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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324485/maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor
#1
Raymond C B Wong, Martin F Pera, Alice Pébay
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have historically been cultivated on feeder layers of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in a medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS). However, serum contains a wide variety of biologically active compounds that might adversely affect hESC growth and differentiation. Thus, cultivation of stem cells in FCS complicates experimental approaches to define the intracellular mechanisms required for hESC maintenance. This chapter describes the serum-free maintenance of hESCs in culture by addition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320178/profile-of-von-willebrand-factor-antigen-and-von-willebrand-factor-propeptide-in-an-overall-tia-and-ischaemic-stroke-population-and-amongst-subtypes
#2
W O Tobin, J A Kinsella, G F Kavanagh, J S O'Donnell, R T McGrath, S Tierney, B Egan, T M Feeley, T Coughlan, D R Collins, D O'Neill, Sjx Murphy, S J Lim, R P Murphy, Djh McCabe
INTRODUCTION: Von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWF:Ag II) is proposed to be a more sensitive marker of acute endothelial activation than von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag). Simultaneous data on VWF:Ag and VWF:Ag II profiles are very limited following TIA and ischaemic stroke. METHODS: In this prospective, observational, case-control study, plasma VWF:Ag and VWF:Ag II levels were quantified in 164 patients≤4weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke (baseline), and then ≥14days (14d) and ≥90days (90d) later, and compared with those from 27 healthy controls...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316004/effect-of-the-fxa-inhibitors-rivaroxaban-and-apixaban-on-platelet-activation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#3
B Steppich, F Dobler, L C Brendel, G Hessling, S L Braun, A L Steinsiek, I Deisenhofer, A Hyseni, M Roest, I Ott
Rivaroxaban and Apixaban, increasingly used for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), might impact platelet reactivity directly or indirectly. By inhibition of Factor Xa (FXa) they preclude not only generation of relevant thrombin amounts but also block signalling of FXa via protease activated receptors. However, weather FXa-inhibition affects platelet haemostasis remains incompletely known. One hundred and twenty-eight patients with AF on chronic anticoagulation with either Rivaroxaban or Apixaban for at least 4 weeks were included in the study...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315487/xpln-is-modulated-by-hdac-inhibitors-and-negatively-regulates-sparc-expression-by-targeting-mtorc2-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#4
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Jiro Usuki, Kuniko Matsuda, Minoru Inomata, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Hiroki Hayashi, Takeru Kashiwada, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that participates in the assembly and turnover of the extracellular matrix, whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Exchange factor found in platelets, leukemic, and neuronal tissues (XPLN) is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC2. However, whether XPLN modulates SPARC expression remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314909/localization-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-and-its-potential-role-in-lamellipodia-formation
#5
Youhwa Jo, Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun, Jae Ryun Ryu
Dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) plays an essential role in mitochondrial fission: Cytosolic Drp1 is translocated to the mitochondria upon stimulus, and oligomerized Drp1 constricts mitochondria by aid of actin filaments. Drp1 completes the fission process with GTP hydrolysis by its own GTPase activity. The importance of actin filament and its interaction with Drp1 in the mitochondrial fission process have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that Drp1 is enriched in the actin-rich leading edge of lamellipodia of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) wherein mitochondria or peroxisomes are absent...
March 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314864/systematic-model-of-peripheral-inflammation-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#6
Jude P J Savarraj, Kaushik Parsha, Georgene W Hergenroeder, Liang Zhu, Suhas S Bajgur, Sungho Ahn, Kiwon Lee, Tiffany Chang, Dong H Kim, Yin Liu, H Alex Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate inflammatory processes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with network models. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of serum samples from 45 participants with aSAH analyzed at multiple predetermined time points: <24 hours, 24 to 48 hours, 3 to 5 days, and 6 to 8 days after aSAH. Concentrations of cytokines were measured with a 41-plex human immunoassay kit, and the Pearson correlation coefficients between all possible cytokine pairs were computed...
