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aroma and vitis

Itay Maoz, Rachel Davidovich Rikanati, Daniel Schlesinger, Einat Bar, Itay Gonda, Elena Levin, Tatiana Kaplunov, Noa Sela, Amnon Lichter, Efraim Lewinsohn
Volatile esters contribute to the aroma and flavor of many fruits but are normally absent in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). To examine the biosynthetic potential of grape berries to form volatile esters, berry sections were incubated with exogenous L-Phe, L-Leu or L-Met. In general, amino-acid incubation caused the accumulation of the respective aldehydes and alcohols. Moreover, L-Leu incubation resulted in the accumulation of 3-methylbutyl acetate and L-Phe incubation resulted in the accumulation 2-phenylethyl acetate in 'Muscat Hamburg' but not in the other grape accessions...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Marijan Bubola, Igor Lukić, Sanja Radeka, Paolo Sivilotti, Kristina Grozić, Andreja Vanzo, Dejan Bavčar, Klemen Lisjak
BACKGROUND: Leaf removal is a viticultural practice that promotes the biosynthesis of several important grape constituents by improving fruit zone microclimate. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hand and mechanical leaf removal, applied at pea-size stage of berry development, on fruit zone microclimate, volatile aroma compounds, hydroxycinnamates and sensory characteristics of Istrian Malvasia (Vitis vinifera L.) wines. Three different sunlight exposure conditions were applied by hand leaf removal (HLR), mechanical leaf removal (MLR) and untreated control (UC)...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar might be altered by inter-annual climate variability and management practices such as irrigation. These compounds determine, in part, aroma and sensory characteristics of wines. The current study aimed at assessing the amino acid profile of musts and wines and the volatile composition of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Godello' grown in the Ribeiro Designation of Origin (NW Spain) under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation (SI) conditions over three years (2012-2014)...
September 2018: Food Research International
Tina Ilc, Gautier Arista, Raquel Tavares, Nicolas Navrot, Eric Duchêne, Amandine Velt, Frédéric Choulet, Etienne Paux, Marc Fischer, David R Nelson, Philippe Hugueney, Danièle Werck-Reichhart, Camille Rustenholz
Cytochromes P450 are enzymes that participate in a wide range of functions in plants, from hormonal signaling and biosynthesis of structural polymers, to defense or communication with other organisms. They represent one of the largest gene/protein families in the plant kingdom. The manual annotation of cytochrome P450 genes in the genome of Vitis vinifera PN40024 revealed 579 P450 sequences, including 279 complete genes. Most of the P450 sequences in grapevine genome are organized in physical clusters, resulting from tandem or segmental duplications...
2018: PloS One
Mehmet Ali Tetik, Onur Sevindik, Hasim Kelebek, Serkan Selli
The principal purpose of the present work is to characterize the aroma, aroma-active, and anthocyanin profiles of Okuzgozu wines and to observe the effect of the pomace pressing technique on these parameters. A total of 58 and 59 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in free-run juice wine (FRW) and pressed pomace wine (PW). Alcohols were found as the most dominant group among aroma compounds followed by esters and acids. However, among all these compounds, only 11 and 13 of them could be considered as key odorants in aromatic extracts of FRW and PW, respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Marioli Carrasco-Quiroz, Eva Pilar Pérez-Álvarez, Ana María Martínez-Gil, María Del Alamo-Sanza, Yerko Moreno-Simunovic
BACKGROUND: Carignan noir is one of the minor and ancient varieties from the Chilean wine scenario that has had a resurgence as a result of to its rediscovered oenological potential when cultivated under the conditions of the interior dryland area. Under these growing conditions Carignan noir wines stand out as fruit driven and fresh compared to those originating from other growing areas. On the other hand, it is well known that wine aroma composition depends mainly on variety, viticultural management and winemaking...
August 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Anju Bajpai, Kasim Khan, M Muthukumar, S Rajan, N K Singh
Mango fruit is cherished by masses for its taste and nutrition, contributed by color, flavor, and aroma. Among these, peel color is an important trait contributing to fruit quality and market value. We attempted to elucidate the role of key genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway related to fruit peel color from the leaf transcriptome of mango cultivar Amrapali. A total of 108 mined transcript sequences were assigned to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway from which 15 contigs representing anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were annotated...
