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soil nutrients

Shuangshuang Chu, Douglass F Jacobs, Dandan Liao, Liyin L Liang, Daoming Wu, Peijiang Chen, Can Lai, Fengdi Zhong, Shucai Zeng
Landscape plants have great potentials in heavy metals (HMs) removal as sewage sludge compost (SSC) is increasingly used in urban forestry. We hypothesize that woody plants might perform better in HMs phytoremediation because they have greater biomass and deeper roots than herbaceous plants. We tested the differences in growth responses and HMs phytoremediation among several herbaceous and woody species growing under different SSC concentrations through pot experiments. The mixing percentage of SSC with soil at 0%, 15%, 30%, 60, and 100% were used as growth substrate for three woody (Ficus altissima Bl...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tássia Carla Confortin, Izelmar Todero, Luciana Luft, Juliana Ferreira Soares, Marcio Antonio Mazutti, Giovani Leone Zabot, Marcus Vinícius Tres
The purpose of this review is to assist readers in understanding the importance of Lupinus albescens to nature, farmers, and scientists. L. albescens is mostly found in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and in "Campanha, Litoral and Missões" regions of State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Therefore, this review presents information and discussion on this plant that can encourage novel studies in a near future for exploring evermore the biological and physicochemical properties of L. albescens . The plant presents adaptive characteristics of soils with low content of nutrients, being an important plant for the recovering of degraded areas...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Jarmo K Holopainen, Virpi Virjamo, Rajendra P Ghimire, James D Blande, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Minna Kivimäenpää
Plant secondary compounds (PSCs), also called secondary metabolites, have high chemical and structural diversity and appear as non-volatile or volatile compounds. These compounds may have evolved to have specific physiological and ecological functions in the adaptation of plants to their growth environment. PSCs are produced by several metabolic pathways and many PSCs are specific for a few plant genera or families. In forest ecosystems, full-grown trees constitute the majority of plant biomass and are thus capable of producing significant amounts of PSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianming Wang, Chen Chen, Ziqi Ye, Jingwen Li, Yiming Feng, Qi Lu
The relationships between soil fungal and plant communities in the dryland have been well documented, yet the associated difference in relationships between soil fungal and plant communities among different habitats remains unclear. Here, we explored the relationships between plant and fungal functional communities, and the dominant factors of these fungal communities in the desert and grassland. Soil fungal functional communities were assessed based on fungal ITS sequence data which were obtained from our previous study...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
L J Cooper, K R Daly, P D Hallett, N Koebernick, T S George, T Roose
Most water and nutrients essential for plant growth travel across a thin zone of soil at the interface between roots and soil, termed the rhizosphere. Chemicals exuded by plant roots can alter the fluid properties, such as viscosity, of the water phase, potentially with impacts on plant productivity and stress tolerance. In this paper, we study the effects of plant exudates on the macroscale properties of water movement in soil. Our starting point is a microscale description of two fluid flow and exudate diffusion in a periodic geometry composed from a regular repetition of a unit cell...
September 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Alan Puttock, Hugh A Graham, Donna Carless, Richard E Brazier
Beavers, primarily through the building of dams, can deliver significant geomorphic modifications and result in changes to nutrient and sediment fluxes. Research is required to understand the implications and possible benefits of widespread beaver reintroduction across Europe. This study surveyed sediment depth, extent and carbon/nitrogen content in a sequence of beaver pond and dam structures in South West England, where a pair of Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were introduced to a controlled 1.8 ha site in 2011...
September 15, 2018: Earth surface processes and landforms
Christine H Foyer, Kadambot H M Siddique, Amos P K Tai, Sven Anders, Nandor Fodor, Fuk-Ling Wong, Ndiko Ludidi, Mark A Chapman, Brett J Ferguson, Michael J Considine, Florian Zabel, P V Vara Prasad, Rajeev K Varshney, Henry T Nguyen, Hon-Ming Lam
The superior agronomic and human nutritional properties of grain legumes (pulses) make them an ideal foundation for future sustainable agriculture. Legume-based farming is particularly important in Africa, where small-scale agricultural systems dominate the food production landscape. Legumes provide an inexpensive source of protein and nutrients to African households as well as natural fertilization for the soil. While the consumption of traditionally grown legumes has started to decline, the production of soybeans (Glycine max Merr...
