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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311708/weak-and-inconsistent-associations-between-melanic-darkness-and-fitness-related-traits-in-an-insect
#1
Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse, Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body colouration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanisation is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin, or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between colouration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here we present a quantitative genetic study of a colouration trait correlated to melanin-based cuticular darkness ('darkness', hereafter) in a geometrid moth, Ematurga atomaria, which has considerable variation in larval colouration...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299553/defense-related-priming-and-responses-to-recurring-drought-two-manifestations-of-plant-transcriptional-memory-mediated-by-the-aba-and-ja-signaling-pathways
#2
Zoya Avramova
Collective evidence from agricultural practices and from scientific research has demonstrated that plants can alter their phenotypic responses to repeated biotic and abiotic stresses or their elicitors. A coordinated reaction at the organismal, cellular and genome levels have suggested that plants can "remember" an earlier stress and modify their future responses, accordingly. Stress memory may increase a plant's survival chances by improving its tolerance/avoidance abilities and may provide a mechanism for acclimation and adaptation...
October 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285490/epigenetics-in-insects-genome-regulation-and-the-generation-of-phenotypic-diversity
#3
Karl M Glastad, Brendan G Hunt, Michael A D Goodisman
Epigenetic inheritance is fundamentally important to cellular differentiation and developmental plasticity. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of molecular epigenetics in insects. Epigenetic information is passed across cell divisions through the methylation of DNA, the modification of histone proteins, and the activity of noncoding RNAs. Much of our knowledge of insect epigenetics has been gleaned from a few model species. However, more studies of epigenetic information in traditionally nonmodel taxa will help advance our understanding of the developmental and evolutionary significance of epigenetic inheritance in insects...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243549/recent-progress-on-gene-silencing-suppression-by-virus-derived-small-interfering-rnas-in-rice-viruses-especially-rice-grassy-stunt-virus
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Arif, Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Anwar, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
Noncoding RNAs play essential functions during epigenetic regulation of gene expression and development in numerous organisms. Three type of small noncoding RNAs found in eukaryotes, which are small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) originated from infecting viruses are known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), are responsible for RNA silencing in plants. However, Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi)...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160800/phenotypic-plasticity-in-animals-exposed-to-osmotic-stress-is-it-always-adaptive
#5
REVIEW
Jan-Peter Hildebrandt, Amanda A Wiesenthal, Christian Müller
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are elements of phenotypic plasticity adjusting organ size and function. Because they are costly, we assume that they are beneficial. In this review, the authors discuss examples of tissue and organ systems that respond with plastic changes to osmotic stress to raise awareness that we do not always have sufficient experimental evidence to conclude that such processes provide fitness advantages. Changes in hydranth architecture in the hydroid Cordylophora caspia or variations in size in the anal papillae of insect larvae upon changes in medium salinity may be adaptive or not...
August 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060190/pattern-of-dna-methylation-in-daphnia-evolutionary-perspective
#6
Jouni Kvist, Camila Gonçalves Athanàsio, Omid Shams Solari, James B Brown, John K Colbourne, Michael E Pfrender, Leda Mirbahai
DNA methylation is an evolutionary ancient epigenetic modification that is phylogenetically widespread. Comparative studies of the methylome across a diverse range of non-conventional and conventional model organisms is expected to help reveal how the landscape of DNA methylation and its functions have evolved. Here, we explore the DNA methylation profile of two species of the crustacean Daphnia using whole genome bisulfite sequencing. We then compare our data with the methylomes of two insects and two mammals to achieve a better understanding of the function of DNA methylation in Daphnia...
