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Stroke prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666603/long-term-factors-associated-with-falls-and-fractures-poststroke
#1
Emma J Foster, Raphae S Barlas, Joao H Bettencourt-Silva, Allan B Clark, Anthony K Metcalf, Kristian M Bowles, John F Potter, Phyo K Myint
Background: Risk factors for poststroke falls and fractures remain poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate which factors increased risk of these events after stroke. Methods: Data from 7,267 hospitalized stroke patients were acquired from the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Stroke Register from 2003-2015. The impacts of multiple patient level and stroke characteristics and comorbidities on post-discharge falls and fractures were assessed. Univariate and multivariable models were constructed, adjusting for multiple confounders, using binary logistic regression for short-term analysis (up to 1-year post-discharge) and Cox-proportional hazard models for longer term analysis (1-3, 3-5, and 0-10 years follow-up)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666426/cardiac-hypertrophy-limits-infarct-expansion-after-myocardial-infarction-in-mice
#2
Siiri E Iismaa, Ming Li, Scott Kesteven, Jianxin Wu, Andrea Y Chan, Sara R Holman, John W Calvert, Ahtesham Ul Haq, Amy M Nicks, Nawazish Naqvi, Ahsan Husain, Michael P Feneley, Robert M Graham
We have previously demonstrated that adult transgenic C57BL/6J mice with CM-restricted overexpression of the dominant negative W v mutant protein (dn-c-kit-Tg) respond to pressure overload with robust cardiomyocyte (CM) cell cycle entry. Here, we tested if outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary artery ligation are improved in this transgenic model. Compared to non-transgenic littermates (NTLs), adult male dn-c-kit-Tg mice displayed CM hypertrophy and concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in the absence of an increase in workload...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666206/taurine-supplementation-for-prevention-of-stroke-like-episodes-in-melas-a-multicentre-open-label-52-week-phase-iii-trial
#3
Yutaka Ohsawa, Hiroki Hagiwara, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Akihiro Hirakawa, Naomi Kamimura, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yuta Fukai, Tatsufumi Murakami, Yasutoshi Koga, Yu-Ichi Goto, Shigeo Ohta, Yoshihide Sunada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose taurine supplementation for prevention of stroke-like episodes of MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), a rare genetic disorder caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA that lead to a taurine modification defect at the first anticodon nucleotide of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) , resulting in failure to decode codons accurately. METHODS: After the nationwide survey of MELAS, we conducted a multicentre, open-label, phase III trial in which 10 patients with recurrent stroke-like episodes received high-dose taurine (9 g or 12 g per day) for 52 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665308/calcified-cerebral-emboli-incidence-and-implications
#4
Miguel Bardon, Julian Hanson, Bill O'Brien, Adil Naeem
INTRODUCTION: Calcified cerebral emboli are an increasingly recognized cause of ischaemic stroke, although recognition amongst general radiologists and clinicians can be limited. Recent literature suggests that calcified cerebral emboli are likely more common than originally thought. This study aims to define the prevalence of calcified cerebral emboli as the most likely aetiology within a cohort of confirmed cases of acute stroke, as well as compare and contrast these cases with cases of 'incidental' intracranial calcification...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664673/socioeconomic-status-predicts-second-cardiovascular-event-in-29-226-survivors-of-a-first-myocardial-infarction
#5
Joel Ohm, Per H Skoglund, Andrea Discacciati, Johan Sundström, Kristina Hambraeus, Tomas Jernberg, Per Svensson
Background Risk assessment post-myocardial infarction needs improvement, and risk factors derived from general populations apply differently in secondary prevention. The prediction of subsequent cardiovascular events post-myocardial infarction by socioeconomic status has previously been poorly studied. Design Swedish nationwide cohort study. Methods A total of 29,226 men and women (27%), 40-76 years of age, registered at the standardised one year revisit after a first myocardial infarction in the secondary prevention quality registry of SWEDEHEART 2006-2014...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664343/peripheral-arterial-disease-changes-in-clinical-outcomes-and-therapeutic-strategies-in-two-cohorts-from-2002-to-2008-and-from-2008-to-2014-a-population-based-study
#6
Marta Baviera, Vittorio Bertelè, Fausto Avanzini, Tommaso Vannini, Mauro Tettamanti, Ida Fortino, Angela Bortolotti, Luca Merlino, Maria Carla Roncaglioni
Background The aim of our study was to evaluate whether treatments for peripheral artery disease changed in two different cohorts identified in 2002 and 2008, and whether this had an impact on mortality and major clinical outcomes after six years of follow-up. Methods Using administrative health databases of the largest region in Northern Italy, we identified patients admitted to hospital for peripheral artery disease in 2002 and 2008. Both cohorts were followed for six years. All cause death, acute coronary syndrome, stroke and major amputations, cardiovascular prevention drugs and revascularization procedures were collected...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663464/uninterrupted-administration-of-edoxaban-vs-vitamin-k-antagonists-in-patients-undergoing-atrial-fibrillation-catheter-ablation-rationale-and-design-of-the-eliminate-af-study
#7
Stefan H Hohnloser, John Camm, Riccardo Cappato, Hans-Christoph Diener, Hein Heidbuchel, Hans-Joachim Lanz, Lluís Mont, Carlos A Morillo, Rüdiger Smolnik, Ophelia Q P Yin, Josef Kautzner
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at an approximately 0.5% to 3% increased risk of thromboembolism during and immediately after catheter ablation. Treatment guidelines recommend periprocedural oral anticoagulation plus unfractionated heparin during ablation. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are the only non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants for which there are randomized controlled trials assessing uninterrupted anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF. Edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, is noninferior vs warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism with less major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular AF...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662629/pre-diagnostic-biomarkers-of-metabolic-dysregulation-and-cancer-mortality
