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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731123/lasiodiplactone-a-a-novel-lactone-from-the-mangrove-endophytic-fungus-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-zj-hq1
#1
Senhua Chen, Zhaoming Liu, Hongju Liu, Yuhua Long, Dongni Chen, Yongjun Lu, Zhigang She
Lasiodiplactone A (1), an unprecedented lactone, was obtained from the mangrove endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae ZJ-HQ1. The structure of 1 was established by analysis of NMR spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Lasiodiplactone A (1) was the first example of lactone that possesses a unique tetracyclic system (12/6/6/5) of RAL12 (12-membered β-resorcylic acid lactone) with a pyran ring and a furan ring. A possible biogenetic pathway for 1 was proposed. Compound 1 showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide activated in RAW264...
July 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730540/gigaspora-margarita-with-and-without-its-endobacterium-shows-adaptive-responses-to-oxidative-stress
#2
Francesco Venice, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Mara Novero, Stefano Ghignone, Alessandra Salvioli, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi experience oxidative stress during the plant-fungal interaction, due to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by fungal metabolism and exogenous ROS produced by plant cells. Here, we examine the responses to H2O2 in Gigaspora margarita, an AM fungus containing the endobacterial symbiont Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (CaGg). Previous studies revealed that G. margarita with its endobacterium produces more ATP and has higher respiratory activity than a cured line that lacks the endobacterium...
July 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730458/generation-and-screening-of-t-dna-insertion-mutants-mediated-by-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-in-the-garden-asparagus-stem-blight-pathogen-phomopsis-asparagi
#3
Yueping Zhang, Huaxiang Qu, Ping Zhao, Yongping Tang, Jingsong Zhou, Shaochun Luo, Yuling Yin, Guangyu Chen
The garden asparagus stem blight caused by filamentous fungus Phomopsis asparagi exposes a serious threat on asparagus production globally. However, to present, we understand poorly about the molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. To facilitate functional genomics research of P. asparagi, here we developed a highly efficient and stable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation approach which yielded 150-200 transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. Our results indicated that 25 °C, acetosyringone concentration of 150 μmol/L, and 72 h were recommended as optimal co-cultivation conditions for the transformation...
July 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729855/desirable-traits-of-a-good-biocontrol-agent-against-verticillium-wilt
#4
REVIEW
Silke Deketelaere, Lien Tyvaert, Soraya C França, Monica Höfte
The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729615/deletion-of-the-cela-gene-in-aspergillus-nidulans-triggers-overexpression-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-genes
#5
Gea Guerriero, Lucia Silvestrini, Sylvain Legay, Frank Maixner, Michael Sulyok, Jean-Francois Hausman, Joseph Strauss
Although much progress has been made in the study of cell wall biosynthetic genes in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, there are still targets awaiting characterization. An example is the gene celA (ANIA_08444) encoding a putative mixed linkage glucan synthase. To characterize the role of celA, we deleted it in A. nidulans, analyzed the phenotype of the mycelium and performed RNA-Seq. The strain shows a very strong phenotype, namely "balloons" along the hyphae and aberrant conidiophores, as well as an altered susceptibility to cell wall drugs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728575/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-major-gene-for-beech-bark-disease-resistance-in-american-beech-fagus-grandifolia-ehrh
#6
Irina Ćalić, Jennifer Koch, David Carey, Charles Addo-Quaye, John E Carlson, David B Neale
BACKGROUND: The American Beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), native to eastern North America, is ecologically important and provides high quality wood products. This species is susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) and is facing high rates of mortality in North America. The disease occurs from an interaction between the woolly beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga), one of two species of the fungus Neonectria (N. faginata or N. ditissima), and American Beech trees. METHODS: In this case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS), we tested 16 K high quality SNPs using the Affymetrix Axiom 1...
July 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728544/cladosporol-a-triggers-apoptosis-sensitivity-by-ros-mediated-autophagic-flux-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Mytre Koul, Ashok Kumar, Ramesh Deshidi, Vishal Sharma, Rachna D Singh, Jasvinder Singh, Parduman Raj Sharma, Bhawal Ali Shah, Sundeep Jaglan, Shashank Singh
BACKGROUND: Endophytes have proven to be an invaluable resource of chemically diverse secondary metabolites that act as excellent lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery. Here we report the promising cytotoxic effects of Cladosporol A (HPLC purified >98%) isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides collected from Datura innoxia. Cladosporol A was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against NCI60 panel of human cancer cells using MTT assay. We further investigated the molecular mechanism(s) of Cladosporol A induced cell death in human breast (MCF-7) cancer cells...