August 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002967/levels-of-dna-cytosine-methylation-in-the-drosophila-genome
#7
Saniya Deshmukh, Vk Chaithanya Ponnaluri, Nan Dai, Sriharsa Pradhan, Deepti Deobagkar
Insects provide an accessible system to study the contribution of DNA methylation to complex epigenetic phenotypes created to regulate gene expression, chromatin states, imprinting and dosage compensation. The members of genus Drosophila have been used as a model system to study aspects of biology like development, behaviour and genetics. Despite the popularity of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic and epigenetic model organism, DNA methylation studies are limited due to low levels of genomic 5-methylcytosine...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874051/multiscale-approach-to-deciphering-the-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-the-direct-and-intergenerational-effect-of-ibuprofen-on-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#8
Sophie M Prud'homme, David Renault, Jean-Philippe David, Stéphane Reynaud
The anti-inflammatory ibuprofen is a ubiquitous surface water contaminant. However, the chronic impact of this pharmaceutical on aquatic invertebrate populations remains poorly understood. In model insect Aedes aegypti, we investigated the intergenerational consequences of parental chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of ibuprofen. While exposed individuals did not show any phenotypic changes, their progeny showed accelerated development and an increased tolerance to starvation. In order to understand the mechanistic processes underpinning the direct and intergenerational impacts of ibuprofen, we combined transcriptomic, metabolomics, and hormone kinetics studies at several life stages in exposed individuals and their progeny...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794135/general-method-for-rapid-purification-of-native-chromatin-fragments
#9
Vyacheslav I Kuznetsov, Spencer A Haws, Catherine A Fox, John M Denu
Biochemical, proteomic, and epigenetic studies of chromatin rely on the ability to efficiently isolate native nucleosomes in high yield and purity. However, isolation of native chromatin suitable for many downstream experiments remains a challenging task. This is especially true for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which continues to serve as an important model organism for the study of chromatin structure and function. Here, we developed a time- and cost-efficient universal protocol for isolation of native chromatin fragments from yeast, insect, and mammalian cells...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764658/transgenerational-effects-of-insecticides-implications-for-rapid-pest-evolution-in-agroecosystems
#10
REVIEW
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750562/a-genomic-imprinting-model-of-termite-caste-determination-not-genetic-but-epigenetic-inheritance-influences-offspring-caste-fate
#11
Kenji Matsuura, Nobuaki Mizumoto, Kazuya Kobayashi, Tomonari Nozaki, Tadahide Fujita, Toshihisa Yashiro, Taro Fuchikawa, Yuki Mitaka, Edward L Vargo
Eusocial insects exhibit the most striking example of phenotypic plasticity. There has been a long controversy over the factors determining caste development of individuals in social insects. Here we demonstrate that parental phenotypes influence the social status of offspring not through genetic inheritance but through genomic imprinting in termites. Our extensive field survey and genetic analysis of the termite Reticulitermes speratus show that its breeding system is inconsistent with a genetic caste determination model...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745827/tensor-decomposition-based-and-principal-component-analysis-based-unsupervised-feature-extraction-applied-to-the-gene-expression-and-methylation-profiles-in-the-brains-of-social-insects-with-multiple-castes
#12
Y-H Taguchi
BACKGROUND: Even though coexistence of multiple phenotypes sharing the same genomic background is interesting, it remains incompletely understood. Epigenomic profiles may represent key factors, with unknown contributions to the development of multiple phenotypes, and social-insect castes are a good model for elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Nonetheless, previous studies have failed to identify genes associated with aberrant gene expression and methylation profiles because of the lack of suitable methodology that can address this problem properly...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703143/diapause-in-a-tropical-oil-collecting-bee-molecular-basis-unveiled-by-rna-seq
#13
Priscila Karla F Santos, Natalia de Souza Araujo, Elaine Françoso, Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini, Maria Cristina Arias
BACKGROUND: Diapause is a natural phenomenon characterized by an arrest in development that ensures the survival of organisms under extreme environmental conditions. The process has been well documented in arthropods. However, its molecular basis has been mainly studied in species from temperate zones, leaving a knowledge gap of this phenomenon in tropical species. In the present study, the Neotropical and solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes was employed as a model for investigating diapause in species from tropical zones...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674014/quantitative-proteomics-of-bombyx-mori-after-bmnpv-challenge