#8
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne E Judd, Maria Pisu, Michael Goodman, Virginia J Howard, Leann Long, Monika Safford, Susan C Gilchrist, Mary Cushman
INTRODUCTION: The obesogenic milieu is a pro-tumorigenic environment that promotes tumor initiation, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this prospective cohort, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic metabolic biomarkers, plasma adiponectin, resistin, leptin and lipoprotein (a), and the risk of cancer mortality. METHODS: Prospective data was obtained from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort of Blacks and Whites followed from 2003 through 2012 for cancer mortality...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662437/ketogenic-diet-improves-brain-ischemic-tolerance-and-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-preventing-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#9
Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Qi Yang, Hongyan Ding, Qiang Dong, Xingdong Chen, Mei Cui
Background : Neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets (KD) have been reported in stroke models, and nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of KD on NLRP3 inflammasome and explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods : In in vivo study, mice were fed with KD for 3 weeks and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R)-injury. In in vitro study, SH-SY-5Y cells were treated with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) followed by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661135/the-relative-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalizations-in-older-adults-a-retrospective-observational-study-in-the-united-states
#10
Joshua D Brown, James Harnett, Richard Chambers, Reiko Sato
BACKGROUND: The risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increases with age and significantly impacts morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The burden of illness and cost of preventing CAP has not been compared to other serious diseases. METHODS: This retrospective analysis used claims data from 2014 to 2015 and compared hospitalizations for CAP, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and osteoporotic fractures (OF) in adults aged ≥65 years enrolled in a Medicare Advantage insurance plan...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660375/the-secretome-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-from-arsenic-induced-toxicity-independent-of-a-neuron-like-differentiation-mechanism
#11
Theresa M Curtis, Joseph M Hannett, Rebecca M Harman, Nicholas A Puoplo, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Arsenic exposure through contaminated food, water, and air causes irreversible neural damage and affects millions of people worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that the secreted factors (secretome) from mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) can promote neural recovery after several forms of injury including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to determine if the secretome from adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) prevents arsenic damage to SH-SY5Y cells. To this end, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were pre-treated with the secretome from ADSCs and then challenged with different concentrations of arsenic...
April 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660039/trial-readiness-in-cavernous-angiomas-with-symptomatic-hemorrhage-cash
#12
Sean P Polster, Ying Cao, Timothy Carroll, Kelly Flemming, Romuald Girard, Daniel Hanley, Nicholas Hobson, Helen Kim, James Koenig, Janne Koskimäki, Karen Lane, Jennifer J Majersik, Nichol McBee, Leslie Morrison, Robert Shenkar, Agnieszka Stadnik, Richard E Thompson, Joseph Zabramski, Hussein A Zeineddine, Issam A Awad
BACKGROUND: Brain cavernous angiomas with symptomatic hemorrhage (CASH) are uncommon but exact a heavy burden of neurological disability from recurrent bleeding, for which there is no proven therapy. Candidate drugs to stabilize the CASH lesion and prevent rebleeding will ultimately require testing of safety and efficacy in multisite clinical trials. Much progress has been made in understanding the epidemiology of CASH, and novel biomarkers have been linked to the biological mechanisms and clinical activity in lesions...
April 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658368/the-aaa-atpase-thorase-is-neuroprotective-against-ischemic-injury
#13
Jianmin Zhang, Jia Yang, Huaishan Wang, Omar Sherbini, Matthew J Keuss, George Ke Umanah, Emily Ling-Lin Pai, Zhikai Chi, Kaisa Ma Paldanius, Wei He, Hong Wang, Shaida A Andrabi, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson
Neuronal preconditioning in vitro or in vivo with a stressful but non-lethal stimulus leads to new protein expression that mediates a profound neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity and experimental stroke. The proteins that mediate neuroprotection are relatively unknown and under discovery. Here we find that the expression of the AAA + ATPase Thorase is induced by preconditioning stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Thorase provides neuroprotection in an ATP-dependent manner against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neurotoxicity or glutamate N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in vitro...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657592/design-and-baseline-characteristics-of-the-xarelto-post-authorization-safety-effectiveness-study-in-japanese-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-xapass
#14
Satoshi Ogawa, Kazuo Minematsu, Takanori Ikeda, Takanari Kitazono, Jyoji Nakagawara, Susumu Miyamoto, Yuji Murakawa, Yohei Ohashi, Makiko Takeichi, Yutaka Okayama, Satoshi Yamanaka, Lyo Inuyama
Background: The phase III Japanese Rivaroxaban Once-Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (J-ROCKET AF) showed that the rivaroxaban group had a lower event rate of intracranial bleeding than the warfarin group and that rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the principal safety outcome. However, safety and effectiveness data from unselected patients with AF in everyday clinical practice in Japan are lacking...
