih-Shyuan Wu, Tsung-Chi Hu, Hong-Zin Lee
Apoptosis is an essential physiological process that controls many important biological functions. However, apoptosis signaling in relation to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants and fungi remains a mystery. The fungus Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine worldwide, but the biosynthetic regulation of its active ingredients (ganoderic acids, GAs) is poorly understood. We investigated the role of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in fungal apoptosis and GA biosynthesis in G...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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