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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541052/functionally-distinct-assembly-of-vascular-plants-colonizing-alpine-cushions-suggests-their-vulnerability-to-climate-change
#1
Jiri Dolezal, Miroslav Dvorsky, Martin Kopecky, Jan Altman, Ondrej Mudrak, Katerina Capkova, Klara Rehakova, Martin Macek, Pierre Liancourt
Background and Aims: Alpine cushion plants can initially facilitate other species during ecological succession, but later on can be negatively affected by their development, especially when beneficiaries possess traits allowing them to overrun their host. This can be reinforced by accelerated warming favouring competitively strong species over cold-adapted cushion specialists. However, little empirical research has addressed the trait-based mechanisms of these interactions. The ecological strategies of plants colonizing the cushion plant Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae), a dominant pioneer of subnival zones, were studied in the Western Himalayas...
December 12, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30540793/desert-plant-bacteria-reveal-host-influence-and-beneficial-plant-growth-properties
#2
Abdul Aziz Eida, Maren Ziegler, Feras F Lafi, Craig T Michell, Christian R Voolstra, Heribert Hirt, Maged M Saad
Deserts, such as those found in Saudi Arabia, are one of the most hostile places for plant growth. However, desert plants are able to impact their surrounding microbial community and select beneficial microbes that promote their growth under these extreme conditions. In this study, we examined the soil, rhizosphere and endosphere bacterial communities of four native desert plants Tribulus terrestris, Zygophyllum simplex, Panicum turgidum and Euphorbia granulata from the Southwest (Jizan region), two of which were also found in the Midwest (Al Wahbah area) of Saudi Arabia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538687/soil-matrix-determines-the-outcome-of-interaction-between-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-and-biochar-for-andropogon-gerardii-growth-and-nutrition
#3
Zahra Paymaneh, Milan Gryndler, Tereza Konvalinková, Oldřich Benada, Jan Borovička, Petra Bukovská, David Püschel, Veronika Řezáčová, Mehdi Sarcheshmehpour, Jan Jansa
Biochar has been heralded as a multipurpose soil amendment to sustainably increase soil fertility and crop yields, affect soil hydraulic properties, reduce nutrient losses, and sequester carbon. Some of the most spectacular results of biochar (and organic nutrient) inputs are the terra preta soils in the Amazon, dark anthropogenic soils with extremely high fertility sustained over centuries. Such soil improvements have been particularly difficult to achieve on a short run, leading to speculations that biochar may need to age (weather) in soil to show its best...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538276/seasonal-and-ecohydrological-regulation-of-active-microbial-populations-involved-in-doc-co-2-and-ch-4-fluxes-in-temperate-rainforest-soil
#4
David J Levy-Booth, Ian J W Giesbrecht, Colleen T E Kellogg, Thierry J Heger, David V D'Amore, Patrick J Keeling, Steven J Hallam, William W Mohn
The Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is a global hot-spot for carbon cycling and export. Yet the influence of microorganisms on carbon cycling processes in PCTR soil is poorly characterized. We developed and tested a conceptual model of seasonal microbial carbon cycling in PCTR soil through integration of geochemistry, micro-meteorology, and eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal amplicon (rRNA) sequencing from 216 soil DNA and RNA libraries. Soil moisture and pH increased during the wet season, with significant correlation to net CO2 flux in peat bog and net CH4 flux in bog forest soil...
December 11, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537398/exploring-subindividual-variability-role-of-ontogeny-abiotic-environment-and-seed-dispersing-birds
#5
Mar Sobral, José Guitián, Pablo Guitián, Cyrille Violle, Asier R Larrinaga
Within-individual trait variation -otherwise known as subindividual variation- is an important component of phenotypic variation, with a genetic and epigenetic basis. We explore its adaptive value and the effects of ontogeny and the environment on subindividual variability. We conducted a field study to analyze the effects of tree age, soil pH, soil water content, and soil nutrients on subindividual variability in fruit size of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) in three sites in Northwestern Spain. Additionally, we examined how bird-mediated selection influences average and subindividual variation in fruit size...
December 10, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535915/soil-type-and-cyanobacteria-species-influence-the-macromolecular-and-chemical-characteristics-of-the-polysaccharidic-matrix-in-induced-biocrusts
#6
Sonia Chamizo, Alessandra Adessi, Gianmarco Mugnai, Andrea Simiani, Roberto De Philippis
Inoculation of soils with cyanobacteria is proposed as a sustainable biotechnological technique for restoration of degraded areas in drylands due to the important role that cyanobacteria and their exopolysaccharides (EPS) play in the environment. So far, few studies have analyzed the macromolecular and chemical characteristics of the polysaccharidic matrix in induced cyanobacterial biocrusts and the scarce existing studies have mainly focused on sandy soil textures. However, the characteristics of the cyanobacterial polysaccharidic matrix may greatly depend on soil type...
