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Magnetoencephalography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#1
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812221/multimodal-neuroimaging-in-schizophrenia-description-and-dissemination
#2
C J Aine, H J Bockholt, J R Bustillo, J M Cañive, A Caprihan, C Gasparovic, F M Hanlon, J M Houck, R E Jung, J Lauriello, J Liu, A R Mayer, N I Perrone-Bizzozero, S Posse, J M Stephen, J A Turner, V P Clark, Vince D Calhoun
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e...
August 15, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800118/deep-source-localization-with-magnetoencephalography-based-on-sensor-array-decomposition-and-beamforming
#3
Yegang Hu, Yicong Lin, Baoshan Yang, Guangrui Tang, Tao Liu, Yuping Wang, Jicong Zhang
In recent years, the source localization technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) has played a prominent role in cognitive neuroscience and in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychological disorders. However, locating deep brain activities such as in the mesial temporal structures, especially in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy patients, may be more challenging. In this work we have proposed a modified beamforming approach for finding deep sources. First, an iterative spatiotemporal signal decomposition was employed for reconstructing the sensor arrays, which could characterize the intrinsic discriminant features for interpreting sensor signals...
August 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781049/role-of-the-cerebellum-in-adaptation-to-delayed-action-effects
#4
Liyu Cao, Domenica Veniero, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Actions are typically associated with sensory consequences. For example, knocking at a door results in predictable sounds. These self-initiated sensory stimuli are known to elicit smaller cortical responses compared to passively presented stimuli, e.g., early auditory evoked magnetic fields known as M100 and M200 components are attenuated. Current models implicate the cerebellum in the prediction of the sensory consequences of our actions. However, causal evidence is largely missing. In this study, we introduced a constant delay (of 100 ms) between actions and action-associated sounds, and we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) data as participants adapted to the delay...
July 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768745/altered-modulation-of-sensorimotor-rhythms-with-chronic-paralysis
#5
Stephen T Foldes, Douglas John Weber, Jennifer L Collinger
After paralysis, the disconnection between the cortex and its peripheral targets leads to neuroplasticity throughout the nervous system. However, it is unclear how chronic paralysis specifically impacts cortical oscillations associated with attempted movement of impaired limbs. We hypothesized that mu (8-13Hz) and beta (15-30Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) would be less modulated for individuals with hand paralysis due to cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). To test this, we compared the modulation of ERD from magnetoencephalography (MEG) during attempted and imagined grasping performed by participants with cervical SCI (n = 12) and able-bodied controls (n = 13)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766907/neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-in-very-preterm-born-children
#6
Sarah I Mossad, Mary Lou Smith, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Very preterm (VPT) birth (<32 weeks' gestational age) has been implicated in social-cognitive deficits including Theory of Mind (ToM); the ability to attribute mental states to others and understand that those beliefs can differ from one's own or reality. The neural bases for ToM deficits in VPT born children have not been examined. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) for its excellent spatial and temporal resolution to determine the neural underpinnings of ToM in 24 VPT and 24 full-term born (FT) children (7-13 years)...
August 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765594/evaluation-of-realistic-layouts-for-next-generation-on-scalp-meg-spatial-information-density-maps
#7
Bushra Riaz, Christoph Pfeiffer, Justin F Schneiderman
While commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are the functional neuroimaging state-of-the-art in terms of spatio-temporal resolution, MEG sensors have not changed significantly since the 1990s. Interest in newer sensors that operate at less extreme temperatures, e.g., high critical temperature (high-T c) SQUIDs, optically-pumped magnetometers, etc., is growing because they enable significant reductions in head-to-sensor standoff (on-scalp MEG). Various metrics quantify the advantages of on-scalp MEG, but a single straightforward one is lacking...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760539/dissociable-auditory-mismatch-response-and-connectivity-patterns-in-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#8
Sven Braeutigam, Danai Dima, Sophia Frangou, Anthony James
BACKGROUND: There is overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder regarding genetic risk as well as neuropsychological and structural brain deficits. Finding common and distinct event-response potential (ERP) responses and connectivity patterns may offer potential biomarkers to distinguish the disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine the neuronal auditory response elicited by a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). PARTICIPANTS: 15 Adolescents with schizophrenia (ASZ), 16 adolescents with bipolar disorder with psychosis (ABP), and 14 typically developing individuals (TD) METHODS: The data were analysed using time-series techniques and dynamic causal modelling (DCM)...