October 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Hongbiao Cui, Wei Zhang, Jun Zhou, Lei Xu, Xue Zhang, Shiwen Zhang, Jing Zhou
It is well known that alkaline amendments could effectively decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. However, the vertical distribution of heavy metals and the nutrients enriching in amendments are little concerned during long-term field remediation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the vertical distribution and availability of Cu, Cd, Ca, and P after a 7-year field experiment. In this study, a single application of lime and apatite was conducted with the rates of 1...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Prabhat Pramanik, Anup Jyoti Goswami, Swayambhu Ghosh, Chayanika Kalita
AIM: Potassium (K) is one of the three major nutrients required of plant growth and muriate of potash (MoP) is the only recognized chemical fertilizer used in agriculture. In many countries, 100% of the applied MoP is imported costing huge revenue. Application of suitable potassium-solubilizing bacteria (KSB) as biofertilizer could be an integral part of K management in arable soil. The object of this study was to evaluate K-solubilizing ability of a ubiquitous microorganism as KSB to supplement K in soil...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ying Zhu, Huan Ru Li, Qiang Yu, Xiao Dong Chen, Kai Wei, Wen Tao Luo, Zhen Hua Chen, Li Jun Chen
Studies on effects of nitrogen deposition were mainly focused on temperate grasslands in Inner Mongolia of China. In addition, there are substantial differences between the present simulation methods and the natural nitrogen deposition. A three-year experiment was carried out to compare the effects of simulation methods (common urea and slow-released urea) and nitrogen deposition rates (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 300 kg N·hm-2 ·a-1 ) on soil nutrients and biological characteristics in Hulun Buir Grassland...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sai Gong, Chen Chen, Jingxian Zhu, Guangyao Qi, Shuxia Jiang
Background: Cultivating the wine-cap mushroom ( Stropharia rugosoannulata ) on forestland has become popular in China. However, the effects of wine-cap Stropharia cultivation on soil nutrients and bacterial communities are poorly understood. Methods: We employed chemical analyses and high-throughput sequencing to determine the impact of cultivating the wine-cap Stropharia on soil nutrients and bacterial communities of forestland. Results: Cultivation regimes of Stropharia on forestland resulted in consistent increases of soil organic matter (OM) and available phosphorus (AP) content...
2018: PeerJ
Alan N Costa, Emilio M Bruna, Heraldo L Vasconcelos
Background: Ecosystem engineers are species that transform habitats in ways that influence other species.While the impacts of many engineers have been well described, our understanding of how their impact varies along environmental gradients remains limited. Although disentangling the effects of gradients and engineers on biodiversity is complicated-the gradients themselves can be altered by engineers-doing so is necessary to advance conceptual and mathematical models of ecosystem engineering...
