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Urinary bladder cancers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116985/enhanced-endoscopy-in-bladder-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Shane Pearce, Siamak Daneshmand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopy coupled with targeted resections represents a cornerstone in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients with bladder cancer. Direct visualization can be challenging and imprecise due to patient-, tumor-, and surgeon-specific factors. We will review contemporary endoscopic technologies and techniques used to improve our ability to safely identify and resect malignant lesions in patients with bladder cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Enhanced endoscopic imaging technology may improve detection rates for bladder cancer throughout the upper and lower urinary tract, which may lead to improvements in recurrence and progression rates for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)...
August 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116462/a-rare-case-of-co-existing-adrenal-and-pelvic-myelolipomas
#2
Dr Qasim Wadood, Dr Saad Ahmad Qureshi, Dr Pavel Singh, Dr Jonathan Freedman
We are reporting a case of co-existing left sided pelvic and right sided adrenal myelolipomas in a 68-year-old male patient. Both lesions were incidentally discovered on CT whilst undergoing a staging scan for suspected urinary bladder cancer. The patient had a background of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Contrast enhanced CT scan showed both lesions to be of mixed fat and soft tissue density. Given the size, location, and attenuation characteristics of the pelvic mass, retroperitoneal liposarcoma was thought to be a differential diagnosis, prompting the decision for an elective CT-guided biopsy...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112437/systematic-review-an-update-on-the-spectrum-of-urological-malignancies-in-lynch-syndrome
#3
Dora Huang, Surena F Matin, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Morgan Roupret
Background: Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes individuals affected to certain malignancies. Colon and endometrial cancers are the malignancies most highly associated with Lynch syndrome. However, growing body of evidence links Lynch syndrome to urological cancers. Objective: This review aims to clarify the type of urological malignancies that fall under the Lynch-associated cancer spectrum. Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search between January 1990 to February 2018, was conducted using the MEDLINE database with the application of the following MESH terms: colorectal neoplasms, hereditary nonpolyposis; DNA mismatch repair; urologic neoplasms; kidney pelvis; ureteral neoplasms; urinary bladder; carcinoma, transitional cell; prostatic neoplasms; testicular neoplasms...
July 30, 2018: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112103/systematic-verification-of-bladder-cancer-associated-tissue-protein-biomarker-candidates-in-clinical-urine-specimens
#4
Cheng-Han Tsai, Yi-Ting Chen, Ying-Hsu Chang, Chuen Hsueh, Chung-Yi Liu, Yu-Sun Chang, Chien-Lun Chen, Jau-Song Yu
Bladder cancer biomarkers currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration are insufficiently reliable for use in non-invasive clinical diagnosis. Verification/validation of numerous biomarker candidates for BC detection is a crucial bottleneck for novel biomarker development. A multiplexed liquid chromatography multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry assay of 122 proteins, including 118 up-regulated tissue proteins, two known bladder cancer biomarkers and two housekeeping gene products, was successfully established for protein quantification in clinical urine specimens...
July 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108246/the-urinary-microbiome-associated-with-bladder-cancer
#5
Viljemka Bučević Popović, Marijan Šitum, Cheryl-Emiliane T Chow, Luisa S Chan, Blanka Roje, Janoš Terzić
Recent findings suggest that human microbiome can influence the development of cancer, but the role of microorganisms in bladder cancer pathogenesis has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the urinary microbiome of bladder cancer patients with those of healthy controls. Bacterial communities present in urine specimens collected from 12 male patients diagnosed with bladder cancer, and from 11 healthy, age-matched individuals were analysed using 16S sequencing. Our results show that the most abundant phylum in both groups was Firmicutes, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107181/snapshot-bladder-cancer
#6
Carolyn Hurst, Jonathan Rosenberg, Margaret Knowles
Bladder cancers, the majority of which are urothelial carcinoma, are the most common urinary tract cancers. There are two major disease types, muscle-invasive and non-muscle-invasive, with distinct pathogenesis pathways, molecular features, and clinical outcomes. Recent genomic and transcriptomic data have significantly improved tumor sub-classification and prognostication for both patient groups and are informing improved approaches to treatment of muscle-invasive disease. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106094/long-non-coding-rna-snhg20-promotes-bladder-cancer-via-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-pathway
#7
Qingsong Zhao, Saiyue Gao, Qingyan Du, Ye Liu
The long non‑coding RNA, small nucleolar RNA host gene 20 (SNHG20), is involved in promoting several common types of human cancer, however, the exact function of SNHG20 in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the regulatory mechanism of SNHG20 underlying the malignant progression of bladder cancer. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to examine mRNA and protein expression. Cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, migration and invasion were also studied...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104883/combination-chemotherapy-with-zyflamend-reduced-the-acquired-resistance-of-bladder-cancer-cells-to-cisplatin-through-inhibiting-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#8
Yanshi Xue, Lin Yang, Junzun Li, Yilin Yan, Qinghui Jiang, Lan Shen, Shuai Yang, Bing Shen, Ruimin Huang, Jun Yan, Hongqian Guo
