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soil nutrients

Jérémy Jabiol, Julien Cornut, Ahmed Tlili, Mark O Gessner
The enrichment of ecosystems by nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has important ecological consequences. This includes effects on plant litter decomposition in forest soils and forested headwater streams, where fungi play a pivotal role. However, our understanding of nutrient relationships on fungal communities associated with decomposing litter remains surprisingly incomplete. We conducted a fully factorial microcosm experiment with known communities of fungal decomposers from streams to assess the importance of dissolved N and P supply, as well as the atomic nutrient ratio (N:P), on fungal community succession, diversity, biomass and reproduction on three leaf-litter species differing in nutrient and lignin concentrations...
August 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Ye A Morozov, S V Trifonov, S A Ushakova, O V Anishchenko, A A Tikhomirov
The present study addresses the ways to increase the closure of biotechnical life support systems (BTLSS) for space applications. A promising method of organic waste processing based on "wet combustion" in hydrogen peroxide developed at the IBP SB RAS to produce fertilizers for higher plants is discussed. The method is relatively compact, energy efficient, productive, and eco-friendly. However, about 4-6 g/L of recalcitrant sediment containing such essential nutrients as Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn precipitates after the initial process...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Saqib Bashir, Qaiser Hussain, Muhammad Shaaban, Hongqing Hu
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in red soil has become a serious environmental concern due to its toxic effects on organisms and the food chain. Possible eco-friendly solutions for Cd immobilization were required to reduce its mobility through biochar. This study evaluated the comparative efficiency of rice straw (RSB), rice hull (RHB) and maize stover (MSB) derived biochar (BC) on Cd mobility and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), which is highly Cd accumulating crop. Results showed that the soil chemical properties (pH, organic carbon and nutrients) significantly increased with increasing the biochar application rate from 1...
August 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Maria de la Paz Pollicelli, Yanina L Idaszkin, Rolando Gonzalez-José, Federico Márquez
Halophytic plants play a fundamental role in salt marshes, influencing their structure, dynamics, and cycling of nutrients and minerals. These plants have the ability to retain metals in the soil, or absorb and retain them in underground structures, or transport them to their aerial structures. Here we aim to study shape variation in the leaves of Cressa truxillensis inhabiting the salt marsh of San Antonio Oeste, according to their proximity to a source of metals in the soil. A gradient of bioavailability of metal was observed in the soil, decreasing from the site closest to the source to the most distant point, where Zn was the most abundant metal followed by Pb and Cu...
August 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tichaedza John Chikuvire, Pardon Muchaonyerwa, Rebecca Zengeni
While nutrient loads from anthropogenic sources upset aquatic ecosystem balance, Wolffia arrhiza (duckweed) has capacity to purge nutrient-rich water if continuously harvested. The nutrients accumulated in biomass have potential as soil fertility amendments. The objective of this study was to determine changes in release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and the fate of P in soils after duckweed biomass amendment. An incubation experiment was conducted at 25 °C using three soils amended with proportions equivalent to 501, 1002 and 1503 mg N kg-1 and 62, 124 and 186 mg P kg-1 ...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Tarek M Galal, Ahmed A Khalafallah, Omar E Elawa, Loutfy M Hassan
The present study investigated the impact of cumulative irrigation with wastewater on the soil properties and, its health hazards on the consumers of cabbage plants at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Irrigation water, soil and cabbage plants were sample d from two polluted and other two unpolluted farms. The physicochemical properties of water and soil were analyzed and the growth parameters, as well as nutrients and heavy metals concentration in cabbage were investigated. In addition, the daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated...