July 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726611/added-value-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-multilocus-sequence-typing-analysis-of-a-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-outbreak1
#8
Elena Charpentier, Cécile Garnaud, Claire Wintenberger, Sébastien Bailly, Jean-Benjamin Murat, John Rendu, Patricia Pavese, Thibault Drouet, Caroline Augier, Paolo Malvezzi, Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand, Marie-Reine Mallaret, Olivier Epaulard, Muriel Cornet, Sylvie Larrat, Danièle Maubon
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a major threat for immunocompromised patients, and clusters of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) have been increasingly described in transplant units during the past decade. Exploring an outbreak transmission network requires complementary spatiotemporal and strain-typing approaches. We analyzed a PCP outbreak and demonstrated the added value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) study of P. jirovecii strains. Thirty-two PCP patients were included...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726414/citrifurans-a-d-four-dimeric-aromatic-polyketides-with-new-carbon-skeletons-from-the-fungus-aspergillus-sp
#9
Guo-Ping Yin, Ya-Rong Wu, Ming-Hua Yang, Tian-Xiao Li, Xiao-Bing Wang, Miao-Miao Zhou, Jian-Li Lei, Ling-Yi Kong
Citrifurans A-D (1-4), metabolized by an Aspergillus sp., are unusual dimers of azaphilone and furanone derivatives. Michael addition was thought to be the pivotal procedure in their biosynthesis, and different addition sites generated two new different carbon skeletons. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, chemical conversion, and electronic circular dichroism analyses. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264...
July 20, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726354/high-performance-of-agaricus-blazei-fungus-for-the-biological-pre-treatment-of-elephant-grass
#10
Thais Dal Picolli, Kaliane Regalin Aver, Roselei Claudete Fontana, Marli Camassola
Biological pre-treatment seems to be promising being an eco-friendly process, with no inhibitor generated during the process. The potential for elephant grass pre-treatment with white degradation fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus blazei, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor, in isolated or mixed cultures of these strains, was evaluated. The highest activities of enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (laccases, endoglucanases, xylanases and β-glucosidases) were observed for A...
July 20, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726108/why-does-the-bioluminescent-fungus-armillaria-mellea-have-luminous-mycelium-but-nonluminous-fruiting-body
#11
K V Purtov, V N Petushkov, N S Rodionova, J I Gitelson
By determining the components involved in the bioluminescence process in luminous and nonluminous organs of the honey fungus Armillaria mellea, we have established causes of partial luminescence of this fungus. The complete set of enzymes and substrates required for bioluminescence is formed only in the mycelium and only under the conditions of free oxygen access. Since the synthesis of luciferin precursor (hispidin) and 3-hydroxyhispidin hydroxylase in the fruiting bodies is blocked, the formation of luciferin-the key component of fungal bioluminescent system-was not observed...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725961/the-plasma-membrane-proteome-of-medicago-truncatula-roots-as-modified-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#12
Achref Aloui, Ghislaine Recorbet, Christelle Lemaître-Guillier, Arnaud Mounier, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Daniel Wipf, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot
In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots, the plasma membrane (PM) of the host plant is involved in all developmental stages of the symbiotic interaction, from initial recognition to intracellular accommodation of intra-radical hyphae and arbuscules. Although the role of the PM as the agent for cellular morphogenesis and nutrient exchange is especially accentuated in endosymbiosis, very little is known regarding the PM protein composition of mycorrhizal roots. To obtain a global overview at the proteome level of the host PM proteins as modified by symbiosis, we performed a comparative protein profiling of PM fractions from Medicago truncatula roots either inoculated or not with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis...
July 19, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725944/skin-bacterial-community-reorganization-following-metamorphosis-of-the-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#13
Arnaud Bataille, Larisa Lee-Cruz, Binu Tripathi, Bruce Waldman
In organisms with complex life histories, dramatic changes in microbial community structure may occur with host development and immune system maturation. Amphibian host susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis may be affected by the reorganization of skin microbial community structure that occurs during metamorphosis. We tracked changes in the bacterial communities inhabiting skin of Korean fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) that we infected as tadpoles with different strains of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the pathogenic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725901/zinc-binding-sites-in-pra1-a-zincophore-from-candida-albicans
#14
Dorota Łoboda, Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
The aim of this work is to understand the interactions of Zn(ii) with Pra1, a zincophore from Candida albicans, one of the most common causes of serious fungal infections in humans. Pra1 is a 299 amino acid protein, secreted from the fungus to specifically bind Zn(ii) and deliver it to a transmembrane zinc transporter, Zrt1. We take the first step towards understanding the bioinorganic chemistry of this process, by pointing out the Zn(ii) binding sites in Pra1 and understanding the thermodynamics of such interactions...
