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HCV immunity

Annacarmen Petrizzo, Maria Tagliamonte, Angela Mauriello, Valerio Costa, Marianna Aprile, Roberta Esposito, Andrea Caporale, Antonio Luciano, Claudio Arra, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco M Buonaguro, Luigi Buonaguro
BACKGROUND: A novel prediction algorithm is needed for the identification of effective tumor associated mutated neoantigens. Only those with no homology to self wild type antigens are true predicted neoantigens (TPNAs) and can elicit an antitumor T cell response, not attenuated by central tolerance. To this aim, the mutational landscape was evaluated in HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Liver tumor biopsies and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were obtained from 9 HCV-chronically infected subjects and subjected to RNA-Seq analysis...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Ciro Romano, Giovanna Cuomo, Roberta Ferrara, Andrea Del Mastro, Sergio Esposito, Ausilia Sellitto, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with myriad extrahepatic manifestations, often resulting from aberrant immune responses. Among the most common immune-mediated manifestations of HCV infection, mixed cryoglobulinemia is the best known extra-hepatic complication. Areas covered: Here we review less common extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, with ascertained or presumed immune pathogenesis and the role of the new all oral direct-acting antiviral agents. Rheumatologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, renal, pulmonary, hematologic, cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric manifestations of HCV infection have been considered...
October 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Andrea Casadei Gardini, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Fabio Conti, Elisabetta Petracci, Ranka Vukotic, Giorgia Marisi, Federica Buonfiglioli, Giovanni Vitale, Federico Ravaioli, Stefano Gitto, Gabriella Verucchi, Marco Lenzi, Luigi Bolondi, Giuseppe Mazzella, Stefano Brillanti, Pietro Andreone
BACKGROUND: Unexpectedly high occurrence or recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C receiving direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy. AIMS: We evaluated the predictive value of albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score and immune-inflammation indicators to identify the risk of occurrence or recurrence of HCC in patients treated with DAAs in a real life setting. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analysed data from 514 patients with cirrhosis who were prospectively enrolled for treatment with DAAs...
September 22, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Muttiah Barathan, Rosmawati Mohamed, Yean K Yong, Meganathan Kannan, Jamuna Vadivelu, Alireza Saeidi, Marie Larsson, Esaki Muthu Shankar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a challenging global health threat to ~200 million infected individuals. Clinical data suggest that only ~10⁻15% of acutely HCV-infected individuals will achieve spontaneous viral clearance despite exuberant virus-specific immune responses, which is largely attributed to difficulties in recognizing the pathognomonic symptoms during the initial stages of exposure to the virus. Given the paucity of a suitable small animal model, it is also equally challenging to study the early phases of viral establishment...
October 12, 2018: Cells
Miao-Qing Zhang, Jian-Rui Li, Zong-Gen Peng, Jing-Pu Zhang
Autophagy-related 10 (ATG10) is essential for autophagy since it promotes ATG5-ATG12 complex formation. Our previous study found that there are two isoforms of the ATG10 protein, ATG10 (a longer one) and ATG10S, which have identical sequences except an absence of a 36-amino acid fragment (peptide B) in ATG10S, yet exhibit distinct effects on HCV genome replication. Here, we report the existence of two amino acids, cysteine at residue 44 and 135 (Cys44 and Cys135 , respectively), in ATG10 being related to differential effects of ATG10 on HCV replication and autophagy flux...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Smita Mary Matthai, Anna T Valson, Neelaveni Duhli, Priscilla Rupali, Anna B Pulimood, Santosh Varughese
Highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, converting HIV infection into a chronic illness with associated changes in its attendant renal complications. The past two decades have witnessed a decrease in the prevalence of HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN), traditionally considered to be the hall mark of renal involvement in HIV infection. Simultaneously a host of other glomerular and tubulo-interstitial diseases have emerged, expanding the spectrum of HIV associated renal diseases, predominant among which is HIV associated immune complex mediated kidney diseases (HIVICK)...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Mohsen Abdoli, Asghar Abdoli, Ehsan Aryan, Zahra Meshkat
Autophagy provides an initial membranous platform for incoming hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA translation and immune evasion. Once HCV replication is established, this infrastructure will be unnecessary for translation of HCV RNA progeny. So, the autophagy plays key role in the replication and immune pathogenesis of HCV virus. The aim of this study was to study the effect of autophagy induction in Huh7.5 cell on virus titer. The Huh7.5 cell was transfected with recombinant pcDNA-Beclin1. The autophagy induction was evaluated via microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 staining as autophagy formation marker using flow cytometry...