August 24, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jingjing Wang, Qingqing Li, Song Xu, Wei Zhao, Yu Lei, Chunhui Song, Zhiyong Huang
Microbial co-inoculation is considered to be an innovative approach and had been applied worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms of microbial co-inoculants constructions, especially the trait-based combination of distinctly different microbial species remains poorly understood. In this study, we constructed two microbial co-inoculants with the same three strains with emphasis on the microbial, soil and plant traits. Microbial co-inoculants 1 (M1) were constructed according to soil fertility, microbial activity and cucumber nutrient requirement with a 2:1:2 ratio ( Ensifer sp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuqian Tang, Guirui Yu, Xinyu Zhang, Qiufeng Wang, Dashuan Tian, Jing Tian, Shuli Niu, Jianping Ge
Because of increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition worldwide, nutrient imbalances and phosphorus (P) limitations in soil are aggravated, with the result that P fertilizer applications to terrestrial ecosystems worldwide may increase. Nitrification and denitrification in soil are major sources of nitrous oxide emissions, especially in soils treated with fertilizers. However, few researchers have studied how forest soils respond to nutrient additions, so we are not sure how the potential nitrification and denitrification activities (PNA and PDA, respectively) and microbial communities involved in these processes might respond when N and P are added to temperate and subtropical forest soils...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yang Song, Min Xu, Xiaona Li, Yongrong Bian, Fang Wang, Xinglun Yang, Chenggang Gu, Xin Jiang
Plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) has been widely developed around the world and has resulted in great changes in soil properties and potential contamination by phthalate esters (PAEs). Using high-throughput sequencing, this study investigated the succession and potential factors impacting soil microbial community structures over 20 years of PGVC. The results showed that the pH of soils under PGVC were significantly lower, while the nutrient contents of soils were higher, relative to those of open field soil...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hongli Mu, Suhua Fu, Baoyuan Liu, Bofu Yu, Aijuan Wang
Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures can be adopted to conserve soil and water and improve soil fertility. The degree to which SWC measures improve soil fertility is affected by the type of SWC measure, soil type, climate, etc. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of the main SWC measures implemented in the Beijing mountain area on soil fertility. Six runoff plots, including a fish pit (fallow) (FPF), fish pit (Platycladus orientalis L. Franco) (FPP), narrow terrace (fallow) (NTF), narrow terrace (Juglans regia L...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Allen Van Deynze, Pablo Zamora, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Cristobal Heitmann, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Shanmugam Rajasekar, Danielle Graham, Junko Maeda, Donald Gibson, Kevin D Schwartz, Alison M Berry, Srijak Bhatnagar, Guillaume Jospin, Aaron Darling, Richard Jeannotte, Javier Lopez, Bart C Weimer, Jonathan A Eisen, Howard-Yana Shapiro, Jean-Michel Ané, Alan B Bennett
Plants are associated with a complex microbiota that contributes to nutrient acquisition, plant growth, and plant defense. Nitrogen-fixing microbial associations are efficient and well characterized in legumes but are limited in cereals, including maize. We studied an indigenous landrace of maize grown in nitrogen-depleted soils in the Sierra Mixe region of Oaxaca, Mexico. This landrace is characterized by the extensive development of aerial roots that secrete a carbohydrate-rich mucilage. Analysis of the mucilage microbiota indicated that it was enriched in taxa for which many known species are diazotrophic, was enriched for homologs of genes encoding nitrogenase subunits, and harbored active nitrogenase activity as assessed by acetylene reduction and 15N2 incorporation assays...
August 2018: PLoS Biology
Sandrine Ruffel
Nutrient fluctuations are more a rule rather than an exception in the life of sessile organisms such as plants. Despite this constraint that adds up to abiotic and biotic stresses, plants are able to accomplish their life cycle thanks to an efficient signaling network that reciprocally control nutrient acquisition and use with growth and development. The majority of nutrients are acquired by the root system where multiple local signaling that rely on nutrient sensing systems are implemented to direct root growth toward soil resources...
July 31, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
J Marty Kranabetter, Rachael Harman-Denhoed, Barbara J Hawkins
Quantifying nutritional dynamics of free-living saprotrophs and symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field is challenging, but the stoichiometry of fruiting bodies (sporocarps) may be an effective methodology for this purpose. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of soils, foliage and 146 sporocarp collections were analyzed from 14 Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii stands across a podzolization gradient on Vancouver Island (Canada). N and P concentrations were considerably higher in saprotrophic fungi...