December 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535741/composts-as-alternative-to-inorganic-fertilization-for-cereal-crops
#7
Teresa Hernandez, Carmen Chocano, Maria Dolores Coll, Carlos Garcia
The use of treated organic products as fertilizers and soil amendments not only results in economic benefits for the small-scale farmer, but it also reduces pollution due to reduced nutrient run-off and N leaching. In this work, the feasibility of using composts as fertilizers and soil improvers has been evaluated at the field level, in barley and soft wheat crops (two successive cultivations of each crop). The applied treatments consisted of two commercial composts (compost manure and sewage sludge compost) added to the soil either alone (T1 and T3) or in combination with inorganic fertilizers (T2 and T4) and a conventional mineral fertilization (T5)...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535577/cultivar-and-phosphorus-effects-on-switchgrass-yield-and-rhizosphere-microbial-diversity
#8
Anne Sawyer, Christopher Staley, John Lamb, Craig Sheaffer, Thomas Kaiser, Jessica Gutknecht, Michael J Sadowsky, Carl Rosen
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native perennial grass identified as a promising biofuel crop for production on marginal agricultural lands. As such, research into switchgrass fertility and the switchgrass rhizosphere microbiome has been ongoing in an effort to increase production sustainability. We examined the effects of cultivar and phosphorus (P) fertilization on biomass yield, P removal, and rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community structure in three switchgrass cultivars: Sunburst, Shawnee, and Liberty...
December 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30533314/structural-plasticity-in-root-fungal-symbioses-diverse-interactions-lead-to-improved-plant-fitness
#9
Khalil Kariman, Susan Jane Barker, Mark Tibbett
Root-fungal symbioses such as mycorrhizas and endophytes are key components of terrestrial ecosystems. Diverse in trophy habits (obligate, facultative or hemi-biotrophs) and symbiotic relations (from mutualism to parasitism), these associations also show great variability in their root colonization and nutritional strategies. Specialized interface structures such as arbuscules and Hartig nets are formed by certain associations while others are restricted to non-specialized intercellular or intracellular hyphae in roots...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532975/linking-the-agricultural-landscape-of-the-midwest-to-stream-health-with-structural-equation-modeling
#10
Travis S Schmidt, Peter C Van Metre, Daren M Carlisle
Multiple physical and chemical stressors can simultaneously affect the biological condition of streams. To better understand the complex interactions of land-use practices, water quality, and ecological integrity of streams, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Project is conducting regional-scale assessments of stream condition across the United States. In the summer of 2013, weekly water samples were collected from 100 streams in the Midwestern United States. Employing watershed theory, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to represent a general hypothesis for how 16 variables (previously identified to be important to stream condition) might be inter-related...
December 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529478/treatment-of-low-c-n-ratio-wastewater-and-biomass-production-using-co-culture-of-chlorella-vulgaris-and-activated-sludge-in-a-batch-photobioreactor
#11
Shunni Zhu, Lei Qin, Pingzhong Feng, Changhua Shang, Zhongming Wang, Zhenhong Yuan
The aim of this work was to study the performance of pollutants removal and biomass production by co-culture of Chlorella vulgaris and activated sludge in a batch photobioreactor (PBR), compared with their single system to treat a low C/N ratio (COD/N = 4.3) wastewater. The co-culture system surpassed activated sludge system in terms of nutrients removal and outperformed microalgae alone system in regard to COD removal. Biomass productivity of the co-culture system was 343.3 mg L-1  d-1 , and the harvested biomass could be developed as biofuels, animal feeds or soil conditioners due to the improved calorific value and cellular composition compared with activated sludge...
October 17, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524848/review-of-environmental-and-health-impacts-of-mining-in-ghana
#12
REVIEW
Aboka Yaw Emmanuel, Cobbina Samuel Jerry, Doke Adzo Dzigbodi
Mining has played an important role in the development of Ghana. Like all industries, mining has both benefits and risks for the people living in communities where minerals are found. How these environmental and health impacts are managed by the government, nearby communities and mining companies can either worsen or improve the lives of community inhabitants. The current analysis focuses on the environmental and health impacts of mining in Ghana and blends extant data from the literature as well as the co-authors' recent findings on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of mining in Ghana...
