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epigenetic insect

Megan E Meuti, Robin Bautista-Jimenez, Julie A Reynolds
For many insects, diapause is the primary mechanism for surviving unfavorable seasons. Some aspects of diapause regulation are well known, but we still lack a mechanistic understanding of molecular mechanisms that control the diapause pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests microRNAs regulate diapause in evolutionarily diverse insect species including flesh flies and moths, and, it is likely that microRNAs regulate multiple characteristics of diapause, including arrested egg follicle development and fat hypertrophy, in females of the Northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens...
2018: PloS One
Beryl M Jones, Gene E Robinson
For over a century, biologists have proposed a role for phenotypic plasticity in evolution, providing an avenue for adaptation in addition to 'mutation-first' models of evolutionary change. According to the various versions of this idea, the ability of organisms to respond adaptively to their environment through phenotypic plasticity may lead to novel phenotypes that can be screened by natural selection. If these initially environmentally induced phenotypes increase fitness, then genetic accommodation can lead to allele frequency change, influencing the expression of those phenotypes...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ashley E Duxbury, Brandie Weathersby, Zachary Sanchez, Patricia J Moore
Oncopeltus fasciatus males fed the ancestral diet of milkweed seeds prioritize reproduction over lifespan as evidenced by higher rates of fertility and shorter lifespans than males from the same population fed the adapted diet of sunflower seeds. We examined the proximate mechanisms by which milkweed-fed males maintained late-life fertility. We tested the hypothesis that older milkweed-fed males maintained fertility by producing more, higher quality sperm. Our results, that older males have more sperm, but their sperm do not have higher viability, are in general agreement with other recent studies on how nutrition affects male fertility in insects...
November 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ying Cheng, Dahua Chen
Served as a model organism over a century, fruit fly has significantly pushed forward the development of global scientific research, including in China. The high similarity in genomic features between fruit fly and human enables this tiny insect to benefit the biomedical studies of human diseases. In the past decades, Chinese biologists have used fruit fly to make numerous achievements on understanding the fundamental questions in many diverse areas of biology. Here, we review some of the recent fruit fly studies in China, and mainly focus on those studies in the fields of stem cell biology, cancer therapy and regeneration medicine, neurological disorders and epigenetics...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Nora K E Schulz, C Isabel Wagner, Julia Ebeling, Günter Raddatz, Maike F Diddens-de Buhr, Frank Lyko, Joachim Kurtz
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as CpG DNA methylation enable phenotypic plasticity and rapid adaptation to changing environments. CpG DNA methylation is established by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which are well conserved across vertebrates and invertebrates. There are insects with functional DNA methylation despite lacking a complete set of Dnmts. But at least one of the enzymes, DNMT1, appears to be required to maintain an active DNA methylation system. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, lacks Dnmt3 but possesses Dnmt1 and it has been controversial whether it has a functional DNA methylation system...
November 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse, Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body coloration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanization is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between coloration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here, we present a quantitative-genetic study of a coloration trait correlated to melanin-based cuticular darkness ('darkness', hereafter) in a geometrid moth, Ematurga atomaria...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Zoya Avramova
Collective evidence from agricultural practices and from scientific research has demonstrated that plants can alter their phenotypic responses to repeated biotic and abiotic stresses or their elicitors. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and genome levels have suggested that plants can "remember" an earlier stress and modify their future responses, accordingly. Stress memory may increase a plant's survival chances by improving its tolerance/avoidance abilities and may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation...
October 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Karl M Glastad, Brendan G Hunt, Michael A D Goodisman
Epigenetic inheritance is fundamentally important to cellular differentiation and developmental plasticity. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of molecular epigenetics in insects. Epigenetic information is passed across cell divisions through the methylation of DNA, the modification of histone proteins, and the activity of noncoding RNAs. Much of our knowledge of insect epigenetics has been gleaned from a few model species. However, more studies of epigenetic information in traditionally nonmodel taxa will help advance our understanding of the developmental and evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance in insects...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Muhammad Arif, Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Anwar, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
Noncoding RNAs play essential functions during epigenetic regulation of gene expression and development in numerous organisms. Three type of small noncoding RNAs found in eukaryotes, which are small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) originated from infecting viruses are known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), are responsible for RNA silencing in plants. However, Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi)...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jan-Peter Hildebrandt, Amanda A Wiesenthal, Christian Müller
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are elements of phenotypic plasticity adjusting organ size and function. Because they are costly, we assume that they are beneficial. In this review, the authors discuss examples of tissue and organ systems that respond with plastic changes to osmotic stress to raise awareness that we do not always have sufficient experimental evidence to conclude that such processes provide fitness advantages. Changes in hydranth architecture in the hydroid Cordylophora caspia or variations in size in the anal papillae of insect larvae upon changes in medium salinity may be adaptive or not...