2018: PeerJ
Shantanu P Shukla, Camila Plata, Michael Reichelt, Sandra Steiger, David G Heckel, Martin Kaltenpoth, Andreas Vilcinskas, Heiko Vogel
The ability to feed on a wide range of diets has enabled insects to diversify and colonize specialized niches. Carrion, for example, is highly susceptible to microbial decomposers, but is kept palatable several days after an animal's death by carrion-feeding insects. Here we show that the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides preserves carrion by preventing the microbial succession associated with carrion decomposition, thus ensuring a high-quality resource for their developing larvae. Beetle-tended carcasses showed no signs of degradation and hosted a microbial community containing the beetles' gut microbiota, including the yeast Yarrowia In contrast, untended carcasses showed visual and olfactory signs of putrefaction, and their microbial community consisted of endogenous and soil-originating microbial decomposers...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yang Yang, Yichen Ge, Pengfei Tu, Hongyuan Zeng, Xihong Zhou, Dongsheng Zou, Kelin Wang, Qingru Zeng
Successful phytoextraction produces a large quantity of contaminated biomass, which will cause secondary pollution unless properly treated. This study investigated the disposal of contaminated tobacco biomass after phytoextraction. We detected significantly high Cadmium concentrations in tobacco, especially in their stems and leaves. From the latter, nearly all the Cd and nicotine were removed by extractions with 0.5% HCl + 70% ethanol, and the nicotine completely recovered via steam distillation, whereas the protein content remained unaffected in the leaves, thus making them safe for use as animal feed...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Joshua B Gurtler, Michael P Doyle, Marilyn C Erickson, Xiuping Jiang, Patricia Millner, Manan Sharma
Compost is organic material that has been degraded into a nutrient-stabilized humus-like substance through intense microbial activity, which can provide essential plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) to aid in the growth of fruits and vegetables. Compost can be generated from animal waste feedstocks; these can contain human pathogens, which can be inactivated through the heat and microbial competition promoted during the composting process. Outbreaks of infections caused by bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on fruit and vegetable commodities consumed raw emphasize the importance of minimizing the risk of pathogenic contamination on produce commodities...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Edward Martey
Most soils in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are substantially degraded and are in need of restoration to enhance sustainable food production. This is a harder problem given that population is projected to increase with a corresponding increase in demand for food. Organic fertilizer can improve soil health by reducing the rate of nutrient leaching. However, there are limited studies on the economic effect of organic fertilizer use in SSA. Lack of in-depth understanding of the economics of organic fertilizer use and the welfare effect has the tendency to mislead policy...
October 2018: Heliyon
Zhiqiang Wang, Zhexuan Fan, Qi Zhao, Mingcheng Wang, Jinzhi Ran, Heng Huang, Karl J Niklas
Nutrient resorption plays an important role in ecology because it has a profound effect on subsequent plant growth. However, our current knowledge about patterns of nutrient resorption, particularly among herbaceous species, at a global scale is still inadequate. Here, we present a meta-analysis using a global dataset of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency encompassing 227 perennial herbaceous species. This analysis shows that the N and P resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE, respectively), and N:P resorption ratios (NRE:PRE) across all herbaceous plant groups are 59...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jurandir V Magalhaes, Miguel A Piñeros, Laiane S Maciel, Leon V Kochian
Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acidic soils significantly damages plant roots and inhibits root growth. Hence, crops intoxicated by Al become more sensitive to drought stress and mineral nutrient deficiencies, particularly phosphorus (P) deficiency, which is highly unavailable on tropical soils. Advances in our understanding of the physiological and genetic mechanisms that govern plant Al resistance have led to the identification of Al resistance genes, both in model systems and in crop species. It has long been known that Al resistance has a beneficial effect on crop adaptation to acidic soils...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Silvia Raquel Bettani, Gabriel de Oliveira Ragazzo, Nathalia Leal Santos, Theo Guenter Kieckbusch, Reinaldo Gaspar Bastos, Marcio Roberto Soares, Mariana Altenhofen da Silva
High methoxyl pectin was used as biopolymeric matrix to produce a novel slow release soil fertilizer added with sugarcane vinasse and lipid extracted microalgal (Desmodesmus subspicatus) biomass residue (LMBR). Vinasse acted as the biopolymer solvent, providing greater stability to pectin gel, and as a source of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). LMBR (0.5%) was considered a complementary source of N and micronutrients, copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Compared to blank pectin particles, the particles with vinasse and LMBR showed homogeneous polymer matrix, spherical shapes, higher soluble matter release and enhanced mechanical properties...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jiacheng Shen, Roland Treu, Junye Wang, Fiona Nicholson, Anne Bhogal, Rachel Thorman
Organic fertilizers, such as digestates and manure, are increasingly applied in agricultural systems because of the benefits they provide in terms of plant nutrients and soil quality. However, there are few investigations of N2 O emissions following digestate application to agricultural soils using process-based models. In this study, we modified the UK-DNDC model to include digestate applications to soils by adding digestate properties to the model and considering the effect of organic fertilizer pH. Using the modified model, N2 O emissions were simulated from two organic fertilizers (digested food waste and livestock slurry) applied to three farms in the United Kingdom: one growing winter wheat at Wensum (WE) and two grasslands at Pwllpeiran (PW) and North Wyke (NW)...
September 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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