March 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303970/transient-desialylation-in-combination-with-a-novel-antithrombin-deficiency-causing-a-severe-and-recurrent-thrombosis-despite-anticoagulation-therapy
#7
Nuria Revilla, María Eugenia de la Morena-Barrio, Antonia Miñano, Raquel López-Gálvez, Mara Toderici, José Padilla, Ángel García-Avello, María Luisa Lozano, Dirk J Lefeber, Javier Corral, Vicente Vicente
An in-depth focused study of specific cases of patients with recurrent thrombosis may help to identify novel circumstances, genetic and acquired factors contributing to the development of this disorder. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed and sequential analysis of samples from a patient suffering from early and recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. We performed thrombophilic tests, biochemical, functional, genetic and glycomic analysis of antithrombin and other plasma proteins. The patient carried a new type I antithrombin mutation (p...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302997/platelets-cellular-and-functional-characteristics-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-comprehensive-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#8
Alexander Weymann, Sadeq Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Anton Sabashnikov, Aron-Frederik Popov, Seyed Jalil Mirhosseini, Luis Nombela-Franco, Luca Testa, Mohammadreza Lotfaliani, Mohamed Zeriouh, Tong Liu, Hamidreza Dehghan, Senol Yavuz, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira Sá, William L Baker, Jae-Sik Jang, Mengqi Gong, Umberto Benedetto, Pascal M Dohmen, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Abhishek J Deshmukh, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Hugh Calkins, Gregg W Stone, Integrated Meta-Analysis Of Cardiac Surgery And Cardiology-Group Imcsc-Group
BACKGROUND This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of platelet cellular and functional characteristics including platelet count (PC), MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet factor 4, beta thromboglobulin (BTG), and p-selectin with the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and consequent stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies evaluating platelet characteristics in patients with paroxysmal, persistent and permanent atrial fibrillations...
March 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301052/decreased-blood-product-usage-during-extracorporeal-life-support-with-reduced-circuit-volumes
#9
Samuel D Addison, Marcia L Buck, Gary Y Fang, James J Gangemi, David A Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Activation and consumption of platelets (PLT) and clotting factors along with hemolysis occurs when blood contacts the extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit and its components. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The objective was to examine the effects of reducing ECLS circuit volume by decreasing tubing length and changing components on blood product usage in neonatal and pediatric patients. Blood product administration was analyzed in 40 consecutive patients who required ECLS for respiratory or cardiac failure before (PRE) and after (POST) changes in circuit design and components...
March 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300459/mildly-elevated-unconjugated-bilirubin-is-associated-with-reduced-platelet-activation-related-thrombogenesis-and-inflammation-in-gilbert-s-syndrome
#10
Avinash R Kundur, Abishek B Santhakumar, Andrew C Bulmer, Indu Singh
Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is associated with a mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, increased circulating antioxidant capacity, and reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The current study investigated whether mildly elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) is negatively associated with multiple thrombotic risk factors including platelet activity, hemostatic function, and inflammation in individuals with GS. Blood samples were collected from matched GS and control subjects (14 per group). Activation-dependent platelet surface marker expression of PAC-1 (binds to GPIIb/IIIa surface receptors on activated platelets) and CD62P (marker for P-selectin released from activated degranulated platelets) was assessed in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelets using flow cytometry...
March 16, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299993/a-new-perspective-on-the-risk-of-hypercoagulopathy-in-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-using-thromboelastography
#11
Eyal Zohav, Benny Almog, Aviad Cohen, Ishai Levin, Varda Deutsch, Ariel Many, Ami Amit, Yoni Cohen
Thromboelastography (TEG) provides real-time assessment of hemostasis by measuring the viscoelastic properties, coagulation factor, and platelet activity in whole blood samples. In this prospective case-control study, we wanted to investigate whether blood clot formation assessment, using TEG, can identify a hypercoagulable state in women with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Thirty-six women who were hospitalized with severe OHSS were allocated to the OHSS group and 32 women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation but who did not develop OHSS were allocated to the control group...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299324/micrornas-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Yue Ding, Xue Sun, Peng-Fei Shan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Recently, although CVD morbidity and mortality have decreased as a result of comprehensive control of CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death of patients with diabetes in many countries, indicating the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that are involved in β-cell function, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and which play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297575/selective-inhibition-of-adam17-efficiently-mediates-glycoprotein-ib%C3%AE-retention-during-ex-vivo-generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-platelets
#13
Shinji Hirata, Takahiko Murata, Daisuke Suzuki, Sou Nakamura, Ryoko Jono-Ohnishi, Hidenori Hirose, Akira Sawaguchi, Satoshi Nishimura, Naoshi Sugimoto, Koji Eto
Donor-independent platelet concentrates for transfusion can be produced in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, culture at 37°C induces ectodomain shedding on platelets of glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), the von Willebrand factor receptor critical for adhesive function and platelet lifetime in vivo, through temperature-dependent activation of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17). The shedding can be suppressed by using inhibitors of panmetalloproteinases and possibly of the upstream regulator p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), but residues of these inhibitors in the final platelet products may be accompanied by harmful risks that prevent clinical application...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296751/serum-platelet-factor-4-is-a-reliable-activity-parameter-in-adult-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-pilot-study
#14
Lei Ye, Yu-Ping Zhang, Na Yu, Ya-Xu Jia, Shu-Jun Wan, Fang-Yu Wang
To investigate the diagnostic utility of serum platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels and to assess its accuracy in detecting inflammatory bowel disease activity.This study included 45 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 patients with Crohn disease (CD), and 30 control subjects at Jinling Hospital between May 2014 and July 2015. Laboratory tests measured white blood count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelet count. PF4 was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease activity: active and inactive...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296518/effect-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-rat-achilles-tendon-healing-is-related-to-microbiota
#15
Franciele Dietrich, Malin Hammerman, Parmis Blomgran, Love Tätting, Vinicius Faccin Bampi, Jefferson Braga Silva, Per Aspenberg
Background and purpose - In 3 papers in Acta Orthopaedica 10 years ago, we described that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improves tendon healing in a rat Achilles transection model. Later, we found that microtrauma has similar effects, probably acting via inflammation. This raised the suspicion that the effect ascribed to growth factors within PRP could instead be due to unspecific influences on inflammation. While testing this hypothesis, we noted that the effect seemed to be related to the microbiota. Material and methods - We tried to reproduce our old findings with local injection of PRP 6 h after tendon transection, followed by mechanical testing after 11 days...