March 2018: Journal of health & pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517219/consortium-of-five-fungal-isolates-conditioning-root-growth-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-soybean-corn-and-sugarcane
#13
Christyan P Farias, Rafael C DE Carvalho, Felipe M L Resende, Lucas C B Azevedo
Plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization were studied in sugarcane, corn and soybean by applying five plant growth promoting fungi: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Trichoderma asperella. Sugarcane, corn and soybean were grown in pots under two treatments: (1) inoculation with the fungal consortium and (2) control without inoculation. In the inoculated treatment, fungal spore suspension were applied to the seeds and shoots were sprayed every 28 days...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517216/potentialities-and-limitations-of-agricultural-use-in-soils-of-semi-arid-region-of-the-state-of-bahia
#14
Alexsandra F DE Queiroz, Alessandra M Salviano, Tony J F DA Cunha, Nelci Olszevski, Valdomiro S DE Souza Júnior, Manoel B DE Oliveira Neto
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potentialities and limitations of the agricultural use of representative classes of semi-arid regions of the state of Bahia, based on the pedological and evaluation of their soil characteristics. Five areas were selected where trenches were opened to collect samples for the analyses: Eutric Haplustept which presents vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation due to poor drainage with risks of erosion, waterlogging, salinization and compaction but having good natural fertility; Abrupt Kandiustalf with high vulnerability to physical degradation due to the presence of gravel and pebbles which may limit the development of deep rooting plants and mechanization but also with good natural fertility; Typic quartzipsaments and Typic Eutrustalf with no limitations related to drainage as low risk of compaction but featuring limitation of low moisture-holding capacity and nutrients; and Arenic Haplustulf wose characteristics are high vulnerability to degradation due to the drainage limitation related to the Btx horizon cementing in addition to low natural fertility and therefore is not recommended to agricultural use...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517104/plant-epithelia-what-is-the-role-of-the-mortar-in-the-wall
#15
Michael Palmgren
In a growing plant root, the inner vascular system is sealed off by an epithelium, the endodermis. The space between all of the cells in the endodermal layer is filled with an impermeable mass called the Casparian strip, which closes the spaces between cells in the endodermal layer. The role of the Casparian strip has been proposed to prevent backflow of water and nutrients into the soil, but as mutant plants lacking the Casparian strip only have weak phenotypes, the view that it serves an essential function in plants has been challenged...
December 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516827/acclimation-of-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-and-alterations-in-sugar-metabolism-in-response-to-inoculation-with-endophytic-fungi
#16
P Rozpądek, M Nosek, A Domka, R Ważny, R J Jędrzejczyk, K Tokarz, M Pilarska, E Niewiadomska, K Turnau
The role of an endophytic Zygomycete Mucor sp. in growth promotion and adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to increased energy demands of its hosts Arabidopsis arenosa and Arabidopsis thaliana was evaluated. Inoculation with the fungus improved the water use efficiency of the plants and allowed for them to utilize incident light for photochemistry more effectively by upregulating the expression of several photosystem I- and II-related genes and their respective proteins, proteins involved in light harvesting in PSII and PSI and carbon assimilation...
December 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513092/spatiotemporal-variability-of-soil-nutrients-and-the-responses-of-growth-during-growth-stages-of-winter-wheat-in-northern-china
#17
Baowei Su, Gengxing Zhao, Chao Dong
Studying soil nutrient variability and its effect on the growth and development of crops under a traditional tillage mode is the foundation for comprehensively implementing precision agriculture policies at the field scale and ensuring excellent crop management. In this paper, a 28.5 hm2 winter wheat field under the traditional cultivation model in Tianzhuang town of Huantai County was selected as the research area. The mesh point method was utilized for sampling (60×60 m), and the characteristics of soil available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) variations in the before sowing, reviving, jointing, and filling stages of winter wheat were analyzed using geostatistical and GIS methods...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512939/human-urine-as-a-fertilizer-in-the-cultivation-of-snap-beans-phaseolus-vulgaris-and-turnips-brassica-rapa
#18
Madelyn Pandorf, George Hochmuth, Treavor H Boyer
The main reason for implementing human urine diversion is to produce a local and renewable source of fertilizer for agriculture. Accordingly, the goal of this research was to compare human urine fertilizer and synthetic fertilizer in the cultivation of snap beans and turnips by evaluating the yield, plant tissue chemical composition, nutrient uptake efficiency, soil nutrient content, and leachate nutrient content between plots. Four fertilizer treatments were evaluated: 1) synthetic fertilizer, 2) urine supplemented with synthetic fertilizer, 3) urine-only, and 4) a no-fertilizer control, referred to as treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512075/method-of-dairy-manure-application-and-time-before-rainfall-affect-antibiotics-in-surface-runoff
#19
Hanh T V Le, Rory O Maguire, Kang Xia
Although research has shown that manure soil subsurface injection reduces nutrient input to the aquatic environment, it is less known if it also reduces antibiotic surface runoff from manure-applied fields. Surface runoff of four dairy production antibiotics was monitored comparing (i) surface application and subsurface injection of manure and (ii) time gaps between manure application and a subsequent rain event. Liquid dairy manure spiked with pirlimycin, tylosin, chlortetracycline, and sulfamerazine was applied to 1...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512068/crop-rotations-and-poultry-litter-affect-dynamic-soil-chemical-properties-and-soil-biota-long-term
#20
A J Ashworth, F L Allen, J M DeBruyn, P R Owens, C Sams
Dynamic soil chemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, no-tillage, and their interactions on dynamic soil properties and to determine their relationships with nutrient cycling, crop yield, and soil biodiversity (soil microbial and earthworm communities). Main effects were 13 different cropping sequences of soybean [ (L.) Merr.], corn ( L.), and cotton ( L...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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