October 5, 2018: IUBMB Life
Mohammed Benkheil, Matthias Van Haele, Tania Roskams, Manon Laporte, Sam Noppen, Kayvan Abbasi, Leen Delang, Johan Neyts, Sandra Liekens
The CCL20/CCR6 chemokine/receptor axis has previously been shown to contribute to the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through the recruitment of CCR6-positive leukocytes to the tumor microenvironment. In particular, high serum levels of CCL20 are reported in patients with HCC induced by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). A potential non-immune role for the CCL20/CCR6 axis in HCC development has not yet been investigated. Microarray analysis (Benkheil et al., paper submitted for publication), revealed that CCL20 is highly upregulated in hepatoma cells infected with HCV compared with non-infected hepatoma cells...
October 2, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
F Gulli, U Basile, L Gragnani, C Napodano, K Pocino, L Miele, S A Santini, A L Zignego, A Gasbarrini, G L Rapaccini
OBJECTIVE: Mixed Cryoglobulinemia is the most well-known Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-associated extrahepatic manifestation. MC is both an autoimmune and B-lymphoproliferative disorder. Cryoglobulins (CGs) are classified into three groups according to immunoglobulin (Ig) composition: type I is composed of one isotype or Ig class. Type II and type III mixed CGs are immune complexes composed of polyclonal IgGs acting as autoantigens and mono, polyclonal or oligoclonal IgM with rheumatoid factor activity...
September 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Sherly Kurnia Dewi, Soegianto Ali, Vivitri Dewi Prasasty
Hepatitis C virus infection is a global burden. Vaccination is the main proposed modality to control this disease. No peptide vaccine has been released to market due to weak cellular immune responses and the limitation of vaccine ability to induce humoral immune responses. Five predominated HCV subtypes in Indonesia (1a, 1b, 1c, 3a, and 3k) were aligned and the conserved regions were selected. All conserved regions were undergone epitopes prediction for class I HLA, class II HLA, and B cells. Twenty class I HLA ranging from HLA-A, HLA-B, to HLA-C were used to predict the potential epitopes by using NetMHCPan and IEDB...
October 3, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Taseen Syed, Javid Fazili, Ijlal Akbar Ali, Daniel Zhao, Diane Hughes, Sultan Mahmood
Introduction Multiple studies have shown the efficacy of the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with a cure rate of over 90% in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Some recently published studies have suggested an increased incidence of de novo and recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients in sustained virological response (SVR) after completing therapy. A possible mechanism is the breakdown of immune surveillance after starting DAAs. We report a retrospective analysis on a population of chronic HCV infected patients, with and without a prior history of HCC, who developed HCC after receiving DAAs in the hope of adding to existing literature and in pursuit of greater clarity into this emerging concern with DAAs...
June 19, 2018: Curēus
Soheila Hekmat, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Mohammad Mehdi Aslani, Mehdi Mahdavi, Azam Bolhassani, Fateme Asgar Halvaee, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Ghahari, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Seyed Davar Siadat
Background: A licensed vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) has not become available to date. The stability and antigenicity of a targeted synthesized recombinant fusion protein consisting of a truncated core and NS3 (rC/N) of HCV had been predicted. Although safe antigens, recombinant proteins are not efficacious vaccines without adjuvants. The present study evaluated the immunogenicity of rC/N as a bipartite antigen accompanied by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B outer membrane vesicles (NMB OMVs) in BALB/c mice...
October 3, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Joshua D Long, Stephanie M Rutledge, Meghan E Sise
Autoimmune kidney diseases triggered by viruses are an important cause of kidney disease in patients affected by chronic viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with membranous nephropathy and polyarteritis nodosa. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may develop HIV-associated nephropathy, a form of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, or various forms of immune-complex-mediated kidney diseases...