Background: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is mainstay treatment in urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, tumor recurrence frequently occurs with the acquisition of cisplatin resistance. We explored the potential effect of a polyherbal preparation, Zyflamend, on UBC cells resistant to cisplatin treatment. Methods: To establish a cisplatin-resistant human bladder cancer cell line, T24 cells were cultured in increasing concentrations of cisplatin for more than 10 months...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104251/decreased-c-myc-mrna-stability-via-mir-141-3p-auf1-axis-is-crucial-for-p63%C3%AE-inhibition-of-cyclin-d1-transcription-and-bladder-cancer-cell-tumorigenicity
#9
Xin Li, Zhongxian Tian, Honglei Jin, Jiheng Xu, Xiaohui Hua, Huiying Yan, Huating Liufu, Jingjing Wang, Jingxia Li, Junlan Zhu, Haishan Huang, Chuanshu Huang
Bladder cancer (BC) ranks as the sixth most common cancer in the United States and is the leading cause of death in patients with urinary malignancies. p63 is a member of the p53 family and is believed to function as a tumor suppressor in human BCs. Our most recent studies reveal a previously unknown function of the RING of XIAP in promoting miR-4295 transcription, thereby reducing p63α protein translation and enhancing normal urothelial transformation, whereas p63α upregulates hsp70 transcription, subsequently activating the HSP70/Wasf3/Wave3/MMP-9 axis, and promoting BC cell invasion via initiating the transcription factor E2F1...
August 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103285/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-urological-oncology-current-aspects-and-developments
#10
REVIEW
Isabel Rauscher, Matthias Eiber, Wolfgang A Weber, Jürgen E Gschwend, Thomas Horn, Tobias Maurer
Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography combining both functional and morphological information has emerged as a powerful tool in oncological imaging within the past decades. The most commonly used radiotracer in oncology visualizing metabolic information is 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. However, the use of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in urological oncology is challenging, as it is limited by physiological excretion through the urinary system. Therefore, it is only useful when applied to specific indications in selected patients with urological malignancy; for example, for detection of residual disease in the post-chemotherapy management of patients with seminoma...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101046/colovesical-fistula-as-an-uncommon-presentation-of-metastatic-lung-cancer
#11
Thu-Cuc Nguyen, Aaron M Jaffe, David Gray, John Cain, Thomas Brown
Colovesical fistula is an atypical communication between the colon and the bladder. The most common causes of colovesical fistula are diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoma and complication from radiation therapy. Patients with colovesical fistula present with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), dysuria, frequency, abdominal pain, pneumaturia, faecaluria, and hematuria. We present a case of a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma presented with abdominal pain, dysuria, and faecaluria who was found to have a colovesical fistula...
June 8, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098938/predicting-response-to-intravesical-therapy-in-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Mahmoud Alameddine, Omer Kineish, Chad Ritch
CONTEXT: The ability to predict response to intravesical therapy (IVT) following transurethral resection in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer holds important prognostic information. However, few predictive tools are available to guide urologists. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the most recent studies investigating the predictors of response to IVT. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted using PubMed database from January 1, 2013 to April 1, 2018 following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria...
August 8, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093510/robot-assisted-radical-cystectomy-with-intracorporeal-urinary-diversion-versus-open-radical-cystectomy-iroc-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-with-internal-feasibility-study
#13
James W F Catto, Pramit Khetrapal, Gareth Ambler, Rachael Sarpong, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Melanie Tan, Andrew Feber, Simon Dixon, Louise Goodwin, Norman R Williams, John McGrath, Edward Rowe, Anthony Koupparis, Chris Brew-Graves, John D Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BC) is a common malignancy and one of the most expensive to manage. Radical cystectomy (RC) with pelvic lymphadenectomy is a gold standard treatment for high-risk BC. Reductions in morbidity and mortality from RC may be achieved through robot-assisted RC (RARC). Prospective comparisons between open RC (ORC) and RARC have been limited by sample size, use of extracorporeal reconstruction and use of outcomes important for ORC. Conversely, while RARC is gaining in popularity, there is little evidence to suggest it is superior to ORC...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090607/screening-for-human-urinary-bladder-carcinogens-two-year-bioassay-is-unnecessary
#14
Samuel M Cohen
Screening for carcinogens in general, and for the urinary bladder specifically, traditionally involves a two-year bioassay in rodents, the results of which often do not have direct relevance to humans with respect to mode of action (MOA) and/or dose response. My proposal describes a multi-step short-term (90 day) screening process that characterizes known human urinary bladder carcinogens, and identifies those reported in rodent two-year bioassays. The initial step is screening for urothelial proliferation, by microscopy or by increased Ki-67 labeling index...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089113/naturally-occurring-canine-invasive-urothelial-carcinoma-harbors-luminal-and-basal-transcriptional-subtypes-found-in-human-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#15
Deepika Dhawan, Noah M Hahn, José A Ramos-Vara, Deborah W Knapp
There is growing evidence that molecular subtypes (e.g. luminal and basal subtypes) affect the prognosis and treatment response in patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer (invasive urothelial carcinoma, iUC). Modeling these subtypes in pre-clinical animal studies is essential, but it is challenging to produce these subtypes, along with other critical host and tumor features, in experimentally-induced animal models. This study was conducted to determine if luminal and basal molecular subtypes are present in naturally-occurring canine iUC, a cancer that mimics the human condition in other key aspects...