August 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Jouni Kvist, Camila Gonçalves Athanàsio, Omid Shams Solari, James B Brown, John K Colbourne, Michael E Pfrender, Leda Mirbahai
DNA methylation is an evolutionary ancient epigenetic modification that is phylogenetically widespread. Comparative studies of the methylome across a diverse range of non-conventional and conventional model organisms is expected to help reveal how the landscape of DNA methylation and its functions have evolved. Here, we explore the DNA methylation profile of two species of the crustacean Daphnia using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. We then compare our data with the methylomes of two insects and two mammals to achieve a better understanding of the function of DNA methylation in Daphnia...
August 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Saniya Deshmukh, Vk Chaithanya Ponnaluri, Nan Dai, Sriharsa Pradhan, Deepti Deobagkar
Insects provide an accessible system to study the contribution of DNA methylation to complex epigenetic phenotypes created to regulate gene expression, chromatin states, imprinting and dosage compensation. The members of genus Drosophila have been used as a model system to study aspects of biology like development, behaviour and genetics. Despite the popularity of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic and epigenetic model organism, DNA methylation studies are limited due to low levels of genomic 5-methylcytosine...
2018: PeerJ
Sophie M Prud'homme, David Renault, Jean-Philippe David, Stéphane Reynaud
The anti-inflammatory ibuprofen is a ubiquitous surface water contaminant. However, the chronic impact of this pharmaceutical on aquatic invertebrate populations remains poorly understood. In model insect Aedes aegypti, we investigated the intergenerational consequences of parental chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of ibuprofen. While exposed individuals did not show any phenotypic changes, their progeny showed accelerated development and an increased tolerance to starvation. In order to understand the mechanistic processes underpinning the direct and intergenerational impacts of ibuprofen, we combined transcriptomic, metabolomics, and hormone kinetics studies at several life stages in exposed individuals and their progeny...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Vyacheslav I Kuznetsov, Spencer A Haws, Catherine A Fox, John M Denu
Biochemical, proteomic, and epigenetic studies of chromatin rely on the ability to efficiently isolate native nucleosomes in high yield and purity. However, isolation of native chromatin suitable for many downstream experiments remains a challenging task. This is especially true for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which continues to serve as an important model organism for the study of chromatin structure and function. Here, we developed a time- and cost-efficient universal protocol for isolation of native chromatin fragments from yeast, insect, and mammalian cells...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Kenji Matsuura, Nobuaki Mizumoto, Kazuya Kobayashi, Tomonari Nozaki, Tadahide Fujita, Toshihisa Yashiro, Taro Fuchikawa, Yuki Mitaka, Edward L Vargo
Eusocial insects exhibit the most striking example of phenotypic plasticity. There has been a long controversy over the factors determining caste development of individuals in social insects. Here we demonstrate that parental phenotypes influence the social status of offspring not through genetic inheritance but through genomic imprinting in termites. Our extensive field survey and genetic analysis of the termite Reticulitermes speratus show that its breeding system is inconsistent with a genetic caste determination model...
June 2018: American Naturalist
Y-H Taguchi
BACKGROUND: Even though coexistence of multiple phenotypes sharing the same genomic background is interesting, it remains incompletely understood. Epigenomic profiles may represent key factors, with unknown contributions to the development of multiple phenotypes, and social-insect castes are a good model for elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Nonetheless, previous studies have failed to identify genes associated with aberrant gene expression and methylation profiles because of the lack of suitable methodology that can address this problem properly...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Priscila Karla F Santos, Natalia de Souza Araujo, Elaine Françoso, Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini, Maria Cristina Arias
BACKGROUND: Diapause is a natural phenomenon characterized by an arrest in development that ensures the survival of organisms under extreme environmental conditions. The process has been well documented in arthropods. However, its molecular basis has been mainly studied in species from temperate zones, leaving a knowledge gap of this phenomenon in tropical species. In the present study, the Neotropical and solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes was employed as a model for investigating diapause in species from tropical zones...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fuxiang Mao, Jihai Lei, Obeng Enoch, Ming Wei, Cui Zhao, Yanping Quan, Wei Yu
The domesticated silkworm is an ideal and economic insect model that plays crucial roles in sericulture and bioreactor. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is not only an infectious pathogen to B. mori, but also an efficient vector expressing recombinant proteins. Although, the proteomics of silkworm and BmN cell membrane lipid raft towards BmNPV infection had been investigated, proteome results of BmN cells upon BmNPV challenge currently remain ambiguous. In order to explore the interaction between silkworm and BmNPV, we analyzed several pivotal processes of BmNPV infected BmN cell by quantitative mass spectrometry...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Nathan Lo, Stephen J Simpson, Gregory A Sword
Developmental plasticity is a key driver of the extraordinary ecological success of insects. Epigenetic mechanisms provide an important link between the external stimuli that initiate polyphenisms, and the stable changes in gene expression that govern alternative insect morphs. We review the epigenetics of orthopteroid insects, focussing on recent research on locusts and termites, two groups which display high levels of phenotypic plasticity, and for which genome sequences have become available in recent years...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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