November 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Johan Noble, Thomas Jouve, Paolo Malvezzi, Lionel Rostaing
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the major causes of chronic liver disease. HBV and HCV affect nearly 7% of the world's population. Extra-hepatic complications and particularly renal failure have different mechanisms and manifestations. The underlying mechanism, although differing for each disease, mainly involves the immune system and antibody deposits in the kidney, which can lead to tissue damage. Areas covered: We do not cover in this review hepatorenal syndrome. We report on the renal complications of viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV, hepatitis E), autoimmune hepatitis, cirrhosis, and Wilson's disease...
October 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Justin R Bailey, Eleanor Barnes, Andrea L Cox
Risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection vary, and there were an estimated 1.75 million new cases worldwide in 2015. The World Health Organization aims for a 90% reduction in new HCV infections by 2030. An HCV vaccine would prevent transmission, regardless of risk factors, and significantly reduce the global burden of HCV-associated disease. Barriers to development include virus diversity, limited models for testing vaccines, and our incomplete understanding of protective immune responses. Although highly effective vaccines could prevent infection altogether, immune responses that increase the rate of HCV clearance and prevent chronic infection may be sufficient to reduce disease burden...
September 26, 2018: Gastroenterology
Barbara Rehermann, Robert Thimme
There are 257 million persons worldwide with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, a leading causes of liver cancer. Almost all adults with acute HBV infection have a rapid immune response to the virus resulting in life-long immunity, but there is no cure for individuals with chronic HBV infection, which they acquire during early life. The mechanisms that drive the progression of hepatitis B through distinct clinical phases to to end-stage liver disease are poorly understood. Likewise, it is not clear whether and how immune responses can be modulated to allow control and/or clearance of intrahepatic HBV DNA...
September 26, 2018: Gastroenterology
Youchen Xia, Wen Pan, Xiaoyu Ke, Kathrin Skibbe, Andreas Walker, Daniel Hoffmann, Yinping Lu, Xuecheng Yang, Xuemei Feng, Qiaoxia Tong, Jörg Timm, Dongliang Yang
Adaptation of HCV to CD8+ T cell selection pressure is well described; however, it is unclear if HCV differentially adapts in different populations. Here, we studied HLA class I-associated viral sequence polymorphisms in HCV 1b isolates in a Chinese population and compared viral substitution patterns between Chinese and German populations. We identified three HLA class I-restricted epitopes in HCV NS3 with statistical support for selection pressure and found evidence for differential escape pathways between isolates from China and Germany depending on the HLA class I molecule...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Marzieh Basirnejad, Azam Bolhassani
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in the world. Many studies showed that T-cell responses to HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) play an important role in clearing acute HCV infections, thus NS3 can be considered as a suitable candidate antigen for development of a HCV therapeutic vaccine. In this study, various NS3 DNA and protein constructs were generated in eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, and their potency in eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses was compared using small heat shock protein 20 (Hsp20), the high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-derived peptide (Hp91), and Freund's adjuvant in a BALB/c mouse model...
September 25, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Kamal Dumaidi, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Fekri Samarah, Maha Rabayaa
Background: HCV and HBV present a great challenge in the management of β -thalassemia patients. Objective: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of both HBV and HCV in multitransfused-dependent β -thalassemia patients in northern West Bank, Palestine, using sero-molecular markers. Methods: Serum sample from 139 multitransfused β -thalassemia patients were tested for HBV and HCV markers including HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBV-DNA, and anti-HCV and HCV-RNA...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Yee Hui Yeo, Michael H Le, Ellen T Chang, Linda Henry, Mindie H Nguyen
In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a substantial increase in the number of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in the United States (US). Although national guidelines recommend vaccination of adults at high risk for HBV infection, the prevalence of undetectable immunity (i.e., susceptibility) in this population remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed a nationally representative sample using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to evaluate the prevalence, trend, and predictors of undetectable vaccine-induced antibodies against HBV surface antigen (anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL) among high-risk adults from 2003-2014...
September 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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