August 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078360/-edifications-and-modern-strategies-of-localized-prostate-cancers-definitive-therapy
#16
Linda Varga, Zoltán Bajory, László Pajor, János Révész, Farkas Sükösd, Anikó Maráz
INTRODUCTION: Mortality of prostate carcinoma can be significantly decreased by the use of modern diagnostic and therapeutic options. Patients in early stages can be cured by radical surgery or radiotherapy. AIM: Overview and comparison of previous and present diagnostic and therapeutic methods regarding accuracy of diagnosis, improvement of efficiency and decrease of toxicities. We also aimed to explore general correlations in case of serious complications. METHOD: By the help of two prostate cancer patients we demonstrate the importance of accuracy and change of histological diagnosis, significance of proper imaging techniques, and also show parameters of conventional and modern radiotherapy and their acute and chronic complications...
August 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077539/minimally-invasive-management-of-ureteral-distal-strictures-robotic-ureteroneocystostomy-with-a-bilateral-boari-flap
#17
Daniel Sagalovich, Juan Garisto, Riccardo Bertolo, Nitin Yerram, Julien Dagenais, Jaya Sai Chavali, Georges-Pascal Haber, Jihad Kaouk, Robert Stein
OBJECTIVES: to describe robotic ureteroneocystostomy performed by bilateral Boari flap. METHODS: An 82 year-old female with bilateral mid ureteral strictures secondary to uterine cancer treated with radiation was managed with ureteral stenting and bilateral nephrostomy tubes. Nevertheless, patient had severe colic and recurrent urinary tract infections and thus agreed to undergo bilateral robotic ureteral reconstructive surgery. Patient positioning and ports placement were similar to those of robotic prostatectomy...
August 2, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075815/increased-cd4-t-cell-lineage-commitment-determined-by-cpg-methylation-correlates-with-better-prognosis-in-urinary-bladder-cancer-patients
#18
Emma Ahlén Bergman, Ciputra Adijaya Hartana, Markus Johansson, Ludvig B Linton, Sofia Berglund, Martin Hyllienmark, Christian Lundgren, Benny Holmström, Karin Palmqvist, Johan Hansson, Farhood Alamdari, Ylva Huge, Firas Aljabery, Katrine Riklund, Malin E Winerdal, David Krantz, A Ali Zirakzadeh, Per Marits, Louise K Sjöholm, Amir Sherif, Ola Winqvist
BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Environmental factors and chronic inflammation are correlated with the disease risk. Diagnosis is performed by transurethral resection of the bladder, and patients with muscle invasive disease preferably proceed to radical cystectomy, with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The anti-tumour immune responses, known to be initiated in the tumour and draining lymph nodes, may play a major role in future treatment strategies...
August 3, 2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066698/collagen-type-vi-alpha-3-chain-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-bladder-cancer-cells-via-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-pathway
#19
Yan Huang, Gang Li, Kai Wang, Zhongyi Mu, Qingpeng Xie, Hongchen Qu, Hang Lv, Bin Hu
BACKGROUND Collagen type VI alpha 3 chain (COL6A3) has been proven to be a biomarker in the occurrence and development of bladder cancer, which is the most common malignant tumor in the urinary system. This study aimed to explore the effect and molecular mechanism of COL6A3 on EMT in vitro induced by TGF-β/Smad in bladder carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 42 patients included in the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and an angiogenesis assay were used to measure cell proliferation and tube formation, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061975/-bladder-exstrophy-with-adenocarcinoma-in-an-adult-patient-a-case-report
#20
Bounoual Mohammed, Omana Jean Paul, Ahsaini Mustapha, Mellas Soufiane, El Ammari Jalaleddine, Tazi Mohammed Fadl, El Fassi Mohammed Jamal, Farih Moulay Hassan
Bladder exstrophy is rare malformation pathology with an incidence of about 1 in 50,000 newborns. Not treated in time exposes to two main complications: kidney failure and bladder plaque cancer with a risk up to 200 times normal, which usually occurs around the fourth and fifth decade. In 95% it is adenocarcinoma and 5% squamous cell carcinoma. We present a rare case of adenocarcinoma developed on a bladder exstrophy in a 61-year-old patient who underwent an excision of the bladder plate carrying the whole tumor mass with a non-continent urinary diversion type bricker...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
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