August 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Ohana Y A Costa, Jos M Raaijmakers, Eiko E Kuramae
A wide range of microorganisms produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), highly hydrated polymers that are mainly composed of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. EPS are fundamental for microbial life and provide an ideal environment for chemical reactions, nutrient entrapment, and protection against environmental stresses such as salinity and drought. Microbial EPS can enhance the aggregation of soil particles and benefit plants by maintaining the moisture of the environment and trapping nutrients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pei-Pei Xue, Yolima Carrillo, Vanessa Pino, Budiman Minasny, Alex B McBratney
Soil microbial communities directly affect soil functionality through their roles in the cycling of soil nutrients and carbon storage. Microbial communities vary substantially in space and time, between soil types and under different land management. The mechanisms that control the spatial distributions of soil microbes are largely unknown as we have not been able to adequately upscale a detailed analysis of the microbiome in a few grams of soil to that of a catchment, region or continent. Here we reveal that soil microbes along a 1000 km transect have unique spatial structures that are governed mainly by soil properties...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisca M Santos, José C M Pires
The intensive agricultural practices are increasing the demand for chemical fertilizers, being currently produced from a non-environmental friendly way. Besides the environmental impacts, the nutrient uptake efficiency by the crops is very low, representing huge losses into the fields. Therefore, it is crucial to study alternatives for the current chemical fertilizers, which simultaneous improve nutrient efficiency and minimize environmental impacts. A sustainable solution is to recover nutrients from wastewater streams with microalgal cultures and the biomass conversion into bio-char for soil amendment...
July 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Giuseppe Palumbo, Michela Schiavon, Serenella Nardi, Andrea Ertani, Giuseppe Celano, Claudio M Colombo
Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial/phytotoxic activity and high amounts of undecomposed organic matter that may exert negative effects on soil biology. Among OMW detoxification techniques, those focusing on oxidative degradation of phenolic compounds are relevant. The composting (bio-oxidation) process in particular, exploits exothermic oxidation reactions by microorganisms to transform the organic matrix of OMW into an amendment biologically stable and feasible to use in agriculture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alberto Benavent-González, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Laura Fernández-Brun, Brajesh K Singh, Fernando T Maestre, Leopoldo G Sancho
Background and aims: We lack studies evaluating how the identity of plant, lichen and moss species relates to microbial abundance and soil functioning on Antarctica. If species identity is associated with soil functioning, distributional changes of key species, linked to climate change, could significantly affect Antarctic soil functioning. Methods: We evaluated how the identity of six Antarctic plant, lichen and moss species relates to a range of soil attributes (C, N and P cycling), microbial abundance and structure in Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica...
August 2018: Plant and Soil
Lupe León-Sánchez, Emilio Nicolás, Marta Goberna, Iván Prieto, Fernando T Maestre, José Ignacio Querejeta
Warmer and drier conditions associated with ongoing climate change will increase abiotic stress for plants and mycorrhizal fungi in drylands worldwide, thereby potentially reducing vegetation cover and productivity and increasing the risk of land degradation and desertification. Rhizosphere microbial interactions and feedbacks are critical processes that could either mitigate or aggravate the vulnerability of dryland vegetation to forecasted climate change.We conducted a four-year manipulative study in a semiarid shrubland in the Iberian Peninsula to assess the effects of warming (~2...
May 2018: Journal of Ecology
Xiao-Lin Sui, Ting Zhang, Yu-Qing Tian, Rui-Juan Xue, Ai-Rong Li
Despite their ubiquitous distribution and significant ecological roles, soil microorganisms have long been neglected in investigations addressing parasitic plant-host interactions. Because nutrient deprivation is a primary cause of host damage by parasitic plants, we hypothesized that beneficial soil microorganisms conferring nutrient benefits to parasitized hosts may play important roles in alleviating damage. We conducted a pot cultivation experiment to test the inoculation effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae), a rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum) and their interactive effects, on alleviation of damage to a legume host (Trifolium repens) by two root hemiparasitic plants with different nutrient requirements (N-demanding Pedicularis rex and P-demanding P...
August 5, 2018: New Phytologist
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