April 2018: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657077/reprint-of-marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Trevor A Mori
Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA)...
April 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656857/legacy-effect-of-intensive-blood-glucose-control-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-very-high-risk-or-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
Xinyue Zhang, Yuqi Liu, Fang Zhang, Juan Li, Nanwei Tong
PURPOSE: We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the legacy effect of >5 years of intensive blood glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and very high risk or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We mainly searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials. Patients in the included studies had intensive glucose lowering for >5 years and posttrial follow-up for at least 5 years...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655877/endocrine-and-haemodynamic-changes-in-resistant-hypertension-and-blood-pressure-responses-to-spironolactone-or-amiloride-the-pathway-2-mechanisms-substudies
#17
Bryan Williams, Thomas M MacDonald, Steve V Morant, David J Webb, Peter Sever, Gordon T McInnes, Ian Ford, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Mark J Caulfield, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Isla S Mackenzie, Jackie Salsbury, Morris J Brown
BACKGROUND: In the PATHWAY-2 study of resistant hypertension, spironolactone reduced blood pressure substantially more than conventional antihypertensive drugs. We did three substudies to assess the mechanisms underlying this superiority and the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. METHODS: PATHWAY-2 was a randomised, double-blind crossover trial done at 14 UK primary and secondary care sites in 314 patients with resistant hypertension. Patients were given 12 weeks of once daily treatment with each of placebo, spironolactone 25-50 mg, bisoprolol 5-10 mg, and doxazosin 4-8 mg and the change in home systolic blood pressure was assessed as the primary outcome...
April 11, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652731/obesity-and-cardiovascular-risk-a-call-for-action-from-the-european-society-of-hypertension-working-group-of-obesity-diabetes-and-the-high-risk-patient-and-european-association-for-the-study-of-obesity-part-b-obesity-induced-cardiovascular-disease-early-prevention
#18
Vasilios Kotsis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Christina Antza, Gino Seravalle, Antonio Coca, Cristina Sierra, Empar Lurbe, Stella Stabouli, Bojan Jelakovic, Josep Redon, Pau Redon, Peter M Nilsson, Jens Jordan, Dragan Micic, Nicholas Finer, Deborah R Leitner, Hermann Toplak, Lale Tokgozoglu, Vasilios Athyros, Moses Elisaf, Theodosios D Filippatos, Guido Grassi
: Obesity predisposes for atrial fibrillation, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, renal disease and ischemic stroke, which are the main causes of cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. As obesity and the cardiovascular effects on the vessels and the heart start early in life, even from childhood, it is important for health policies to prevent obesity very early before the disease manifestation emerge. Key roles in the prevention are strategies to increase physical exercise, reduce body weight and to prevent or treat hypertension, lipids disorders and diabetes earlier and efficiently to prevent cardiovascular complications...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652041/-alternating-pneumocompression-effective-physiotherapeutic-method-for-the-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolic-complications-in-patients-of-medium-and-high-risk-in-the-acute-period-of-the-stroke
#19
I Y Galyaev
BACKGROUND: the patients presenting with severe post-stroke in the acute period of this condition are characterized by the high risk of venous thromboembolic complications (VTEC), with the most dangerous of them being pulmonary embolism that makes an appreciable contribution to the mortality rate of such patients at the hospital stage of their treatment. Among the physical methods for the prevention of VTE, such as wearing graduated compression stockings (GCS), myoelectrostimulation (MES), pneumatic intermittent compression (PIC), only the latter technique has been shown to be efficient when applied for the treatment of surgical patients during the post-stroke period with the level of evidence 2B and the very uncertain parameters of the impact...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651914/inflammatory-pathways-are-central-to-posterior-cerebrovascular-artery-remodelling-prior-to-the-onset-of-congenital-hypertension
#20
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Eva von Linstow Roloff, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Julian Fr Paton
Cerebral artery hypoperfusion may provide the basis for linking ischemic stroke with hypertension. Brain hypoperfusion may induce hypertension that may serve as an auto-protective mechanism to prevent ischemic stroke. We hypothesised that hypertension is caused by remodelling of the cerebral arteries, which is triggered by inflammation. We used a congenital rat model of hypertension and examined age-related changes in gene expression of the cerebral arteries using RNA sequencing. Prior to hypertension, we found changes in signalling pathways associated with the immune system and fibrosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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