July 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756954/illusory-jitter-perceived-at-the-frequency-of-alpha-oscillations
#9
Sorato Minami, Kaoru Amano
Neural oscillations, such as alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-100 Hz), are widespread across cortical areas, and their possible functional roles include feature binding [1], neuronal communication [2, 3], and memory [1, 4]. The most prominent signal among these neural oscillations is the alpha oscillation. Although accumulating evidence suggests that alpha oscillations correlate with various aspects of visual processing [5-18], the number of studies proving their causal contribution in visual perception is limited [11, 16-18]...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756348/measuring-alterations-in-oscillatory-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-with-resting-state-meg-state-of-the-art-and-methodological-challenges
#10
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Annalisa Pascarella, Thomas Thiery, Etienne Combrisson, Anne-Lise Saive, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Frédéric Haesebaert, Karim Jerbi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. METHOD: A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751458/information-theoretic-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-the-face-processing-system
#11
Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Georg-Friedrich Paasch, Patricia Wollstadt, Ipek Özdemir, Joseph T Lizier, Michael Wibral
Predictive coding suggests that the brain infers the causes of its sensations by combining sensory evidence with internal predictions based on available prior knowledge. However, the neurophysiological correlates of (pre-)activated prior knowledge serving these predictions are still unknown. Based on the idea that such pre-activated prior knowledge must be maintained until needed we measured the amount of maintained information in neural signals via the active information storage (AIS) measure. AIS was calculated on whole-brain beamformer-reconstructed source time-courses from magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 52 human subjects during the baseline of a Mooney face/house detection task...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747760/early-functional-network-alterations-in-asymptomatic-elders-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Akinori Nakamura, Pablo Cuesta, Takashi Kato, Yutaka Arahata, Kaori Iwata, Misako Yamagishi, Izumi Kuratsubo, Kimiko Kato, Masahiko Bundo, Kersten Diers, Alberto Fernández, Fernando Maestú, Kengo Ito
Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition is known to starts decades before the onset of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the detailed pathophysiological processes underlying this preclinical period are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate functional network alterations in cognitively intact elderly individuals at risk for AD, and assessed the association between these network alterations and changes in Aβ deposition, glucose metabolism, and brain structure. Forty-five cognitively normal elderly subjects, who were classified into Aβ-positive (CN+) and Aβ-negative (CN-) groups using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B PET, underwent resting state magnetoencephalography measurements, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) and structural MRI...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746832/a-dual-mechanism-underlying-alpha-lateralization-in-attentional-orienting-to-mental-representation
#13
Claudia Poch, Luis Carretie, Pablo Campo
Numerous electrophysiological findings support the notion that selective attention modulates alpha oscillatory activity. Specifically, alpha enhancement and suppression can be dissociated in time and space. It is now accepted that selective attention operates in either the perceptual or the representational environments. Lateralized alpha activity resulting from directing attention to mental representations, might arise from a transient alpha desynchronization, as recent proposals hypothesized. However, the contribution of enhancement vs suppression, as well as their neural correlates to the lateralized alpha modulation remain unstudied...
July 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743633/an-intra-neural-microstimulation-system-for-ultra-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetoencephalography
#14
Paul M Glover, Roger H Watkins, George C O'Neill, Rochelle Ackerley, Rosa Sanchez-Panchuelo, Francis McGlone, Matthew J Brookes, Johan Wessberg, Susan T Francis
BACKGROUND: Intra-neural microstimulation (INMS) is a technique that allows the precise delivery of low-current electrical pulses into human peripheral nerves. Single unit INMS can be used to stimulate individual afferent nerve fibres during microneurography. Combining this with neuroimaging allows the unique monitoring of central nervous system activation in response to unitary, controlled tactile input, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing exquisite spatial localisation of brain activity and magnetoencephalography (MEG) high temporal resolution...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742118/similarities-and-differences-between-on-scalp-and-conventional-in-helmet-magnetoencephalography-recordings
#15
Lau M Andersen, Robert Oostenveld, Christoph Pfeiffer, Silvia Ruffieux, Veikko Jousmäki, Matti Hämäläinen, Justin F Schneiderman, Daniel Lundqvist
The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739163/strategies-for-statistical-thresholding-of-source-localization-maps-in-magnetoencephalography-and-estimating-source-extent
#16
Kostiantyn Maksymenko, Bernard Giusiano, Nicolas Roehri, Christian-G Bénar, Jean-Michel Badier
BACKGROUND: Magnetoencephalography allows defining non-invasively the spatio-temporal activation of brain networks thanks to source localization algorithms. A major difficulty of MNE and beamforming methods, two classically used techniques, is the definition of proper thresholds that allow deciding the extent of activated cortex. NEW METHOD: We investigated two strategies for computing a threshold, taking into account the difficult multiple comparison issue. The strategies were based either on parametric statistics (Bonferroni, FDR correction) or on empirical estimates (local FDR and a custom measure based on the survival function)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735011/assessment-and-elimination-of-the-effects-of-head-movement-on-meg-resting-state-measures-of-oscillatory-brain-activity
#17
Eirini Messaritaki, Loes Koelewijn, Diana C Dima, Gemma M Williams, Gavin Perry, Krish D Singh
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is increasingly being used to study brain function because of its excellent temporal resolution and its direct association with brain activity at the neuronal level. One possible cause of error in the analysis of MEG data comes from the fact that participants, even MEG-experienced ones, move their head in the MEG system. Head movement can cause source localization errors during the analysis of MEG data, which can result in the appearance of source variability that does not reflect brain activity...
July 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#18
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724780/a-reduced-somatosensory-gating-response-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-is-related-to-walking-impairment
#19
David J Arpin, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
When identical stimuli are presented in rapid temporal succession, neural responses to the second stimulation are often weaker than that observed for the first. This phenomenon is termed sensory gating and is believed to be an adaptive feature that helps prevent higher-order cortical centers from being flooded with unnecessary information. Recently, sensory gating in the somatosensory system has been linked to deficits in tactile discrimination. Additionally, studies have linked poor tactile discrimination with impaired walking and balance in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723578/convolutional-neural-network-based-encoding-and-decoding-of-visual-object-recognition-in-space-and-time
#20
REVIEW
K Seeliger, M Fritsche, U Güçlü, S Schoenmakers, J-M Schoffelen, S E Bosch, M A J van Gerven
Representations learned by deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for object recognition are a widely investigated model of the processing hierarchy in the human visual system. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, CNN representations of visual stimuli have previously been shown to correspond to processing stages in the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system. Whether this correspondence between models and brain signals also holds for activity acquired at high temporal resolution has been explored less exhaustively...
July 16, 2017: NeuroImage
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