#14
Fuxiang Mao, Jihai Lei, Obeng Enoch, Ming Wei, Cui Zhao, Yanping Quan, Wei Yu
The domesticated silkworm is an ideal and economic insect model that plays crucial roles in sericulture and bioreactor. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is not only an infectious pathogen to B. mori, but also an efficient vector expressing recombinant proteins. Although, the proteomics of silkworm and BmN cell membrane lipid raft towards BmNPV infection had been investigated, proteome results of BmN cells upon BmNPV challenge currently remain ambiguous. In order to explore the interaction between silkworm and BmNPV, we analyzed several pivotal processes of BmNPV infected BmN cell by quantitative mass spectrometry...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602359/epigenetics-and-developmental-plasticity-in-orthopteroid-insects
#15
REVIEW
Nathan Lo, Stephen J Simpson, Gregory A Sword
Developmental plasticity is a key driver of the extraordinary ecological success of insects. Epigenetic mechanisms provide an important link between the external stimuli that initiate polyphenisms, and the stable changes in gene expression that govern alternative insect morphs. We review the epigenetics of orthopteroid insects, focussing on recent research on locusts and termites, two groups which display high levels of phenotypic plasticity, and for which genome sequences have become available in recent years...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515823/adaptive-phenotypic-variation-among-clonal-ant-workers
#16
Eisuke Hasegawa, Saori Watanabe, Yuuka Murakami, Fuminori Ito
Phenotypic variations are observed in most organisms, but their significance is not always known. The phenotypic variations observed in social insects are exceptions. Genetically based response threshold variances have been identified among workers and are thought to play several important adaptive roles in social life, e.g. allocating tasks among workers according to demand, promoting the sustainability of the colony and forming the basis of rationality in collective decision-making. Several parthenogenetic ants produce clonal workers and new queens by asexual reproduction...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505312/reprogramming-the-virulence-insect-defense-molecules-navigating-the-epigenetic-landscape-of-metarhizium-robertsii
#17
EDITORIAL
Abid Hussain
Metarhizium species are the leading bio-control agents well characterized regarding pathogenicity to agricultural, forest, public health, stored grains and urban insect pests. They infect the target host through the tight conidial adherence with the insect cuticle. Conidial binding to the insect cuticle drive the systematic integrated disease development events in target host to impart pathogenesis. However, there is growing evidence that virulence of the pathogen is directly related with proteolytic enzymes including metalloproteinases, chymotrypsin-like proteinases and subtilisin-like proteinases...
January 1, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426121/the-impact-of-human-activities-and-lifestyles-on-the-interlinked-microbiota-and-health-of-humans-and-of-ecosystems
#18
REVIEW
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298815/genome-wide-characterization-of-dna-methylation-in-an-invasive-lepidopteran-pest-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#19
Christopher M Jones, Ka S Lim, Jason W Chapman, Chris Bass
The genes and genomes of insect pests are shaped by the wide array of selective forces encountered in their environments. While the molecular adaptations that evolve are beginning to be understood at the genomic and transcriptomic level, they have been less well characterized at an epigenetic level. Here, we present a genome-wide map of DNA methylation at single-nucleotide resolution for the cotton bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera , a globally invasive pest of agriculture. We show that methylation is almost identical in the larvae and adults of H...
March 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167521/dna-methylation-in-silkworm-genome-may-provide-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation-of-response-to-bombyx-mori-cypovirus-infection
#20
Ping Wu, Wencai Jie, Qi Shang, Enoch Annan, Xiaoxu Jiang, Chenxiang Hou, Tao Chen, Xijie Guo
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates a wide range of biological processes including immune response. However, information on the epigenetics-mediated immune mechanisms in insects is limited. Therefore, in this study, we examined transcriptomes and DNA methylomes in the fat body and midgut tissues of silkworm, Bombyx mori with or without B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) infection. The transcriptional profile and the genomic DNA methylation patterns in the midgut and fat body were tissue-specific and dynamically altered after BmCPV challenge...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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