July 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725336/high-quality-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-biofilm-forming-lignocellulolytic-aspergillus-niger-strain-atcc-10864
#15
Sujay Paul, Yvette Ludeña, Gretty K Villena, Fengan Yu, David H Sherman, Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa
Filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has high industrial value due to their lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and ATCC 10864 is one of the few type strains of A. niger which has a unique biofilm forming capability. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of A. niger ATCC 10864 strain. The genome of A. niger ATCC 10864 is 36,172,237 bp long and comprise of 310 scaffolds with 49.5% average GC content. A total of 10,804 protein-coding genes were predicted among which 10,761 genes were with putative functions...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725220/a-novel-derivative-of-mycousnine-produced-by-the-endophytic-fungus-mycosphaerella-nawae-exhibits-high-and-selective-immunosuppressive-activity-on-t-cells
#16
Li-Wei Wang, Jin-Liang Wang, Jing Chen, Jia-Jie Chen, Jia-Wei Shen, Xiao-Xiao Feng, Christian P Kubicek, Fu-Cheng Lin, Chu-Long Zhang, Feng-Yang Chen
An endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella nawae ZJLQ129, was isolated from the leaves of the traditional Chinese medicine Smilax china. From the fermentation broth and mycelium, a dibenzofurane compound (-)mycousnine (1) was isolated. Chemical modification of it to the amide derivative (-)mycousnine enamine (2), which is new to science, was found to have high and selective immunosuppressive activity: similar to cyclosporin A, (-)mycousnine enamine (2) selectively inhibited T cell proliferation, suppressed the expression of the surface activation antigens CD25 and CD69 and the formation and expression of the cytokines interleukin-2 as well as interferon γ in activated T cells, but did not show any effect on the proliferation of B cells and cancer cells (PANC-1 and A549) and the activation of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724762/stability-of-cucumber-necrosis-virus-at-the-quasi-six-fold-axis-affects-zoospore-transmission
#17
Michael B Sherman, Kishore Kakani, D'Ann Rochon, Wen Jiang, Neil R Voss, Thomas J Smith
Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus, Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (1). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (2) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N-termini of the C subunit at the quasi 6-fold axes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724061/multi-locus-mixed-model-analysis-of-stem-rust-resistance-in-winter-wheat
#18
Paul D Mihalyov, Virginia A Nichols, Peter Bulli, Matthew N Rouse, Michael O Pumphrey
Genome-wide association mapping is a powerful tool for dissecting the relationship between phenotypes and genetic variants in diverse populations. With the improved cost efficiency of high-throughput genotyping platforms, association mapping is a desirable method of mining populations for favorable alleles that hold value for crop improvement. Stem rust, caused by the fungus f. sp. is a devastating disease that threatens wheat ( L.) production worldwide. Here, we explored the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in a global collection of 1411 hexaploid winter wheat accessions genotyped with 5390 single nucleotide polymorphism markers...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722499/new-brefeldins-and-penialidins-from-marine-fungus-penicillium-janthinellum-dt-f29
#19
Xiangwei Cheng, Liyan Yu, Qianqian Wang, Wanjing Ding, Zhe Chen, Zhongjun Ma
A fermentation of marine fungus Penicillium janthinellum DT-F29 on solid rice medium led to the isolation of three new compounds, brefeldin D (1) and penialidins D-E (5-6), along with other five known brefeldins and penialidins. The structures of above compounds were determined on the basis of MS and NMR analysis.
July 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722286/fighting-fungus-with-a-laser-and-a-hose-management-of-a-giant-candida-albicans-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-lead-vegetation-with-simultaneous-angiovac-aspiration-and-laser-sheath-lead-extraction
#20
Brandon M Jones, Oussama Wazni, Susan J Rehm, Mehdi H Shishehbor
Infections involving internal cardiac devices can be very challenging to treat, and almost universally require complete device extraction for successful management. Of the pathogens that cause device-related endocarditis, fungi such as Candida albicans are notoriously difficult to manage because of their propensity to produce large vegetations and the need for long-term treatment with potentially toxic medications. Furthermore, individuals who develop fungal, device-associated endocarditis are typically among the most complex patients, with significant comorbidities that place them at high risk for open heart procedures such as surgical device extraction...
July 19, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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