March 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Xu Qian, Lei Sun, Xiao-Qing Xu, Bao-Qing Zhu, Hai-Ying Xu
C6 volatiles are synthesized through lipoxygenase-hydroperoxide lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway and these volatiles play important roles in the aromatic quality of grape berries. This study investigated the evolution of both C6 volatiles and the key genes in the LOX-HPL pathway in different table grape cultivars during the berry development period, and further assessed the correlation between the accumulation of C6 volatiles and the expression of these genes in these cultivars. Results showed that hexanal, ( E )-2-hexenal, ( E )-2-hexen-1-ol and ( Z )-3-hexen-1-ol were found to be the dominant C6 volatiles in these ripened grape cultivars under two consecutive vintages, and their flavor notes were incorporated in the overall aroma of these cultivars...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Amino acids and volatile compounds play an important role in wine aroma and sensory characteristics. The concentrations of these compounds might be altered by climate interanual variability and by management practices such as irrigation. The aim of the current study was to assess the amino acid profile of musts and wines, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Treixadura' obtained from vines under rain-fed and irrigation conditions over three consecutive vintages (2012-2014)...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Christophe Aubert, Guillaume Chalot
Six table grape cultivars (Centennial Seedless, Chasselas, Italia, Italia Rubi, Alphonse Lavallée, and Muscat de Hambourg) were analyzed for their levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C and E, carotenoids, polyphenolics and volatile compounds during two successive years. Descriptive sensory analyses of the six table grape varieties were also performed. Mainly due to anthocyanins, black cultivars had the highest total phenolic contents. Alphonse Lavallée had also both the highest levels of trans-resveratrol and piceid, and Muscat de Hambourg the highest levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and monoterpenols, well-known key aroma compounds in Muscat varieties having also interesting pharmacological properties...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Alexandre Pons, Nadia Mouakka, Laurent Deliere, Jean Christophe Crachereau, Ludivine Davidou, Pierre Sauris, Pascal Guilbault, Philippe Darriet
This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hugo Bonnaffoux, Aurélie Roland, Emmanuelle Rémond, Stéphane Delpech, Rémi Schneider, Florine Cavelier
Varietal thiols are key aroma compounds in wine issued from multiple and complex origins. Several precursor families have been identified in grapes and must and have been widely studied. But a large part of thiol origin still remains unknown. Thus, we only have an incomplete picture of thiol precursors and there is a lack of knowledge on pre-fermentative mechanisms that can impact their levels. Our study focused on the formal identification and the quantification of new varietal thiol precursors in must. First of all, we synthesized natural and labeled standards using an original multi-step strategy, then we developed and validated a UPLC-MS/MS method that allowed us to identify and quantify for the first time a dipeptide S-conjugate to 3MH, the γGluCys-3MH, in Sauvignon B...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Erpeng Zhang, Fengmei Chai, Haohao Zhang, Shaohua Li, Zhenchang Liang, Peige Fan
Terpenes are important aroma compounds in table Muscat grape and wine, and their content in the berry can be affected by sunlight. The effects of sunlight exclusion on monoterpene profiles and relevant gene expression profiles in the exocarp and mesocarp of table Muscat grape 'Jingxiangyu' at different development stages were thoroughly surveyed by bagging pre-veraison clusters in special opaque boxes. The responses of monoterpenes to sunlight treatments varied in three types, representatively linalool, ocimene and geraniol...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Xiang-Yi Li, Ya-Qin Wen, Nan Meng, Xu Qian, Qiu-Hong Pan
HIGHLIGHTS A similar trend on accumulation of glycosidically bound monoterpenes was observed in both varietiesTwo VvGT7 alleles mutations occurred at key sites in Muscat blanc à PetitVvGT14 exerted a major role in production of monoterpenyl glycosides in both varieties Terpenoids are the major aroma components and generally exist as both free and glycosidically-bound forms, of which nonvolatile glycosides account for a large fraction in grape berries. Our previous study has indicated that differential accumulation of monoterpenyl glycosides in Vitis vinifera "Muscat blanc à Petit" between two regions is closely correlated to monoterpenyl glucosyltransferase (VvGT14, XM_002285734...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pangzhen Zhang, Xiwen Wu, Sonja Needs, Di Liu, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell
Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well-studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Nicolas H von Cosmos, Bruce A Watson, J K Fellman, D S Mattinson, Charles G Edwards
This report provides the first confirmed evidence of Bacillus-like bacteria present in a wine from Washington State. These bacteria were isolated from a 2013 Pinot noir wine whose aroma was sensorially described as being 'dirty' or 'pond scum.' Based on physiological traits and genetic sequencing, three bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (strain NHO-1), Bacillus pumilus (strain NHO-2), and Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain NHO-3). These bacteria grew in synthetic media of low pH (pH 3.5) while some survived ethanol concentrations up to 15% v/v...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
Laura Costantini, Christian D Kappel, Massimiliano Trenti, Juri Battilana, Francesco Emanuelli, Maddalena Sordo, Marco Moretto, Céline Camps, Roberto Larcher, Serge Delrot, Maria S Grando
Monoterpenes confer typical floral notes to "Muscat" grapevine varieties and, to a lesser extent, to other aromatic non-Muscat varieties. Previous studies have led to the identification and functional characterization of some enzymes and genes in this pathway. However, the underlying genetic map is still far from being complete. For example, the specific steps of monoterpene metabolism and its regulation are largely unknown. With the aim of identifying new candidates for the missing links, we applied an integrative functional genomics approach based on the targeted metabolic and genome-wide transcript profiling of Moscato Bianco ripening berries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Igor Lukić, Cesare Lotti, Urska Vrhovsek
Recently, various technologies which utilise fermentation with skins have been developed for obtaining distinct white wines. This study first reports the dynamic changes of volatiles and phenols that occur during skin fermentation in white winemaking. Volatiles were analysed by solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC), and phenols by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), both with mass spectrometric detection. Monoterpenols increased during the first 3days of skin fermentation, after which certain glycosides decreased, but were higher than in control...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Alexandre Pons, Lucile Allamy, Valérie Lavigne, Denis Dubourdieu, Philippe Darriet
Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Umesh B Jagtap, Jyoti P Jadhav, Vishwas A Bapat, Isak S Pretorius
It took several millennia to fully understand the scientific intricacies of the process through which grape juice is turned into wine. This yeast-driven fermentation process is still being perfected and advanced today. Motivated by ever-changing consumer preferences and the belief that the 'best' wine is yet to be made, numerous approaches are being pursued to improve the process of yeast fermentation and the quality of wine. Central to recent enhancements in winemaking processes and wine quality is the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with improved robustness, fermentation efficiencies and sensory properties...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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