March 15, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294324/blocking-fibrotic-signaling-in-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Anne Gingery, Gosuke Oki, Tai-Hua Yang, Chunfeng Zhao, Peter C Amadio
Fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients is increasingly recognized as an important aspect of CTS pathophysiology. In this study, we evaluated the effect of blocking profibrotic pathways in fibroblasts from the SSCT in CTS patients. Fibroblasts were stimulated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and then treated either with a specific fibrosis pathway inhibitor targeting TGF-β receptor type 1 (TβRI), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287584/a-microfluidic-flow-chamber-model-for-platelet-transfusion-and-hemostasis-measures-platelet-deposition-and-fibrin-formation-in-real-time
#17
Katrijn R Six, Rosalie Devloo, Britt Van Aelst, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Hendrik B Feys, Veerle Compernolle
Microfluidic models of hemostasis assess platelet function under conditions of hydrodynamic shear, but in the presence of anticoagulants, this analysis is restricted to platelet deposition only. The intricate relationship between Ca(2+)-dependent coagulation and platelet function requires careful and controlled recalcification of blood prior to analysis. Our setup uses a Y-shaped mixing channel, which supplies concentrated Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) buffer to flowing blood just prior to perfusion, enabling rapid recalcification without sample stasis...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287031/comparison-of-diverse-platelet-activation-markers-as-indicators-for-left-atrial-thrombus-in-atrial-fibrillation
#18
Daniel Tarnowski, David M Poitz, Lina Plichta, Felix M Heidrich, Stephan Wiedemann, Tobias Ruf, Johannes Mierke, Tobias Löhn, Stefanie Jellinghaus, Ruth H Strasser, Karim Ibrahim, Christian Pfluecke
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is well known for being a major risk factor of thromboembolic stroke. We could recently demonstrate an association of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) with the degree of thrombogenicity in patients with AF. This study investigated platelet activation markers, as potential biomarkers for the presence of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with AF. One hundred and eight patients with symptomatic AF underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before scheduled cardioversion or pulmonary vein isolation...
March 13, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286737/pdgf-induced-fibroblast-growth-requires-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-production-by-stearoyl-coa-desaturase
#19
Alexandra Coomans de Brachène, Nicolas Dif, Audrey de Rocca Serra, Chloé Bonnineau, Amélie I Velghe, Yvan Larondelle, Donatienne Tyteca, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) catalyzes the Δ9-cis desaturation of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to generate monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). This enzyme is highly up-regulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in human fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas chromatography showed that PDGF significantly increased the proportion of MUFA, particularly palmitoleate, in cellular lipids. To further analyze the role of SCD in fibroblasts, we used small hairpin RNA targeting SCD (shSCD), which decreased the MUFA content...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286261/fibroblast-led-cancer-cell-invasion-is-activated-by-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-secretion-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Shinya Neri, Tomoyuki Miyashita, Hiroko Hashimoto, Yoshitaka Suda, Masayuki Ishibashi, Hiroaki Kii, Hirotada Watanabe, Takeshi Kuwata, Masahiro Tsuboi, Koichi Goto, Toshi Menju, Makoto Sonobe, Hiroshi Date, Atsushi Ochiai, Genichiro Ishii
Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-dependent local invasion is the process by which cancer cells invade the extracellular matrix using tracks that have been physically remodeled by CAFs. In the present study, we investigated the process by which the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells affect CAF-dependent local invasion. Using an in vitro collagen invasion assay, we showed cancer cells undergoing EMT to promote the matrix-remodeling ability of CAFs and thereby enhance CAF-dependent local cancer cell invasion...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Letters
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